R2C2 Feedback Model
"R2C2 is an evidence-based reflective model for providing assessment feedback [...] It provides a strategy for facilitating feedback conversations that promote engagement with performance data and enable coaching for improvement." (Sargeant, Armson, Driessen et al., 2016).
Typically applied to residency training for physicians, the R2C2 model is applicable in other workplaces when holding a formal feedback conversation. Examples include the annual performance review or when discussing feedback after a project has completed. This model includes four phases: Relationship, Reactions, Content, and Coaching.
R2C2 Feedback Model
Source: Sargeant J, Armson H, Driessen E, et al. Evidence-informed facilitated feedback: the R2C2 feedback model. MedEdPORTAL Publications. 2016;12:10387. http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10387
Goal: To engage the individual and enhance the relationship through respect, trust, and understanding their perspective.
"How is the project going for you? Tell me about what you enjoyed and what has challenged you."
"Tell me about the assessment and feedback you've received so far. What has been helpful and what hasn’t?”
“How do you think you’re doing? What are your strengths and opportunities to improve?”
“What do you hope to get out of this discussion?”
Goal: To help the individual feel understood and that their views are heard and respected.
“What are your initial reactions to the feedback? Anything particularly striking?”
“Did anything in the assessment surprise you? Tell me more about that...”
“How does this information compare with how you think you are doing? Any surprises?”
“It can be difficult to hear feedback that doesn't confirm how we see ourselves.”
- "It can be exciting to hear feedback that affirms how we see ourselves."
Goal: For the individual to be clear about what the feedback means for their work and the opportunities identified for change and development.
“Was there anything in the assessment that didn’t make sense to you?”
“Anything you’re unclear about?”
“Let’s go through section by section.”
“Anything that struck you as something to focus on?”
Goal: For the individual to engage in developing an achievable learning and change plan.
“What one or two priorities for change does this assessment suggest to you?"
“What will be your goal?”
“What actions will you have to take?”
“What resources do you need?"
- "What support can I provide?"
“What might get in the way?”
“Do you think it’s achievable?”
Facilitative Reflective Feedback: Strategies
Principles of facilitated reflective feedback:
- Create a safe, respectful, trusting environment.
- Be curious.
- Ask open questions.
- Seek the individual's perspective.
- Encourage reflection on their performance and feedback.
- Support informed/ guided self-assessment.
- Promote self-direction (but guide as needed).
- Differences of opinion are an opportunity for further exploration (not conflict).
Facilitation Strategies with Sample Phrases
You may decide to provide the individual with the written assessment report before the feedback discussion, with enough time to allow them to review it before the one-on-one meeting. Before the meeting, ask them to reflect on their assessment report, their strengths, and goals for improvement. This sets them up for the discussion. Ask them to complete a written self-assessment before they receive yours.
- "The purpose of this feedback discussion is to see where you’re doing well and where we see opportunities for improvement to help you with your learning."
- "I’m curious about how the project has been for you. What did you enjoy? What challenges you?"
- "How do you think you’ve done on this project? What are the areas you feel comfortable in? What would you like to work on?"
If they’ve filled out a self-assessment using the formal format, use that as a point of beginning the discussion about assessment data. For example:
- "Thanks for completing your self-assessment, shall we begin by going through both together and see where we agree and where we differ?"
In addition, for difficult conversations:
- "Some of what I have to say may disappoint you. It may not be what you wish to hear; however, I’m here to help you address it."
- "My role is to support you and help you to be the best you can be."
- "We are going to work together on this."
- "My job is to support you in addressing concerns and planning for improvement."
- "You’re not the first individual to say that, many report feeling concerned about..."
- "You're not the first one to identify that as a stumbling block..."
- "We all tend to feel disappointed (surprised, upset, disbelieving) when we hear feedback that is different form how we think we’re doing."
- "We’re all trying to do our best and it’s tough to hear when we’re not hitting the mark."
- "Can you say more about that?"
- "I'm curious about that, can you tell me more?"
- "That sounds like it was ... difficult, rewarding, etc., can you tell me more?"
- "You said you were surprised by that?"
- "So I'm hearing you say..."
- "I heard you say a couple of things, one is..."
- "So it sounds like ...
- you’re doing well on this."
- this was a surprise for you."
- this was disappointing for you."
- this is pretty important to you."
- the feedback confirms your thinking about how you’re doing."
- we agree on what your goals are for the next project."
- we agree that this is a difficult topic/area/conversation."
- "Let’s hold on to that and come back to it."
- "Let’s finish this topic before we move on."
- "If I can summarize what I heard you say…"
- "If I can just summarize what we've discussed so far..."
- "Let's summarize this piece before moving on..."
- "Could I ask you to summarize what we’ve discussed? Where we are now?"
Showing interest and respect through:
- open body posture, eye contact, relaxed.
- supportive tone of voice.
- allowing time to respond and for reflection.
- reviewing the assessment report together.