African Sexual Minorities & Gender Variant Resources
Homosexuality - Gay - Lesbian - Bisexual - Transgender - Transsexual - Same-Sex Sex
To: Map of Africa
ZIMBABWE: - Zimbabwe's Mugabe condemns gay 'filth' (2011). - Zimbabwe’s Mugabe blasts Western gay “filth” (2011). - Zimbabwe Queers Hit Back (2011): Zimbabwean gay rights activists have hit back at the ranting by
President Robert Mugabe that their “unnatural activities” would never
be allowed in the southern African country, accusing the veteran leader
of failing to provide leadership to tackle more pressing challenges
bedevilling Zimbabwe. - Detention, Harassment and Intimidation of Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ) members (2011). - Police in Zimbabwe arrest gay right activists (2010). - Zimbabwe Police Raid Gay Group (2010, Video). - Gay workers freed by Zimbabwe court (2010). - Zimbabwe gay rights workers released after alleged torture (2010). - Zimbabwe Shrugs Off Gay Rights (2010).
US report paints grim picture of gay life in Zimbabwe
(2010): The US State Department's 2009 report on human rights in
Zimbabwe paints a grim picture: a broad definition of sodomy carrying a
$5,000 fine or up to a year in prison, government censorship and
confiscation of any queer materials, lack of treatment for HIV/AIDS for
gay men and disturbing reports of "corrective" rape. - Lesbians and Gay Men in Zimbabwe Face Brutal “Corrective” Rape
(2010): In a country long plagued by violence, corruption, and an
authoritarian government, Zimbabwe’s President Mugabe is known as one
of the worst anti-gay autocrats in Africa. Mugabe has repeatedly
located blame for the country’s ills on lesbians and gay men,
cultivating widespread bigotry and violence. His virulent homophobia
has given rise to the rape of lesbian and gay male Zimbabweans, under
the guise of “correcting” them into heterosexuality.
Zimbabwe rules out Gay rights in new Constitution (2010). - Mugabe condemns churches that allow gay marriages (2010). - Family throws out gay son (2010). - "Worse than dogs and pigs?" Attitudes toward homosexual practice in Zimbabwe (2010). - South African Lesbian and Gay Community Concerned About Democracy Crisis in Zimbabwe (2008). - Gay in Zimbabwe: Arrests, Limited Access to Health Care. - A Bird's Eye View of HIV and Gay and Lesbian Issues in Zimbabwe (2009). - Zimbabwe: Juveniles to Be Flogged for Homosexual Act (2009).
Living in fear: a lesbian in Zimbabwe shares her story(2010: Although my friends, my true friends are aware of my sexuality, I am still afraid that my family will find out one day and reject me. The fear is always there as I listen to comments made about homosexuality at home and in public places.I listen hoping that no one will notice how silent I am or see the raw fear in my eyes.. - Twenty Schoolgirls Arrested in Zimbabwe Homosexuality Crackdown (2010): While Americans celebrate a major victory in the battle for LGBT rights, news from Zimbabwe shows how much work still has to be done. According to the ZimDiaspora.com, police in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe's second-largest city, have arrested some 20 schoolgirls for allegedly engaging in "lesbian relationships.”
South Africa Gay Marriages Spark Homophobic Outcry In Zimbabwe (2006). - Zambia will never legalise gay marriages-gov’t (2006). - Zimbabwe Latest: Gay Bashing in Parliament, Mugabe Prez for Life (2006):
Another week, another unfortunate report from Zimbabwe. The latest are
gay-baiting remarks made by the country's leading opposition figure and
a homophobic "joke" by its top minister...- Zimbabwe gay group wins international award (2005). - Kelvin Ncube: I'm gay:
ZBC radio and TV presenter Kelvin Ncube has sensationally revealed that
he is gay. In an exclusive interview with New Zimbabwe.com last night,
Ncube said: "I have always wanted to share this with everyone but the
situation in Zimbabwe did not allow it." - Zimbabwean drag queen reveals all
(2006): This in-your-face attitude put him on a collision course with
Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe, who regards homosexuality as
un-African. Mr Mugabe infamously described gays as "worse than pigs and
dogs" at the opening of the Zimbabwe's International Book Fair in 1995.
"That changed the world, just those words," says Kudah, who after subsequent harassment fled into exile to the UK.
New Blow for Gay Rights in Zimbabwe (2006):
Activists struggle on as legal clampdown on same-sex relationships
comes into force... Until recently, homosexuality was not illegal in
Zimbabwe, although the statutes outlawed sodomy. However, a new law
that came into force in August makes "physical contact between males
that would be regarded by a reasonable person as an indecent act" a
criminal offence. In a terse response to the new law, Keith Goddard,
programme manager for the group Gays and Lesbians in Zimbabwe, GALZ,
said, "Lesbians and gays are there and have a right to their sexual
preference. Sexual preference is a human right." Geoff Feltoe, a
professor of law at the University of Zimbabwe, said the amendments
represented a hardening of attitudes towards same sex-relationships. "A
seemingly intimate embrace or hug between two men would presumably be
construed as a crime now," said Feltoe. "It would seem the impetus for
such legal transformation was the sensational sodomy trial of the late
Banana." - L'Église anglicane du Zimbabwe radicalise sa position sur l'homosexualité (2007, Translation). - Activists struggle on despite new legal clampdown on same-sex relationships (2006).
Gay activist goes into hiding (2007, Alternate Link):
The dreaded Zimbabwe state security agency the Central Intelligence
Organization (CIO) has launched a manhunt for gay activist Dumisani
Dube after the activist made a stunning disclosure to ZimDaily last
week that he had a love affair with cabinet minister and Mugabe
loyalist Stan Mudenge who infected him with the deadly HIV virus five
years ago... The hunted gay activist who fears for his life has gone
into hiding and says he is making arrangements to flee the country
before he is captured. The CIO is well known in Zimbabwe for their rank
brutality and savagery when dealing with suspected culprits. Dube, a
member of a fringe association Gays And Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ) has
threatened to expose names of six well known cabinet ministers, priests
and several ZANU PF bigwigs who he claims are gay and have solicited
sex from his friends and other GALZ members over the past ten years...
- Zimbabwe Hunting Gay Activist, Claims Affair With Mugabe Loyalist.
and hated in Zimbabwe (1998). - Zimbabwe
Church Council Condemns Homosexuality (1996). - Zimbabwe's
Gays & Lesbians Critique Former President (1999). - Zimbabwe: Gay Activist Arrested, Faces Prison Under Sodomy Law (1998). - GALZ
leader charged with sodomy (1998). - Totally
unacceptable to cultural norms: Gays in Zimbabwe fight institutionalized
homophobia, see slow gains in social acceptance (2000). - Gay
Zimbabwe (2000): Black Gay Life in Zimbabwe. - Gay
Advocates Brace for WCC Showdown in Zimbabwe N/A. - Black skin, 'cowboy' masculinity: A genealogy of homophobia in the African nationalist movement in Zimbabwe to 1983 (2005).
Mugabe says homosexuals should be 'cured' by church (1998). - Police raids Zimbabwe gay organisation's office (2001). - Statement from the Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe: Under The Cloak of Marriage (2002). - Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, who is currently in South Africa for the opening of the African Union, "has ordered a witch hunt to flush out gays and lesbians in his government."N/A - Lesbianism rife at school (2002, Must Scroll). - Fighting Fear - most well-known lesbian in Zimbabwe N/A (2000). - Zimbabwean lesbian tells tales of her struggle (2001).
Homophobia and Postcolonialism By Mica A. Hilson (1996). - Robert Mugabe challenged to 'take the test': Research shows that most homophobes are repressed homosexuals (1997). - The Apartheid of Homosexuality (1999). (PDF Download) - Zimbabwe's Gays Go 'Out' at Great Risk N/A. - In and Out of the Zimbabwe Closet (1997). - Zimbabwe gay rights face dim future (1999). - Zimbabwe's GALZ Issues Statement on Presidential Election (2002). - Exemples de persécution motivée par la préférence sexuelle de la personne: Zimbabwe N/A. - Homophobic Dictator Mugabe Hunted and Haunted in Rome (2002). - Our day of shame over Zimbabwe: While Mugabe butchers his way to another stolen term, the commonwealth does.... nothing. - The Gay Oral History Project in Zimbabwe: Black Empowerment, Human Rights, and the Research Process (1999).
Zimbabwe Gays: 'Dogs and Pigs' No More? (2004, Alternate Link) - Mugabe fuels 'Reformation' against gays (2004). - Zimbabwe gays soldier on (2003). - Reports in various Zimbabwean newspapers claim that members of GALZ were beaten and chased from their stand at the Zimbabwe International Book Fair last week. This year's scandal has led to the resignation of honorary trustee, the Midlands provincial governor, Cephas Msipa from the board of the fair (2004). - Gay leader detained (2004): "Gay leader Keith Goddard was detained at State House for several hours and later spent two days at Harare Central Prison for breaching security regulations at State House recently..." - Gay bashing in Zimbabwe: I - Mugabe's unholy war (1996). - Gay bashing in Zimbabwe: II - Outing the gay debate (1996). - Mugabe fuels 'Reformation' against gays (2004).
move closer to recognition in Zimbabwe. "Yet, in subtle ways, things
are also changing. Intolerance, particularly at the official level, seems
to have mellowed into indifference. The random and all too frequent arrest
of gays appears to have ceased, while the police’s last raid of the Gays
and Lesbians Association of Zimbabwe (GALZ) office was in 1996. "We have
a good relationship with our local station," says Keith Goddard, who heads
the 400-member organisation. "They treat us with great professionalism."
Furthermore last July, after years of fighting, gays were allowed to set
up their own stand at the annual Zimbabwe International Book Fair – no
small feat, considering that their presence at the 1995 event caused a
fiasco. "We thought it was a positive development and we can now put that
whole campaign to rest," Goddard told IPS. Buoyed by a new-found confidence,
the gay community is now pushing for greater recognition by society..."
gay group wins court victory, but mob attacks exhibit (2005). - Gays
Flee Zimbabwe Mob (2004). - Zimbabwe
clamps down on male hookers.
Engelke, Matthew (1999). ‘We Wondered what Human Rights He Was Talking About.’ Human rights, homosexuality and the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. Critique of Anthropology, 19(3): 289-314. PDF
This article addresses the recent debates on homosexuality and
human rights in Zimbabwe, particularly as they relate to the
controversy surrounding the Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ)
participating in the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. These debates
highlight the problems inherent in talking about universal human rights
when appeals to ‘cultural difference’ are made. In Zimbabwe, for
example, critics of GALZ and homosexuality have tried to argue that ‘homosex is not in African culture’.
Maunze, Rumbidzai (2009). A history of debates on sexuality in Zimbabwe. Master's Dissertation, Historisch-Kulturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universität Wien. Download Page.
When talking about sexuality in Zimbabwe, the influence of colonialism
cannot be ignored as it comes to the forefront of much debate. Sexual
orientations such as homosexuality are claimed to have been a colonial
invention and not a Zimbabwean phenomenon hence debates on this tend to
place blame on colonialism. Prostitution is believed to have increased
a lot during colonialism due to the high influx of European settlers
into present day Zimbabwe. Gendered sexuality is also said to have been
influenced a lot by colonialism in Zimbabwe. This thesis brings the
debate on sexuality to not only focus on the colonial aspects of
sexuality in Zimbabwe but to bring it closer to home and find out how
the government, media, families and religious institutions are debating
Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies (2010). The
Bible and Homosexuality in Zimbabwe: A Socio-historical analysis of the
political, cultural and Christian arguments in the homosexual public
debate with special reference to the use of the Bible. PDF Download. - The attitude of the Methodist Church in Zimbabwe to homosexuality: towards a socio-sexological theological investigation (2010).
Blackmail in Zimbabwe: Troubling Narratives of Sexuality and Human Rights
(2009): Abstract: Through analysis of a challenging scenario of
homosexual blackmail in Zimbabwe, this article highlights the
significance of the discursive and rhetorical realm in which law
operates. Drawing on historical and contemporary sexual politics in
Zimbabwe, it situates the practice of blackmail within its local
context and considers how the victims' respective racial and sexual
identities combined with their active sexual agency to pre-empt their
representation as 'innocent', and to restrict their access to legal or
discursive exculpation. It shows how the ascendant narratives that
emerge from the blackmail scenario obscure the victims' 'truth', render
them perpetually 'guilty', and reinscribe conventional sexual
hierarchies. The article uses this analysis of blackmail to illustrate
how the advance of sexual rights is inhibited by a tension between our
idealisation of innocence in making rights claims, and our aspiration
to agency in developing sexual equality.
Writing Still: New Stories from Zimbabwe - 2003 - edited by Irene Staunton (The African Review of Books): "Two stories dealing with gay rights tell of love lost, or never grasped. 'When Samora Died', by Annie Holmes, is more than a mere 'gay rights' story though. It is about the entrenched prejudices of white Zimbabweans, not just against blacks and communists, but 'homos' too. 'Mea Culpa' by Rory Kilalea, tells of a gay university student beginning to understand, and deny, his sexuality in a world of racism. He finds a voice to fight the racism and in doing so has to deal with the so many other remnants hiding in his closet. - Writing Still - New stories from Zimbabwe (2003).
Male Rape in Zimbabwe: The depravity of Mugabe’s regime knows no bounds (2003). - Reports of rape and torture inside Zimbabwean militia (2003): " Ms. Siyangapi is one of the few women to speak publicly about the prevalence of rape and other sexual atrocities in the Zimbabwe military. But a growing number of human rights groups have charged in recent months that forced sex and sexual torture are routine elements of life for men and women alike in the Youth Service, used as both a reward and a punishment..." - Let's turn off Mugabe's lights: the best way to bring Zimbabwe's regime to its knees is for South Africa to cut its electricity supply - Features - related article: Male rape, the latest weapon for Robert Mugabe's men (2003).
Zimbabwe TV chief faces inquiry (2002): "The powerful head of the Zimbabwe state broadcaster is to be investigated by the government after allegations of homosexuality were made against him, according to newspaper reports. Alum Mpofu, the chief executive of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corp, has been accused of causing a disturbance at a Harare nightclub after being caught "in a compromising situation" with a man, according to the state newspaper the Herald..." - Zim TV chief faces inquiry over alleged homosexuality (2002). - Zimbabwe Media Chief Quits Before Probe (2002).
Carlos Mpofu, from Bulowayo, Zimbabwe (2000), was twenty years old when our researcher spoke to him in 2000: Meanwhile, in high school I had just begun inching toward acting on my feelings. I had started dating my O-level teacher. I never had real sexual contact, just small stuff; and we never even discussed the fact that we were both gay. But we knew that we enjoyed each other's company. He was much older. We broke off for a while, because we were frightened. But in December 1998, we reconciled. One night early in the next year we went out; we were holding hands and cuddling, sort of, at a movie house. One of my workmates was in the theater, a fellow teacher at the church school. On Monday, I went back to work and Pastor Bismarck called me in. He said, "I have heard a very disturbing thing and I want to discuss it with you." I was fired on the spot for being gay. They "preaccused" me of things they thought I would do to schoolkids-molest them or corrupt them... I was suicidal for about a month. I attempted to commit suicide; but my friends found me and revived me... In June I fell in love. We made the mistake of being too careless. We did the kinds of crazy things you do when you are in love. Bulawayo is a small city and my mother was well known. My elder brother's girlfriend saw us kissing in town. This was the beginning of the biggest family problems at home...
unacceptable to cultural norms (2000): Gays in Zimbabwe fight institutionalized
homophobia, see slow gains in social acceptance (First of four parts):
"These are some of the responses government-appointed commissioners recorded
just last summer when they surveyed half a million Zimbabweans about what
they want included in the country's new constitution. In each of their
reports, the verdict on whether or not "freedom of sexual orientation"
would be a fundamental right is clear. "Homosexuality and lesbianism were
rejected and condemned as they were regarded as totally unacceptable to
cultural norms and values of Zimbabwean society," one report sums up. In
another report, 98 percent of those surveyed answer no to the question,
"Should gays and lesbians be allowed in Zimbabwe?" The invectives go as
far as blaming Gays for natural disasters "such as drought, locusts, worms
Gay group supports condom provision in Zimbabwe's prisons:
The statement said: "Due to the fact that men generally have a high sex
drive, they are bound to have sex regardless of circumstances. By
making condoms unavailable and by not acknowledging that men have sex
with men in prisons, the government and prison authorities are
encouraging the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS
and putting pressure on the national health budget." It adds that
gender roles and identities in prison are defined primarily by the
ability to exercise power. It is important that those less able to
stand up for themselves are not bullied into unwanted sex and can
protect themselves. - GALZ's Statement on the provision of condoms to prisoners (2010). - Zimbabwe plans to give condoms to prisoners (2010). - Prison AIDS rates high without condoms
(2011): A doctor at a government referral hospital, Blessing Mukumba,
was quoted as saying: "Out of all the prisoners that we attend to on a
daily basis, about 60 to 70 percent of them admit to have had sex with
other males at one time or the other."Research shows that around 60
percent of all prisoners in Zimbabwe are currently living with
Phillips, Oliver (2011). Blackmail in Zimbabwe: Troubling Narratives of Sexuality and Human Rights. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 19-45. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.
Film: Tina Machida in Zimbabwe (2000, Harare, Zimbabwe - Gays and Lesbians): A young woman fights for the rights of gays and lesbians against the odds. 26 minutes, Color, Closed Captioned. - Zimbabwe: Gays talk straight: SPARK is a regular series of features that gives young people a chance to talk openly about sex and drugs and other teenage topics. All SPARK features are designed to provoke and carry a wide range of views. In Zimbabwe, young gay men break taboos to talk candidly to Craig Hamilton about their sexuality.
Resources: - Amnesty International On-line, Zimbabwe. - gayZIM: Zimbabwe's only online, interactive magazine. - Gays & lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ: Basic Information) GALZ Web Site. - Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ Web Site). - Gays et Lesbiennes du Zimbabwe (Translation). - Gays et Lesbiennes du Zimbabwe (Translation).
Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Zimbabwe Information News. Zimbabwe Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Zimbabwe. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Zimbabwe Individual Documents since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Searching for Free Papers & Abstracts / Reports / Presentations / Articles on the Internet
Search Engines & Directories: - Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN
Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer
Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.
Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal. - Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. - findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com.
Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers). eScholarship Repository: University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries. - NTUR, National Taiwan University. - Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. - UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory.
Search for Free Articles, Papers or Reports: FindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. - NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere. The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.
Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project
Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.
Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses, Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.