See numbered footnotes for explanations of the information commonly provided in a course description.
Biology 2411 Energy Flow in Biological Systems
An introduction to the energetics of life from molecules through ecosystems. Topics include: energy in biological systems; how different organisms obtain, store and use energy; energy budgets of organisms; and energy flow through cells and ecosystems.
Course Hours2: 3 units; H(3-3)
Prerequisite(s)3: Biology 30 and Chemistry 30.
Antirequisite(s)4: Credit for Biology 241 and 205 will not be allowed. Credit for more than two of Biology 231, 233, 241, 243 will not be allowed.
Notes 5: Biology 241 is a prerequisite for Biology 243. Not recommended for students seeking a single course, general-interest overview of the biological sciences. Those seeking such a course should consider Biology 205.
Some courses may include the notations:
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT6
NOT INCLUDED IN GPA7
1Course Name and Numbers: e.g. Biology 241 (BIOL 241)
The number of the course indicates the level of the course:
- Supplementary study for degree: courses labelled in the 100's
- Junior level: 200's
- Senior level: 300's and 400's
- Upper level undergraduate: 500's
- Graduate level: 600's and 700's
To understand course acronyms, refer to the section “Courses of Instruction by Faculty”.
2Course Hours: e.g. 3 units; H(3-3)
We are transitioning to the sole use of "units" of course credit from the historical convention of "full-course equivalent" or "half-course equivalent" terminology. Fees and graduation are determined using “units”. The unit weight of the course is indicated in the calendar by the first part of the course hours, e.g. “3 units; H”.
The hours of instruction expected per week are indicated by the numbers contained in the brackets. The first number represents the number of lecture hours per week and the second number represents the number of lab hours per week. For example, (3-0) would indicate 3 hours of lectures per week and no labs. For (2-3), there would be 2 hours of lectures per week, along with 3 hours of lab per week. A course labelled (3-3/2) means that there are 3 hours of lecture per week and 3 hours of lab every other week.
A course may also have tutorial and/or seminar hours assigned. These are noted as (3-0-1T or 1S).
The expected hours of instruction per week may vary from course to course.
Guide to understanding course hours:
Number of Units
"Formerly Known as" Course Equivalents
Expected Weeks of Instruction
Range of Total Hours of Expected Instruction*
||E – Eighth (0.12 Full-Course Equivalent)
||3 weeks or less
||Less than 13 hours
||Q – Quarter (0.25 Full-Course Equivalent)
||13 - 26 hours
||H – Half (0.5 Full-Course Equivalent) or HCE
||27 - 100 hours
||F – (1.0 Full-Course Equivalent) or FCE
||100 – 250 hours
||M – More than Full-Course Equivalent
||Greater than 250 hours
*Range of total hours of expected instruction is based on current practice and approved course hours at the University of Calgary. Some courses may have approval to have units and hours outside of these ranges.
To calculate the total hours of expected instruction given the weekly course hours provided in the calendar, one should take the total expected weeks of instruction and multiply by the number of weekly hours in the brackets. For example, Biology 241 (3-3), the total expected lecture hours are 3 (hours) x 13 (weeks) = 39 hours, and similarly 3 x 13=39 lab hours. A course designated 6 units; F(2-0) would be 2 (hours) x 26 (weeks) = 52 hours, which may be taught over the course of two terms or entirely in one term, provided total hours equal 52. Courses may be taught during block week, in 3 week approved sessions, 6 week approved sessions, 13 week terms, over 26 weeks or 2 terms, or for approved non-standard dates. Whatever the duration of the course, the total instructional hours should remain the same.
Courses that use blended learning teaching formats, may meet the required instructional hours using alternate methods such as online instruction. Courses indicated as independent study or independent research include an hourly designation expected of the student to full-fill their independent work and may not have scheduled instruction time. Practicum and field study courses may indicate the total hours of instruction in the brackets instead of a weekly designation used by other courses. For example, Nursing 289 has 6 units; F(247 hours) listed as the course hours.
3Prerequisites: Courses that must be completed or currently registered in before a student may be able to register in this course.
Note: All courses listed as a prerequisite assume a minimum grade of “C-“, unless otherwise stated. When a number of units (full-course equivalents) is listed, it is assumed this is the minimum and that all “F” grades are excluded from this count.
Corequisites: Must be completed at the same time as this class.
4Antirequisites: Certain courses carry the notation "Not open to students with credit in course number XXX" or "Credit for course number XXX and course number XXX will not be allowed." Students may take these courses if they wish, but credit for both courses will not be granted towards their degree.
Some antirequisites may include cross-listed courses such as Cellular, Molecular and Microbial Biology 561 and Medical Science 561 or Nursing 221 and Kinesiology 259. These courses are listed under two faculties and can only be taken for credit from one faculty, but not both. The credit is determined by the student's registration in either class.
5Notes: This contains any information that may be helpful regarding enrolment in the course. Some examples are: "Enrolment in this course may be limited", "See Program Details in the Faculty of Science section of this Calendar", or: "This course occurs in rugged field conditions and varying weather, for which participants must be prepared and equipped".
6May Be Repeated for Credit
Some courses are decimalized in order to accommodate different unique topics of study e.g. 499.01, 499.02. If this notation is present, students are allowed to take multiple topics belonging to one course number.
7Not Included in GPA
A course with this notation is graded as CR (Completed Requirements) or F (Fail). The course is not included in the calculation of the grade point average.