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African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity Conference (2011): Over 85 persons from all over Africa participated in the African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity conference last week in Pretoria, South Africa. The central role of religion and spirituality among African lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons was one of the key topics at the conference. Another key topic was the importance of placing LGBTI activism in a context that resonates with African life. - Coming out: Africans discuss sexuality and gender diversity (2011, Conference Related). - International Conference: Struggle for equality: Sexual orientation, gender identity and human rights in Africa (2010).  - Gays in Africa face growing persecution, human rights activists say (2010). - Are gay rights backsliding in Africa? (2010). - The Struggle of Gay Christians in Africa (2010): It is almost impossible to deal with the deteriorating human rights situation in Africa for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people without addressing the dominant role of religion, particularly Christianity. It is LGBTI Christians themselves most affected by the cutting hate of many of Africa's churches. - Is Africa Ready for Gay Movies? (2008).

Gay rights in Africa: now for the good news (2010, Alternate Link): Although times are still hard for gays and lesbians in many African countries, hard-won gains are being made. - To be or not to be gay in Africa, that’s the question (2009): I bear no man or woman ill will, so I wish them a happy marriage. However, for all the flood of outraged comments, gay relationships are not “forbidden fruit” or as unAfrican, as critics make them out to be. When I last checked, there were 11 African countries where gay relationships were either legal, had been decriminalised, or were tolerated: Madagascar, Congo, South Africa (most famously), Central African Republic, Cape Verde, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, and Rwanda...  In other words, the chances that an African country with a liberal attitude toward gays also has the death penalty is 28.5 per cent. However, the chances that a country that doesn’t have a tolerant attitude towards gays also has the death penalty is 50 per cent. - Strangling Africa with the Gay Agenda (2010). - Africa’s Gays Say They’re ‘Under Siege’ (2011). - Africa Map (2011): Lesbian & Gay Rights by Countries.

Homosexuality and the battle for Africa’s soul (2010). - Religion, politics and Africa's homophobia (2010). - La problématique de l’homosexualité et du lesbianisme en Afrique (2007, Translation). - Les gays en campagne contre les préjugés (2007, Translation): Une minorité “invisible” revendique des garanties juridiques et l’acceptation sociale. - 'Warriors' take on the fight for gay Africa (2010): For the first time in its existence, the Amsterdam Gay Pride put the African continent in the picture. African gays were partying along on their very own boat during the canal parade. - Emergence des associations homosexuelles en Afrique  (2007, Translation).- International pressure on anti-gay laws in Africa must not stop (2011).

Kaoma, Kapya (2009). Globalizing the Culture Wars: U.S. Conservatives, African Churches, and Homophobia. Political Research Associates. PDF Download. - Rev. Dr. Kapya Kaoma's Presentation at at the International AIDS Conference, Vienna, 2010: Globalizing the Culture Wars (PPT as PDF). - Rev. Dr. Kapya Kaoma's 2009 Panel Discussion Presentation at at the United Nations: Opposing Grave Human Rights Violations on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. - Sexual orientation and gender identity panel discussion at UNHQ (2009). - Panel Discussion on “Opposing grave Human Rights Violations on the basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity” (2009): Links given to discussion in Englisg and Spanish. - The Anti-Gay Highway: New Report Details Mutually Beneficial Relationship Between US Evangelicals and African Antigay Clergy (2009). - Could Rick Warren be the man to stop pending anti-gay legislation in Uganda? 2009): That’s the hope of Rev. Kapya Kaoma, an Episcopalian Priest from Zambia, the author of a new report from Political Research Associates, which traces a wave of homophobia on the African continent to the efforts of conservative evangelical pastors in the US. In a conference call with members of the media today, Kaoma declared that, “The US culture wars are being exported to Africa. They’re having an impact not just in the US, but also amongst African Christians.” - Globalizing the Culture Wars: The United Nations Battle Over Sexual Rights (2010). - As Eye See It : Globalizing the Culture Wars: US Conservatives, African Churches and Homophobia (2010).

Long, Scott (2004). Anatomy of a Backlash: Sexuality and the "Cultural" War on Human Rights. Human Rights Watch. PDF Download. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people have learned one lesson over the last twenty years: violence follows visibility. People can be killed for their courage in standing up, in speaking out about themselves. Yet FannyAnn’s life and death, on a continent where homosexuality is again and again called "un-African," call attention to another truth. Cultures are made up of faces. They are not monoliths; they are composed of diverse individuals, each contributing to and minutely changing what the culture means and does. When a culture is reinvented for ideological purposes as a faceless, seamless whole - incapable of dissent from within, so that any dissenter automatically becomes an outsider; incapable of changing, so that growth seems like destruction -it has ceased to be an environment in which people can live and interpret their lives. It has become a rhetorical weapon to be wielded against individuals, a tool of repression. And any phenomenon that embraces innumerable Africans like FannyAnn can be called good or bad, right or wrong; but it cannot be called "un-African."

Afrique: "Les homosexuels sont pris pour cibles" (2011, Translation). - L'Afrique est-elle homophobe ? (2010, Translation). - The development of an anti-gay Africa (2010). - Who's to blame for African homophobia? We are, of course (2003). -  L’homosexualité en Afrique : entre tabous et haine - Journal télévisé consacré à l’Afrique présenté par Joseph Andjou (2004, Translation). - En Afrique, les homosexuels sont des boucs émissaires (2011, Translation, Alternate Link, Translation). - Africa’s gays ‘scapegoated’ (2010). - African leaders 'scapegoat gays' (2003).- Southern Africa: Politicians Blamed For Using Homosexuals As Scapegoats (1998).

Mœurs et culture : L’homosexualité en Afrique (2009, Translation): Pour s’être permis de condamner des homosexuels à des peines de prison, le Sénégal fait aujourd’hui l’objet de critiques dont les plus acerbes viennent de la communauté homosexuelle. Le libre arbitre disent-ils permet que chacun vive sa sexualité selon ses choix. Ce n’est pas l’avis de la quasi totalité des Africains pour qui cette forme de sexualité est une abomination. - L’homosexualité africaine. un tabou et pas qu’en Afrique (2011, Translation): Le site fait un communiqué en cette fin d’année sur l’homosexualité et sa visibilité sur la population africaine. Le tabou existe evidamment en Afrique, mais ce que veut mettre en avant Aides c’est que ce tabou se retrouve aussi dans la population immigré et la difficulté d’approché cette population entraine des difficultés à lutter contre le sida que se soit ici ou en Afrique. - Study reveals state of HIV/AIDS in Middle East, North Africa (2010).

Consultancy Africa Intelligence (2010). Colonial Sodomy: Homophobic threat within common law. Full Text. The majority of countries around the world that still criminalise homosexuality are former British colonies or territories. Sodomy laws are a common feature in 16 of the 18 African Commonwealth nations.(2) Almost all anti-sodomy laws date back to the British colonial era penal codes. These have never been repealed and are still in effect in almost all of the common law countries in Africa. Caselaw and customary practice have redefined these pieces of legislation, reshaping them as laws that criminalise any aspect of homosexual conduct and facilitate extreme homophobic policies in a number of countries. In recent months, some Governments have sought to radically increase the penalties for individuals convicted under anti-sodomy laws, a worrying development from a human rights perspective...

BBC Debate on "Is homosexuality un-African?" Deeply Emotional (2011, Part 1, Video. Alternate Link): The BBC World News debate in Johannesburg, South Africa on the question "Is homosexuality un-African?" almost came to blows on Sunday. The debate included Ugandan MP David Bahati, the lead sponsor of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009. Bahati said that the debate made him more determined than ever to pass his bill in Uganda's Parliament. BBC World News will televise the debate on March 12 and 13. - Is Homosexuality un-African? Part 1 (Video). Part 2. Part 3. Part 4. - L'homosexualité en Afrique, un tabou persistant L'exemple de la RDC (2009, Full Text, Translation. Full Text, Translation). - L’homosexualité et la Jeunesse Africaine au XXIe siècle (2008, Translation). - Being lesbian or gay in Africa (2006): Is being lesbian or gay un-African?

Gay rights in developing countries: A well-locked closet (2010): Gays are under attack in poor countries—and not just because of “local culture” - Crackdowns on gays make the closet safer (2010). - Homophobic Attacks on the Rise in Africa (2011): Anti-homosexuality has been a coherent issue on discussion in Africa and speculation goes around that the hatred directed at African gays and lesbians was driven by so-called evangelism in the United States and being pushed on to Africa. - L’homosexualité en Afrique noire : Entre tabou et idées fausses (2011, Translation). - Homosexualité en Afrique: où sont les femmes? (2009, Translation): La littérature scientifique sur l’homosexualité en Afrique concerne très majoritairement les hommes. Ce fait était notable avant l’apparition du sida et s’est évidemment renforcé dans le contexte de l’épidémie. Cependant, les recherches sur les femmes qui ont des pratiques homosexuelles en Afrique se développent également, y compris en lien avec le sida.

Chi Mgbako: Fighting For LGBT Rights In Africa (2011): In 2004, leading African gay rights activist Fannyann Eddy was brutally murdered while she worked alone in the office of the gay rights organization she founded in Sierra Leone. She was a courageous crusader for the rights of Africa's lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. Years after Fannyann's death, the state of LGBT rights in Africa may at first blush seem woefully bleak, but in fact now is a time for cautious hope. African NGOs and community groups championing the rights of Africa's sexual minorities are publicly condemning institutionalized homophobia, filing lawsuits arguing for the recognition of LGBT rights, and taking their grievances directly to government officials -- collective action that was exceedingly rare at the time of Fannyann Eddy's death. In spite of ongoing discrimination against Africa's sexual minorities, fearless advocates fighting for LGBT rights continue to win small but significant victories. As the law school human rights program I lead grew, I remembered Fannyann and looked for opportunities to collaborate with some of those brave protest voices.

LGBT and HR training for Africa (2010): The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida invites candidates to apply to the LGBT and Human Rights International Training Programme 2010/2011... The first part of the training will take place in Stockholm, Sweden, October 18-November 5, 2010. The follow-up part of the programme will take place in Africa region, May 30-June 3, 2011. The programme is open for application by candidates from the following countries in Africa: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Moçambique, Namibia, Rwanda,South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. - Africa's Gay Activists Use Internet to Advance Homosexual Rights (2010). - The Rise and Rise of Homophobia (2009): Recently, some African states, such as Burundi and Rwanda that did not have sodomy laws in their penal code acts have made efforts to include these laws. Burundi has managed to achieve this, while in Rwanda, a revision of the penal code act in which homosexuality is criminalized has been tabled in Parliament and could be passed as law soon. Uganda and Nigeria too have recently proposed legislation that further exacerbates already alarmingly harsh penalties for homosexuality... My experience might be unique to me, but in the way that African states collectively negate the basic human rights of LGBT people, it is a shared experience. African states are increasingly committing human rights violations against LGBT people, encouraging and inciting violence through leaders’ homophobic speeches or silence in the face of others’ calls to violence, and failing in their duty to protect their LGBT citizens from abuses. Lack of security, arbitrary arrests and detentions, violence, and executions of LGBT people have become the order of the day in Africa...

LGBTQ Rights in Africa (2011). -  International pressure on anti-gay laws in Africa must continue (2011).- Gay Politics In Africa – Forces And Strategy (2011). - Lesbiennes d'Afrique : Etat d'urgence ! (2011, Translation). - Anti-Gay Violence in Senegal and Throughout Africa (2010). - Gay Life In Africa Met With Complexity (2009).  - How American Evangelicals are Killing Gay People in Africa (2009). - High Occurrence in Africa of HIV among Homosexual Men Study Finds (2009). - L'Afrique et la représentation de l'homosexualité: Une interview de Patrick Awondo (2009, Translation). - African myths about homosexuality (2010). - The Price of Ignorance: Homosexuality in Ghana (2010). - Is Uganda's Antigay Fervor Spreading? An African Domino Theory, Examined (2009). - Strengthening work with MSM in Africa (2008). - The Politics of Homoseuxality in Africa (2007). - The new struggle for equality: Gay rights (and wrongs) in Africa (2006). - Gay Africans and Arabs come out online (2008). - Africains homosexuels et sida : le silence enfin rompu (2009, Translation). - Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (Review, 2009).- From Persecution to Pride - Fighting LGBT Oppression in Africa (2009).

African lesbians demand greater rights (2008, Alternate Link, Alternate Link): An African lesbian group on Tuesday called on governments in the largely conservative continent to stop treating homosexuals like criminals. The Coalition of African Lesbians is holding a conference attended by about 100 people in Mozambique to highlight discrimination against lesbians. "Our main goal is that lesbian and homosexuality can no longer be seen as a criminal offence," the group's director and conference spokeswoman, Fikile Vilakazi, told Reuters. "You should not be arrested and charged for how you use your own body." African gay activists accuse authorities in many countries of "state-sponsored" homophobia and tacitly condoning their persecution. In some cases, possible sentences against gays include eath by stoning. - African lesbian conference demands equal rights (2008). - Homosexuals in the Periphery: Gay and Lesbian Rights in Developing Africa (2006, PDF Download) - Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2006, Alternate Link): The South African decision to legalise same-sex marriages has caught much of Africa by surprise... The news spread rapidly to all corners of sub-Saharan Africa, where in many countries the issue of homosexuality never had reached national media or legislators. Mostly a taboo or even totally unknown issue among the sexual majority, homosexuality first needed to be explained by the many media breaking the news from South Africa...

Homophobia in Ghana: Homophobia Plagues Africa (2010): Monday’s statements by a prominent Ghanaian activist provide further evidence of the alarming homophobia that is sweeping across Africa.  Ms. Bernice Sam, National Programme Coordinator of WiLDAF (Women in Law and Development) in Ghana argued publicly for the Constitution Review Commission to limit Ghana’s definition of marriage to include heterosexual couples only.  Ms. Sam then went even further.  She was quoted as saying that it will be “almost impossible for the act of homosexuality to be considered criminal” if the constitution is not reworded in this way. These statements are just the most recent addition to a growing fervor of discrimination, paranoia, and hatred directed at sexual minorities in Africa. Dangerous rhetoric is being spewed not only by individual citizens such as Ms. Sam, but by heads of state, members of parliaments and judiciaries, religious leaders, and others in powerful positions throughout the continent.

West turns Africa into gay battlefield (2010): Western evangelists and gay rights groups are stoking Africa’s bitter rows over homosexuality, writes RW Johnson in Cape Town. - Gay Africans and Arabs come out online (2008): When Ali started blogging that he was Sudanese and gay, he did not realize he was joining a band of African and Middle Eastern gays and lesbians who, in the face of hostility and repression, have come out online. But within days the messages started coming in to "Keep up the good work," wrote Dubai-based Weblogger 'Gay by nature'. "Be proud and blog the way you like," wrote Kuwait's gayboyweekly. Close behind came comments, posts and links purporting to be from almost half the countries in the Arab League, including Egypt, Algeria, Bahrain and Morocco.. - George Kanuma, Burundi on tolerance of gay community in french-speaking Africa (2008, Video). - What kept away African professionals from studying MSM and addressing their needs in Africa? Challenges and obstacles.(2004).

African Same Sex Sexualities & Gender Diversity: The conference "African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity" (2011): Mission: To identify and celebrate indigenous and evolving male and female same-sex sexual practices, identities and communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, including expressions of gender diversity, and to promote their social acceptance and their physical and social well-being... - - Target Audience: Persons (primarily from Sub-Saharan Africa) who are knowledgeable about or scholarly engaged in the study of same-sex practices, identities, and communities from a liberating or emancipatory perspective. - Persons from Sub-Saharan Africa engaged in the artistic expression of gender and same-sex sexuality issues. - Other scholars and researchers. - Persons involved in the African LGBT movement and interested policy makers and funders. - - Format of Conference: Invited presentations. - Competing submissions (abstract-driven). - Mixture of scientific and artistic contributions. - Skill-building activities. - Book, poster and art exhibition. - Between sexuality, gender and rights: A story from Sub-Saharan Africa: “There are very specific cultural and political considerations that make issues of gays, lesbians, transgender and intersex people in Africa not necessarily similar to the rest of the world”, He-Jin Kim points out. “One example is the argument often used by conservatives on the continent that same sex practices are ‘un-African’. While the modern concept of homosexual identity is a fairly new one and western, same sex practices have been present in Africa since before the arrival of white settlers. Yet this argument shapes the reality in which LGBTI activists do their work”. The idea that homosexuality is a “white disease”, “a threat located outside the bounds of culture and the nation and therefore excluded and without any claim to moral proximity” is also strongly present in the report “Nowhere to turn” that the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission.

Coming out: Africans discuss sexuality and gender diversity (2011): The African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity conference has just concluded in Pretoria, South Africa. Perhaps the first major meeting of its kind, it brought scholars, activists, programmers, policymakers and funders from all over Africa and the world together for the week-long conference that lasted from February 13 to 18. More than 20 African countries were represented, including: South Africa, Burundi, Namibia, Togo, Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso and Senegal. The hosting of this conference on African soil is significant because in the words of Vasu Reddy, the conference chair, it is a “continent where, despite some positive changes in a few countries, same-sex sexualities and gender diversity remain deeply steeped in cultural prejudice and stigma. Such is the case that many continue to pay with their lives for being homosexual.”... Other issues raised and thrashed out during the conference also comprised of the extortion and blackmailing of homosexuals, same-sex autobiographies by Muslim and Christians, creating context-based leadership for LGBTI-led programming as it relates to the antagonistic environment they live in, diversity of men that have sex with men (MSM) and their practical experiences. Transvestition/breaking the frame of traditional gender identities, intersex status in relation to laws in Africa, gays and lesbians in exile, gender diversity and variance from an African cultural perspective, and topics of analysis that enhance LGBTI’s access to HIV treatment services in Africa, were also up for discussion...

HRW & IGLHRC (2003). More than a Name: State-Sponsored Homophobia and Its Consequences in Southern Africa. New York, N.Y: Human Rights Watch. PDF Download. II. The Spread of Homophobic Rhetoric in Southern Africa: A. Zimbabwe: From Book Fair to Book Burning. - B. Namibia: Obsession and Opportunism. - C. Zambia: "Wanting to Help Others Was the Worst Crime of All". D. Botswana. - E. South Africa: Signs of Hope... IV. “Nowhere is Really Safe”: Violence and Harassment by Non-State Actors.

Homophobia: Pervasive in Africa’s Media, Despite Gender Diversity Campaigns (2011): The African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity conference was recently held in Pretoria. The conference coordinator was none other than Vasu Reddy, co-editor of The Country We Want to Live In and From Social Silence to Social Science. Reddy said at the conference that Africa is a “continent where, despite some positive changes in a few countries, same-sex sexualities and gender diversity remain deeply steeped in cultural prejudice and stigma.” Ironically, this is revealed in the media reportage of the event where we obtained this quote. The style of writing and the title of the article (“Making a Case for Lesbians, Homos”) reveal the level at which homophobic stereotypes remain entrenched, even among the “neutral” media. The piece begins with the phrase, “US-based writer and scholar, Unoma Azuah, captures the feelings of stakeholders at a conference she recently attended in Pretoria, South Africa, on the marginalisation that people with unusual sex habits suffer especially in Africa.” In another article on the event, mockery and anger ignited in the reader feedback section, with one reader saying, “What a shame! Even animals know their sex. Not surprise, the END is near. ” Another one rants, “if you know whats good for you, you better stay locked in the damn closet until maybe two generations down time. down here we don’t play.” Quite a shocking response. Fortunately, the turnout at the conference itself surpassed expectations. Azuah observed that Africa’s LGBTI groups are “basically invisible” but that the large gathering at the conference was “impressive”. Here are the articles, mixing information with a slant that many will do doubt find upsetting:..

Thoreson R, Cook S, Eds. (2011). Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. - LGBT Africans face blackmail and extortion on a regular basis (2011, Alternate Link).

Gueboguo C (2008). Mobilisations transnationales des communautés homosexuelles en Afrique : une affaire à suivre. Anthropologie et Sociétés, 32 (numéro hors série 1): 85-93. PDF Download. En plus des mobilisations collectives pour la défense des droits de l’homme, en passant par celles qui luttent pour l’intégration des personnes vivant avec le VIH/Sida ou encore celles qui luttent pour la reconnaissance basée sur le genre, on remarque aussi de plus en plus souvent des mobilisations de communautés homosexuelles qui se réclament d’une identité africaine en dépit des interdits sociaux qui prohibent l’homosexualité et les pratiques homosexuelles. Ces mobilisations communautaires homosexuelles africaines ont ceci de particulier qu’elles ont commencé à s’organiser en mouvements transnationaux panafricains pour une plus grande visibilité et une plus forte représentativité dans l’espace public. C’est ainsi qu’au mois de mai 2007 est né la Pan African ILGA (PAI) en Afrique du Sud. C’est une coalition d’une quarantaine d’associations africaines lesbiennes, gaies, bisexuelles, transgenres et intersexuelles (LGBTI) qui forme une branche régionale du regroupement mondial d’associations homosexuelles (International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA)). Le fait que  la PAI est née en Afrique du Sud est révélateur, car il s’agit du premier pays au monde à avoir reconnu dans sa constitution des droits aux personnes sur la base de leur orientation sexuelle. Nous sommes également en Afrique et c’était la première fois qu’une telle mobilisation d’envergure regroupant les associations homosexuelles avait lieu.

Queerying Borders: An Afrikan Activist Perspective (2008): Abstract: This article offers an overview of academic work that focuses on queer sexualities in Africa and argues that binary categories, those imported from outside Africa are not adequate for addressing African sexualities... So how should one define lesbian? Many people I associate with define lesbian as the equivalent of gay homosexual, i.e. the opposite of heterosexual. While the construct queer embraces those who are non-heteronormative and includes the inbetween fluids and thus the construct lesbian does not necessarily include me, because I define myself as beyond binaries, as inbetween and fluid, dynamic and variable. Perhaps some may call me bisexual, but this term too subscribes to a notion of polarity, that I am both poles, when in fact I shift and change positions, not on a static linear continuum, but on an endlessly spiralling ellipse, that not ironically is ovoid, symbolic of female reproductive power. Is lesbian defined as orientation, or as preference? Are we victims of biology, or active agents with choice?

Intolérance sans frontières (2005, Translation) En Afrique, dit-on, le silence est d'or. Cette richesse est cependant loin de profiter à une communauté homosexuelle particulièrement discrète. Du Cap au Caire, les homosexuels font profil bas. L'homosexualité est punie par la loi dans la majeure partie du continent, à l'exception notable de la Côte d'Ivoire et de l'Afrique du Sud... Ils sont nombreux ceux qui, comme lui, professent que l'homosexualité est d'origine étrangère et constitue pour l'Afrique un « produit d'importation ». À leur tête, Yoweri Museveni : en application d'une loi datant de l'époque coloniale qui assimile l'homosexualité à un « crime contre nature » passible d'emprisonnement à vie... En Afrique, cette débauche de condamnations et de réprobations concerne avant tout les homosexuels de sexe masculin puisque la loi - comme d'ailleurs dans d'autres régions du monde - se limite le plus souvent à sanctionner la sodomie. Pour le meilleur et pour le pire, les lesbiennes du continent sont ignorées, hormis les Sud-Africaines, les premières à rompre le silence... - Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2005). - "Yan Daudu" and Proud: same-sex bonds take many forms in africa today (1999).

On Transgender Human Rights Issues in Africa (2006, Plus Speech Audio Link, Alternate Link): In Africa, transgender people are seriously punished for being who they are. - Transgender Rights Not Simply Gay Rights (2011, Alternate Link, Alternate Link). - Taking Freedom Home: it feels good to be Queer & African (2011): Kenyan filmmaker and activist, Kagendo Murungi talks with Nigeria Queer performance poet and dancer, Yvonne Fly Onakeme Etaghene and filmmaker Selly Thiam project director of None on Record. They talk about their art, coming out and what it means to be Queer and African. - Revue de presse Afrique: L’homosexualité en Afrique (2007, Translation): Un sujet tabou… Rarement abordé par la presse ou alors seulement à la rubrique des faits divers tragiques...

Afrique/liberté et homosexualité (Analyse): L’exclusion au nom des moeurs tabous! (2002, PDF Download). - Homosexualité dans le monde Arabe (2003, Translation): L’homosexualité est illégale dans 26 pays islamiques. - Le malheur d'être hommo dans le monde arabe (Translation). - Les homosexuels en campagne contre les préjugés: Une minorité “invisible” revendique des garanties juridiques et l’acceptation sociale (2007, Translation). - IHEU and Homophobia in Africa (2005). - Il est temps de faire reculer l'homophobie en Afrique (2005, Translation). - Queer Africa (2007): despite state repression and persecution, LGBT organizing has taken off across the continent and diaspora. - African gays and lesbians combat bias: An ‘invisible’ minority seeks legal safeguards, acceptance (2007). - Crises Across Africa: Gays Under Government Attack in Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda (2007). - Homosexuality, Human Rights and the Media in Africa (2007). - Queer Eye for the WSF: ‘Sexual rights’ as a concept really captured the imaginations of straight and gay alike... The many African lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex activists made this one of the largest public gatherings mobilizing for sexual rights in Africa to date. The Q-Spot, a venue set up by the Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya, was one of the most popular hangouts in the stadium. Numerous workshops, training sessions, debates, film screenings, exhibits and poetry readings were well attended, and there was a real buzz about the place... - Gay and lesbian people 'are here in Africa' (2006, Alternate Link).

New laws in Africa further restrict gays (2006). - Mixed Response As Gays Come Out (2007, Must Scroll). - Perils of being out in Africa (2006). - Afrique: l'homosexualité est toujours un tabou (2006, PDF Download, Translation). - Afrique: deux visions de l'homosexualité (2006, Translation): Afrique du Sud vers la légalisation du mariage homosexuel... Nigeria : Le gouvernement veut interdire les mariages entre personnes de même sexe. - Juliet, ou la double peine lesbienne (Translation): En marge du Forum, se tient une réunion des féministes. Cette Ougandaise raconte sa condition de femme et d'homosexuelle, ses amis perdus, ses errances d'un pays à l'autre. - Assessing the role of anal intercourse in the epidemiology of AIDS in Africa (2003, PDF Download): The present paper reviews the anthropological, proctologic, and infectious disease literature, and argues that both homosexuality and heterosexual anal intercourse are more prevalent in Africa than has traditionally been believed.

The new struggle for equality: Gay rights (and wrongs) in Africa (2006): South Africa has legalised same-sex marriage - but despite this pioneering measure, the rest of the continent remains one of the most homophobic places in the world...  - Anglican head calls for humility in gay clergy row (2007, Must Scroll):  The spiritual leader of the world's 77 million Anglicans reminded his bishops of the need for humility on Sunday in a veiled rebuke to those whose wrangling over gay clergy threatens to tear the church apart. "Very early in the history of the church there was a great saint who said God was evident when bishops were silent," Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams said to some laughter in a packed cathedral in the predominantly Muslim Indian Ocean island of Zanzibar. Anglican Church leaders are meeting in Tanzania to try to resolve a long simmering row over the U.S. Episcopal Church's consecration of openly gay bishop Gene Robinson in 2003, which has set a liberal minority against a conservative majority.

Global, 1999-2011 News Items:  Gender DynamiX’ First Transgender Association Established in Africa for Trans Issues. - One step forward, two steps back for Africa's gay people. - African gay issues finally taken to the world--ILGA Africa Conference May. - LGBT Activists Unite in Africa. - First Pan African LGBTI Conference. - Focus on male-male sex in global AIDS fight. - Circumcision "ineffective" as HIV prevention in gay men. ...

Samba, Chesterfield (2006). The Issues of Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender organising in Africa. Centre For Peace and Reconciliation Studies. PDF Download. Download Page. This paper centres mainly on issues of LGBT (Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender) organising in Africa. It mainly looks at the inroads that have been made in trying to organise and also the lessons and challenges that we have encountered along the way I will look at the history of organising around LGBT issues on the continent.

Blackwood, Evelyn (2004). Conference Report: The Women’s Same-Sex Forum and African Women’s Life History Project of Sex and Secrecy: The 4th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Sexuality, Culture, and Society. Johannesburg, South Africa, June 22-25. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 1(1): 104-107. PDF Download. In addition to the many excellent presentations on these topics, two forums specifically addressed lesbian sexualities, the Women’s Same-Sex Forum and the African Women’s Life History Project. Since the 1st international meeting of IASSCS, Saskia Wieringa, a Dutch anthropologist, feminist, and activist - and the new president of IASSCS - initiated and organized a women’s same-sex forum to ensure that lesbian voices are represented in the association and at the conferences. The forum consists of a set of panels oriented to topics addressing lesbian identities, sexualities, and health practices. Papers presented in the women’s same-sex forum in Melbourne, Australia (2001) specifically focused on lesbian and female transgender practices in Asia. With the addition of relevant papers from the Johannesburg forum, these papers will be published in a volume edited by Saskia Wieringa, Abha Bhaiya, and Evelyn Blackwood..

African LGBTI activists meet in Johannesburg and elect a regional body to further advance towards equal rights in Africa: Despite these challenges, activists at the conference made significant progress in establishing an African regional LGBTI federation. African activists at the conference created an 11-member, interim board to govern the newly formed Pan-African LGBTI federation. The activists set up five regions in Africa – North, South, East, West, and Central – and elected two representatives from each region. Special attention was paid to the issue of gender parity and it was decided that each region should be represented by one male and one female representative if possible. The final seat on the board was reserved for a Transgender activist... - ILGA hosts the first regional african conference (2007). - ILGA gears up African region reps (2007).

Africa: Crackdowns on gays make the closet safer (2010): More than two-thirds of African countries have laws criminalizing homosexual acts, and despite accounting for a significant percentage of new infections in many countries, men who have sex with men tend to be left out of the HIV response. "[They] are going underground; they are hiding themselves and continuing to fuel the epidemic," UNAIDS executive director Michél Sidibé told IRIN/PlusNews recently. "We need to make sure these vulnerable groups have the same rights everyone enjoys: access to information, care and prevention for them and their families."

Sexual orientation under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (2010): his paper discusses the relevance of the issue of sexual orientation[1] to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, while recognising the controversial nature of the subject, and suggests ways in which the commission can proceed. It is intended as an internal paper for the information of and discussion by the commissioners. NGOs and others from across the African continent have been drawing the attention of the African Commission during the last four sessions, seeking redress for attacks on the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of individuals on the basis of their sexual orientation. Commissioners have raised questions during the examination of state reports regarding the treatment of individuals in certain countries on the basis of their sexual orientation. Given reports of on-going allegations of human rights violations based on sexual orientation across the continent and the sensitivities of this area, is worth examining this issue in greater detail...

Gender & Sexuality: Review essay on teaching gender and sexualities (2009, Part 1) (Part 2): Introduction: Over the past ten years, there has been an increasing emphasis in African scholarship and research on the importance of understanding sexualities. Several prominent African-based journals have dedicated issues to questions of identity, sexualities, and sexual rights (Southern African Feminist Review, Development Update, Feminist Africa, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights), the African Regional Centre for Sexuality Research has been launched in Lagos, and many different workshops and conferences have been held, where connections between rights, gender and sexualities have been debated. Despite this, Africa has often found herself positioned within international reporting on the Beijing +5 process at the U.N., in June 2000, as predominantly hostile to any discussion of “sexual and reproductive rights”. Fierce debate then around the wording of the declaration on women’s rights to be issued as the Beijing+5 Platform for Action polarized, in print, “developing” and “developed” countries: “sexual right activists from the West are also said to be ‘blaming’ developing countries for holding up the document”. Nigerian and Ugandan ministers were reported as being disconcerted at the thought of lesbian presence within their countries, and Africa was represented mainly as a conservative block of voices connecting dismay at the notion of women’s rights to reproductive freedom with disgusted objection to the idea that gay and lesbian people have civic and human rights. In 2009, it is certainly true that some prominent African state leaders have denounced homosexualities in ways that seem to offer carte blanche to violent homophobia...

Le mouvement africain LGBTI se réunit à Johannesburg et élit un comité régional pour faire progresser l’égalité des droits en Afrique (2007, Translation): Un des objectifs de la conférence visait à permettre aux militants LGBTI africains de s’organiser au niveau continental sachant que des tentatives similaires de fédération africaine s’étaient soldées par des échecs dans le passé. Un obstacle principal à ce type d’initiative en Afrique est la prédominance de la homophobie d’Etat. A ce jour, 38 pays africains possèdent des lois pénalisant l'homosexualité. "En Afrique, les lois homophobes ont soit été importées par les empires coloniaux ou sont le résultat des législations culturellement influencées par une interprétation conservatrice des textes religieux" ont indiqué Rosanna Flamer-Caldera et Philipp Braun, Co-secrétaires généraux de la Fédération internationale gaie et lesbienne, dans l'introduction d'un rapport sur l’homophobie d’État en Afrique lancée à la conférence... En dépit de ces difficultés, les militants présents à la conférence ont accompli des progrès significatifs en vue de la constitution d’une fédération régionale africaine de LGBTI. Les participants africains à la conférence ont créé un conseil d'administration provisoire constitué par onze membres pour guider les travaux de cette fédération. - Homosexualité en Afrique du Sud : C’est ça leur progrès? (Translation).

Homosexuality comes to East Africa: Same gender sex is currently raising moral and legal hairs in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Coupled with often confusing notions like human rights, freedom of expression, and democracy, homosexuality is becoming a thorny issue in this part of the African continent where largely conservative cultures are clashing with sexual liberalism in a world galloping headlong towards urbanisation...But why is homosexuality frowned upon in Africa? Homosexuality, according to Peter Akinola, the Anglican Archbishop of Nigeria, is a sin, rebellion against God, rejection of God’s order and will, and violence to nature. Like bestiality, homosexuality is a form of slavery, he writes in Church Times. Moloney argues, “African tradition generally has not accepted homosexuality because of the strong link in African culture between sexuality and the giving of new life through procreation.” Besides being a perversion, homosexuality is opposed on the ground of its promiscuity, lack of serious commitment among couples, disease, and sadomasochism (the joy of degrading and being degraded). People “caught in homosexual behaviour should be hanged immediately,” suggests anthropologist Prof Ocholla-Ayayo. “Human beings learn more quickly when punitive measures against wrongs are instant and non-discriminating.”

Southern Africa: Anglican Province Moves to Support Homosexual Couples (2009): In a move that will be viewed by orthodox Anglican leaders on the continent of Africa as both divisive and dangerous, The Anglican Diocese of Cape Town, which includes Anglican bishops from South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Namibia, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Angola, passed a resolution this past week asking the church's bishops to provide pastoral guidelines for gay parishioners living in "covenanted partnerships". The push for recognition of gay and lesbian couples came from delegates from St. George's Cathedral in Cape Town, whose dean, the Rev. Rowan Smith, is an openly gay priest. The Cathedral clergy said the parish has come to be seen as a "safe space" for gay Christians in Cape Town. The Cathedral also said it needed guidelines to help it provide pastoral care to gay parishioners in same-sex relationships. The resolutions were passed in a session of the Synod, which was held at St. Cyprian's Church, Retreat in Cape Town from August 20 to 22. The move will deepen the fissures between the evangelical African Anglican provinces and the liberal Anglican province in Southern Africa, viewed by orthodox African Anglicans as having close ties with the heavily funded Episcopal Church USA..

"Cutting the Head of the Roaring Monster": Homosexuality and Repression in Africa (2009, PDF, PDF). Abstract: This paper examines how a proposed conference of gays and lesbians in 2006 in Ghana created tensions and repercussions from the social, cultural, religious and political factors, which worked to repress same-sex discourse in the country. The new wave of homophobic expression that ensued is partly a product of the new globalization and also a manifestation of the clash between what is considered “African” and “un-African” social and sexual behavior. This study shows that the government of Ghana and religious institutions did not view homosexuality as a human rights issue as in the case of South Africa, but a form of “sexual colonialism” or Western imposition on Ghanaians. Africanists working on West Africa have yet to seriously place homosexuality on academic agenda. We fill this gap in the current stage of sexuality and African studies by looking at how the proposed conference of gays and lesbians in 2006 in Ghana integrated Ghana’s experience of “unnaturalness” of homosexualityand homophobia into those of other parts of the world.

Crises across africa: Gays Under Government Attack in Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda (2007). - HRW (2002): This chapter identifies the leaders who helped, and some who hindered, the spread of homophobia in southern Africa-and records the words they used to do it. The rest of this report explores the consequences. - Homosexuality is all-african: (2000, Alternate Link). - Sexualités entre hommes, VIH et Afrique (2004, Translation). - Gays Call On Governments Not To Ignore Them (2005): Gay activists at an international conference on AIDS in Africa have called on governments to acknowledge the existence and specific needs of the gay community in the fight against HIV/AIDS. - HIV programmes must include gay community (2007).- An Ethnography of Silences: Race, (Homo)Sexualities, and a Discourse of Africa (2000).

Update HIV/AIDS May 2007: - Africa - HIV programmes must include gay community: Homosexuality is a reality in Africa, and the continent's leaders need to include men who have sex with men (MSM) in their national HIV programmes if they are to meaningfully reach all at-risk groups, delegates attending an HIV research conference in the western Kenyan city of Kisumu heard this week. - Homosexualité et sida : un sujet trop souvent tabou en Afrique (2009, Translation).

Gray, Daniel (2009). The relationship between the spread of HIV/AIDS and inequality in Africa. International Relations. Full Text. The next ‘unequal’ group that this essay will address is men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM HIV transmission is not a new phenomenon... Lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Western world show that MSM are at a higher biological risk of infection, primarily due to biological factors such as the nature of MSM sexual activities, but also because of social stigma... For example five African countries appear in the top ten countries worldwide with the highest HIV prevalence rate among MSM; Kenya for example has a prevalence rate of 43% the highest in the world, compared to an infection rate of 6% nationally. This is however, a problem that is not being universally or comprehensively addressed within Africa. One of the major contributory factors in the MSM HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is much the same as the factors that saw the MSM populations of the developed world rise disproportionately; a lack of targeted education and prevention strategies. Traditional mainstream prevention techniques focus on other transmission routes which exclude homosexual sexual activities... - The MSM Epidemic: 2011. What prevention? (2011, Africa & Worldwide).

Editorial: Men Who Have Sex With Men and Their HIV Epidemics in Africa (AIDS, Frits van Griensven, 2007; If not avaiable, access via Google Search Results.): This information shows that even in the absence of a high HIV prevalence in the general population, the concurrent HIV prevalence among MSM may be substantial. The size of the MSM population and the percentage of adult men practicing male-to-male sex in African countries are unknown. However, if we tentatively assume that male-to-male sex occurs in 3% of adult males, a high HIV prevalence in MSM may contribute between 10 and 20% of all prevalent HIV infections in the general population. In Kenya for instance, if 3% of men engage in male-to-male sex (1.5% of the total population), with a 40% HIV prevalence, and an adult HIV prevalence of 6.1%, the percentage of current infections in males attributable to MSM is: (0.015 * 40)/6.1 = 9.8%. In Senegal, with 21% HIV prevalence in MSM and 1.6% in the general population, this figure is (0.015 * 21)/1.6 = 19.7% (Tim Brown, personal communication). This does not include the transmission of HIV to female sexual partners of MSM, and subsequently, to their children and other low risk heterosexuals. Bisexuality is common in African MSM, with more than two-thirds of MSM reporting sex with both men and women. MSM have long been overlooked in HIV research and prevention on the African continent. There are strong local convictions that MSM behavior is non-compatible with traditional African culture. The studies from Kenya, Senegal and Sudan show otherwise and indicate that male-to-male sex is an integral part of activities of at least some African men. These studies also show that when respectful and considerate approaches are used to ensure their safety, dignity and anonymity, MSM will come forward to work with public health authorities and others to help improve their sexual health. Additional research is needed to assess the prevalence of male-to-male sex behavior among African men. Now that HIV epidemics in several African countries have shown encouraging signs of decline,[7,8] the willingness of MSM populations to be engaged in HIV research and prevention provides an unique window of opportunity to research and stop the HIV epidemic as it diversifies into smaller populations at risk. If this opportunity is not taken, the proportional contribution of MSM to the HIV epidemic in Africa will continue to grow. - Sub-Saharan Africa: HIV and AIDS statistics and features, in 2003 and 2005.

Coming out in Africa (2004). - Gays Are Easy Targets For Macho Leaders. (1999, Alternate Link) - Gays are main evil, say African leaders N/A (1999). - Etre homosexuel en Afrique (2004, Translation;  Alternate Link, Translation). - En Afrique, condamnation quasi-unanime de l'homosexualité (2003, Translation). - African Gays and Lesbians: Under Fire (2002). - The spread of Homophobic rhetoric in Southern Africa (2002). - Africa's gays persecuted as cause of ills Even blamed for drought, homosexuals are widely condemned, increasingly threatened (2004, Must Scroll) (Alternate Link). - "Gay Apartheid" in South Africa (2003). - South Africa ends anti-gay apartheid (2006). - Congolese Anglican Church condemns homosexuality (2004). - Fear and Loathing In Africa (2003). - African Churches Take Stand Against Gays (2004). - Is homosexuality really 'unafrican'? (2006). - On the (African) national question: Sexuality and tradition (2000, PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page).

Le roman, un exercice fascinant (2003): "Je repense à ce que disait Tahar Ben Jelloun dans La plus haute des solitudes : dans le Maghreb, tout le monde sait que l’homosexualité est une réalité, mais on n’en parle jamais. Dans le cas de certaines pratiques martiales en Afrique, on sodomisait les captifs de guerre. C’était là une façon de leur enlever tout honneur. Du coup, la sodomie est ancrée dans l’inconscient africain comme un acte plus dégradant encore que contre nature. D’où cette pirouette qui consiste à dire que l’homosexualité est « une affaire de Blancs ». Je ne porte pas de jugement. Je sais seulement que chez nous, l’homosexualité existe. Mais comme on vit dans une société patriarcale, on ruse…"

Focus on safe-sex in prisons in Southern Africa: (Alternate Link) "Thousands of inmates in Southern African prisons face a constant threat of HIV-infection because conservative national authorities deny them condoms, a United Nations agency said. The United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) said many governments refuse to provide condoms in prisons because they fear it would encourage homosexuality among inmates. However,  governments' refusal to acknowledge the problem means that inmates forced by circumstances into same-sex relationships are denied the right to safe sex. The UN agency said in a report compiled with southern African NGOs that studies had uncovered a practice of rampant homosexuality in prisons in the sub-region. "No survey of HIV risk has been undertaken in Swazi prisons, but surveys from neighbouring Malawi and Zambia show that at least one in eight men has sex in prison," the report, entitled 'Men and HIV in Swaziland' said. The report, based on studies by the Family Life Association of Swaziland (FLAS), the Southern Africa AIDS Information Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS) and Panos said homosexuality in prison was either consensual or the result of rape or other forms of exploitation. "It may also be a mutually beneficial arrangement whereby a younger or weaker man receives protection or benefits such as food from an older, stronger man in exchange of sexual services," the report said. "In most cases, men who have sex in prison would never do so in the world outside," it added..."

Constituting The Global Gay: Issues Of Individual Subjectivity And Sexuality In Southern Africa (PDF Download): Published in Sexuality in theLegal Arena - 2000 - edited by Carl Stychin and Didi Herman. - Men who love other men (2001, PDF Download): The transmission of HIV/AIDS through sexual relations between men is one of the routes of infection by the virus which is acknowledged in all countries. Everywhere except Africa..." - MSM in Africa: highly stigmatised, vulnerable and in need of urgent HIV prevention (2007). - Anti-Gay Discrimination Fueling HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Africa: Report (2007). - HIV/AIDS in Africa Overview (Article Listing to the Present). - En Afrique, l’homophobie des gouvernements fait le jeu de l’épidémie de sida (2007, Translation). - Men who have sex with men: the silent continent (2004, PDF Download): The life of men who have sex with men is characterised by violence and rejection from the community and family. In most African countries, there are - as yet - no prevention, care or treatment programmes to reach sexual minorities.

Anyamele C, Lwabaayi R, Nguyen T-V, Binswanger H (2005). Sexual Minorities, Violence and AIDS in Africa. Africa Region Working Paper Series No 84. PDF Download. Sex between people of the same gender occurs in all societies. In Africa such behavior is most often not associated with a homosexual identity, but men having sex with men usually have sex with women as well, get married, and have children. In most countries of Africa sex between people of the same gender is still prohibited under sodomy laws which were introduced by the colonial powers. Great stigma and discrimination occurs against those people who are either unable or unwilling to hide the fact that they have sex with partners of the same sex. The adverse consequences documented in this paper include eviction from families and neighborhood, loss of jobs and housing, discrimination in the health services, and a high level of violence, including from the police. As a consequence many sexual minority members are among the poorest and most marginalized members of society, and have no social safety net. They are at a high risk of engaging in transactional sex. Since anal sex is one of the most efficeint ways of transmitting HIV, men having sex with men are heavily affected by the epidemic. There are virtually no programs in Africa focusing on prevention among men having sex with men, and most of them have unprotected sex with both their male and female partners...

Addressing The Problem: Men Who Have Sex With Men In Africa Are A High Risk Group For HIV Infection (2009). - Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (2009, PDF Download. PubMed Abstract). - Responding to the HIV-related needs of MSM in Africa (2009): This guide has been produced for people who want to improve the response to the HIV-related needs of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa. - Funding available for HIV/AIDS programs addressing MSM in Africa (2010). - A Matter of Life and Death: Homophobia Threatens HIV/AIDS Work in Africa (2010).

Africain et gay : vous rigolez !  (2011, Translation): « L’épidémie de sida est hétérosexuelle » et, de toute façon, « l’homosexualité est un problème de blancs ». Ce discours, qui fait barrage à la lutte contre le VIH/sida sur le continent africain depuis les premiers mouvements de mobilisation, commence à s’effriter. Il était temps ! Conséquence de la pression religieuse, sociale, et de la répression menée par les pays qui pénalisent l’homosexualité, la grande majorité des Africains restent prisonniers du « tabou gay » et les associations commencent seulement à s’en préoccuper… - Homosexuels et musulmans, oui, ça existe! (2010, Translation). - Burkina Faso: Les droits humains à l'épreuve de l'homosexualité (2010, Translation): Parmi les groupes vulnérables au VIH, figurent en bonne place les homosexuels, notamment les hommes ayant des relations sexuelles avec d'autres hommes (MSM). Condamné par la société africaine, ce type de comportement se pratique dans la plus grande clandestinité... L'homosexualité est une pratique condamnée et reprimée en Afrique. Néanmoins à Yaoundé au Cameroun, comme dans d'autres villes du continent, ce phénomène reste une réalité en dépit des moeurs africaines...

Epprecht, Marc (2008). Resources for Uncovering the History of Same-Sex Sexualities in Africa South Of the Sahara. SEPHIS e-magazine, 4(3). PDF Download. This paper challenges the dominant perception that lgbti issues are hidden or insignificant in Africa south of the Sahara in relation to the pressing health, economic, and political concerns of the majority population. It examines the rich body of scholarship, art, and activist writing by and about African lgbti people that is readily available for researchers and teachers, arguing that transnational queer and feminist scholarship, teaching, and activism could benefit from listening to these African voices... The history of same-sex sexualities in Africa south of the Sahara has been substantively documented and analysed. Yet this history continues to be marginalised in scholarship and activism around gender and sexuality, particularly as they pertain to HIV and AIDS. That disease, after all, "is based on heterosexual transmission" in Africa, as Susser and Stein would flatly proclaim in line with mainstream AIDS discourse, even in hip South Africa. Issues of specific concern to women who have sex with women (wsw), or women who may be infected with HIV by men, who have sex with men (msm), are almost totally invisible in this discourse. The presumption, sometimes made explicit, is that research and open debate about same-sex sexuality are taboo or "dangerous" in Africa on account of deep-seated, pervasive and violent homophobia throughout the continent.

Homosexuality, HIV and human rights in Africa (2011, Radio Program): This week we chat with Dr Marc Epprecht, Graduate Chair of Global Development Studies and professor of History at Queen's University. Dr Epprecht discusses his studies of homosexuality in Africa, and the different tactics that he sees rights groups using – including the use of HIV/AIDS public health messages – to promote greater acceptance of diverse sexual identities. - "Hidden" Histories of African HomosexuaIities (2005), PDF Download. Download Page): The history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) identities andstruggles in Africasouth of the Sahara has been substantively documented and analyzed.' Yet this history continues to be marginalized in scholarship and activism around gender and sexuality, particularly as they pertain to HIV and AIDS. That disease, after all, "is based on heterosexual transmission" in Africa, as Ida Susser and Stein (133) flatly proclaim in line with mainstream AIDS discourse, even in hip South Africa. Issues of specific concern to women who have sex with women (WSW), or women who may be infected withHIV by men who have sex with men (MSM), are almost totally invisible in this discourse..

Achmat, Zackie (2010). LGBTI Freedom and Equality in Africa: a Different South African Perspective. Newsletter: International AIDS Society (PDF, Must Scroll). In theory, we are equal as gay men. We can have sex without any fear of prosecution. The constitution and a myriad of laws guarantee us equal access to social services, employment benefits, fostering, adoption, marriage, divorce and inheritance. We can also serve in the South African National Defence Force and enjoy gay culture and freedom of expression. However, that young, Black gay man’s only rights include sex with a partner of his choice and to openly associate with LGBTI people. These rights are vital, but real equality is a chimera. Equality, privacy and freedom are privileges enjoyed by middle- and upper-class people, including gay men of all races. LGBTI people both consciously and unconsciously lay claim to their rights as human beings and they locate these rights as global citizens. These rights to freedom and equality correctly inspire and activate people everywhere. However, the uncritical adoption of the American, Australian and European rights–based strategies focused on the lobbying of parliaments, litigation and visibility through the media has led to an impasse. A rightsbased movement that looks only to parliaments and the courts must fail, since they are largely captured by corporations and the urban, middle- and upper-class elites...

Johnson CA (2007). Off the Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing SameSex Practicing Men and Women in Africa. International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission.  PPT Presentation as PDF. Failure of African governments, foreign donors, intergovernmental agencies, foundations and NGOs, to provide advocacy, services, and funding for LGBT prevention, treatment and care programming is both a fundamental violation of human rights and a major tactical error.

Ranchod S, Boezak S (2007). Hivos’ role in LGBT emancipation in southern Africa: 1995 - 2006PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Hivos, the Humanist Institute for Development Co-operation, is a secular organisation whose core activities comprise of providing financial and political support to local NGOs in the global South. Hivos also actively facilitates networking, lobbying and information sharing between and among development-related organisations. Since the mid-1990s Hivos has supported a number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) organisations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as part of its human rights programme. This support was to further the aim of LGBT emancipation, i.e. for LGBT people to have equal access to resources, to express themselves freely as LGBT, and to participate in decision-making processes that determine their lives. The purpose of this Programme Evaluation (PE) is to evaluate Hivos’ support to LGBT organisations and projects in the southern Africa region in answer to the question: To what degree have Hivos’ interventions in the period 1995 – 2005 contributed to LGBT emancipation in southern Africa? The southern African countries where Hivos has been active in this regard are Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Mushayabasa S, Bhunu CP (2011). Modeling HIV Transmission Dynamics among Male prisoners in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Applied Mathematics, 41(1): 62-67. PDF Download. Download Page.  HIV epidemic has struck prisons and other places of detention around the world with particular severity. A deterministic HIV/AIDS model which incorporates male prisoners and homosexuality is considered... A key result arising from this model is that, efforts to control the HIV epidemic in Africa that ignore the prison situation are probably doomed to failure.

Abu-Raddad LJ, et al. (2010). Characterizing the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa. Washinton, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. PDF Download. PDF Download.  Chapter 3: Men Who Have Sex with Men and HIV... This chapter focuses on the biological evidence for the extent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread among men who have sex with men (MSM), the behavioral evidence for sexual and injecting risk practices among this population group, and the context of homosexuality in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

National AIDS Control Council of Kenya and Population Council (2009). The overlooked epidemic: Addressing HIV prevention and treatment among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa, report of a consultation, Nairobi, Kenya, 14–15 May 2008,” Consultation Report. Nairobi: Population Council. PDF Download. Globally, less than one out of 20 men who have sex with men (MSM) has access to HIV prevention and care.1 This is evident in much of the developing world—and in Africa in particular—where the stigmatization, discrimination, and criminalization of homosexual behavior persists, and where the existence of MSM has been publicly denied at all levels including by some heads of state. As a result, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has declared that: “Faced with legal or social sanctions, men having sex with men are either excluded from, or exclude themselves from, sexual health and welfare agencies because they fear being identifi ed as homosexual.”2 In addition, even when MSM are aware of general HIV prevention interventions, misconceptions about the risk of their own sexual practices may preclude them from accessing services. Moreover, HIV service providers are not always trained or equipped to meet the specifi c prevention and treatment needs of MSM..  In Africa, recent studies have reported that 25 percent of MSM in coastal Kenya and 22 percent in Dakar, Senegal4 are HIV-positive. Other studies in Africa documented high proportions of MSM reporting recent sexual relationships with women and bisexual men, indicating that the sexual networks of MSM extend to the general population.

International HIV/AIDS Alliance (2009). Responding to the HIV-related Needs of MSM in Africa: A guide to facilitating a consultation workshop with stakeholders. Download Page.  This guide has been produced for people who want to improve the response to the HIV-related needs of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa. The guide provides a set of activities for you to facilitate a meeting with key stakeholders who are responsible for improving local and national responses to HIV among MSM. It includes step-by-step advice about how to run sessions, together with a variety of resource material and presentations that will be useful to you and your group. It also provides basic information to increase understanding about MSM and, in particular, MSM and the HIV epidemic. The guide is designed to help participants: explore their own attitudes and feelings about working with MSM. - identify what is being done already, or has been done elsewhere, that could be usefully adapted to their local setting. -identify and plan a course of action in response to local situations. - Alarming Africa male gay HIV rate (2009).

AMSHeR: Addressing vulnerability of MSM and M2F Trans Women to HIV (2010): AMSHeR is the regional coalition of MSM/LGBT led organizations and other organizations (Mainstream HIV and Human Rights Organizations) that work to address the vulnerability of MSM and Male-to-female transgender women to HIV. AMSHeR is currently made up of 15 organizations from 13 Countries (Botswana, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and intend to extend invitations to other countries and organizations to ensure the visibility and representativeness of all aspects of MSM and transgender life on the continent. It is currently the only regional coalition working to address the human rights and health related issues faced by MSM and MTF persons in Africa... AMSHeR is currently hosted in South Africa by OUT LGBT Well-being, a Pretoria-based LGBT health organization. AMSHeR was formed in March 2009, with support from UNDP, Oxfam and IGLHRC.

The Influence of Gender identity on Risk Behaviour: A Closer Look at Men who have Sex with Men in Africa (2010): MSM are not necessarily only homosexual practicing men; the term describes behaviours rather than a group of men. This includes men who are bisexual, identify themselves as gay, heterosexual (some of whom are married) or men who have practised MSM but do not necessarily consider themselves homosexual or bisexual. This group, or behavioural pattern, is gaining a great deal of attention regarding their vulnerability towards HIV infection and the associated high HIV infection rate. The primary problem that arises from the broad spectrum of gender identities held by MSM is the fact that many of these men do not consider themselves homosexual or bisexual, which therefore influences their gender identity and often leads to more risk taking behaviour regarding their sexual interactions with other men and also women...

The global epidemic of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (2009, PDF Download. PubMed Abstract): Recent findings: In the Western world, the increase in notifications of new HIV infections among MSM is continuing. Steep increases in reports of new HIV diagnoses among MSM were also seen in the developed economies of East Asia. In the developing world, epidemiologic studies have now established the presence of MSM populations in Africa, China and Russia and a high HIV prevalence among them. High and increasing HIV prevalence was also reported from South and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Summary: HIV continues to spread among MSM on a global level. Current prevention efforts have been unable to contain or reduce HIV transmission in this population. Additionalbehavioral and biomedical interventions are urgently needed.

Johnson CA (2007). Off The Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing Same-Sex People in Africa. New York, New York: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC). PDF Download. Executive Summary. Across Africa, for too many aching years, there has been an immense silence about African men and women who yearn for, desire, love and embrace same-sex partners. The silence denied truth, for throughout history same-sex practice has been as prevalent here as anywhere else in the world. The silence wrought injustice, for it was born from repression and fear, and from disrespect for the humanity of those who yearned, desired, loved and embraced. Worst, the silence has exacted a terrible toll in lives. As our continent has faced a deathly epidemic of sex-borne disease, the silence has cost lives, for the muteness about same-sex practice has extended, devastatingly, to a muteness about prevention, care and treatment...

Kotzé, Marinda (2009). Men who have sex with men: A neglected HIV risk population in Africa. Full Text. Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are generally not considered to be a high HIV infection risk group in Africa, recent studies have shown that this may not be the case. Recent research has revealed alarmingly high HIV prevalence rates amongst MSM in Africa. These findings bring into question the decision made by many HIV & AIDS organisations and African Governments to focus primarily on heterosexual individuals in their HIV & AIDS campaigns, often completely excluding MSM from these initiatives. This CAI brief takes a closer look at the reasons behind the neglect of MSM in HIV & AIDS campaigns in Africa, their vulnerability to HIV infection as well as what can be done to reach this often ignored high risk group..

MSM law in francophone Africa and the fight against AIDS: the hypocrisy of certain countries (2010 Abstract. PDF Download): Hypocritically, some countries have pledged to fight discrimination while continuing to support legislation  that criminalizes homosexuality. Drawing on the testimony of local MSM organizations, this analysis of criminal legislation concerning MSM and priorities related to MSM in four francophone sub-Saharan African countries (Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal) seeks to show the disconnect of government health strategies directed toward MSM incountries where homosexuality isillegal. The aim is to help develop an strategy that highlights the of criminal laws against homosexuality and to fight more effectively against them, especially in countries that receive foreign aid. We will also consider the relationship between religion, homosexuality and criminalization, since these appear to be key factors in understanding the policies of countries that criminalize homosexuality.

Social Discrimination Against Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Implications for HIV Policy and Programs (2010, PDF Download): “The failure to respond effectively has allowed HIV to reach crisis levels in many communities of men who have sex with men and transgender people. Efforts to reverse this crisis must be evidence informed, grounded in human rights and underpinned by the decriminalization of homosexuality.…we must work together to end homophobia and ensure the barriers that stop access to HIV services are removed.” - New MSM Awards for HIV/AIDS Groups in Six African Countries (2009): Awards coincide with landmark study of HIV risk and human rights abuses among MSM in Southern Africa... The announcement of the new MSM awards coincides with the publication of a landmark study of HIV prevalence, HIV risk, and human rights among MSM in Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia. Published in the journal PLoS One, the study concludes that MSM in each of the three countries are at high risk for both HIV infection and human rights abuses. Among the 537 men surveyed in the study, 36 percent of those older than 30 were HIV positive. Forty-two percent reported at least one instance of abuse, such as blackmail and denial of housing and healthcare.

Africa 'needs anal sex awareness' (2003): A study published in The Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Aids claims awareness of the risks posed by anal sex is ignored in many of the continent's health campaigns. However, HIV experts reject the findings, maintaining that vaginal sex is the main route of transmission for the Aids virus. The study by researchers at the University of Tuebingen in Germany proposes that anal sex, both heterosexual and homosexual, is the second biggest cause of HIV transmission in Africa, following transmission in medical settings, such as through dirty needles. - Perceptions of anal sex in rural South Africa (2008): Discussion of anal sex among those who had heard about it linked it to socially marginal groups and asymmetrical power relations. - Heterosexual anal sex amongst young adults in South Africa: Risks and perspectives. (2008).

TrustAfrica (2009). Conference Report: 15th International Conference on AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Africa (ICASA). Dakar-Fann, Sénégal: TrustAfrica. PDF Download. Nana reported that the conference was the first time that LGBT persons were receiving such attention in Africa. He said that homophobia had fueled the spread of AIDS and the violation of human rights, and that HIV/AIDS organizations are reluctant to address this issue mainly because homosexuality is still illegal in most African countries. Nana also described the problems that sexual minorities face, such as silencing of voice, sexual orientation, human rights violations, and social inequalities. He mentioned that samesex practicing individuals have been prevented from attending African policy meetings because of homophobia. Nana concluded: “We are invisible when serious matters such as HIV are concerned.” Research conducted in Africa has shown that MSM are up to nine times more vulnerable to contracting HIV than heterosexuals.

Population Council (2010). Understanding the HIV Risk and Sexual Health Needs of Men Who Have Sex With Men: Horizon Studies 2001 to 2008. PDF Download. Around the world, men who have sex with men (MSM) face stigma and discrimination. The stigma attached to male-to-male sexual behavior hinders men from seeking appropriate health care and counseling that might reduce their risk of HIV infection and results in programs and policies that do not address the needs of MSM. Horizons approached this situation using innovative techniques for finding and interviewing MSM about their experiences in Africa and South America. While the lives of MSM in these settings are different, Horizons results highlighted HIV vulnerabilities across all the studies. The Population Council and its Horizons Program researchers were among the first to document and characterize the population of MSM in Africa, a crucial first step in developing appropriate programs for them. Findings suggested increasing outreach via peer educators and sensitizing service providers and counselors to the specific medical and prevention needs of MSM.

Anal sex a major driver in HIV epidemic (2010): Anal sex is viewed as something that only takes place among men who have sex with men (MSM) denying the fact that this form of sexual intercourse was a major driver in the HIV epidemic among heterosexual couples, researchers told the Microbicides 2010 conference this week... “There is still massive denial that anal intercourse happens among heterosexuals. Consequently, an important driver in the global HIV epidemic remains invisible. This silence allows people to entertain dangerous misconceptions from ‘anal sex is less risky than vaginal intercourse’ to ‘you can’t get HIV from anal intercourse,”said Pickett. - Uganda: Respect Your Wife, Avoid Anal Sex (2010): The conference brought together about 1,000 researchers, scientists, advocates and community leaders. One new phenomenon researchers discovered was that the incidence of anal sex was rising among married heterosexual couples. Several researches found incidences of rectal sexual acts between men and women both in and outside marriage. Apart from men who have sex with men, there was a widespread occurrence of anal sex between husbands and wives and with female prostitutes. Studies in Kenya, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, South Africa, Peru, India and Boston US, revealed that men practice anal sex with women as well as men..

Barker G, Ricardo C (2005). Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence. Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, Paper No. 26. PDF Download. In much of Latin America, Europe and North America, homophobia is often part of the socialization of boys. Boys are enjoined to act in certain ways, or risk being stigmatized by being called gay. In this way, homophobia is used as a way to reinforce prevailing norms on gender-appropriate behavior. This appears to be somewhat less an issue in Africa in that being a “real man” is not being not-gay, but more about being not-woman, not-girl and not-child. In some cultural groups in parts of Africa, a culturally recognized concept of same-sex attraction does not exist, is denied or is repressed to the extent that the problem is not so much homophobia as it is denial and lack of familiarity with same-sex attraction. With a few notable exceptions—South Africa being the most obvious one—there is not a strong gay minority that has asserted its identity and created identity politics in ways common to parts of Latin America, North America and Europe. There may in fact be significant same-sex sexual attraction and sexual encounters in Africa that are invisible or hidden precisely for this reason... The limited research on same-sex attraction in Africa shows that male-to-male sex is more common than assumed and that often, young men might have sexual experiences with other men, without necessarily considering themselves of a non-heterosexual orientation (Kiama 1999). In this context of fear and social ostracism, there are many men in Africa, as in many parts of the world, who live “constitutionally homosexual and socially heterosexual” (Kiama 1999). For example, a study in Senegal with men who have sex with men showed that the vast majority had also had sex with women (Niang et al. 2002)...

African Homosexuality’ Imagined: Doing Sexuality in Contested Spaces (2005): During her time in the northern region of Mozambique, one Danish anthropologist observed that unlike her own experiences learning about women’s sexuality in a European, Christian context, sexualities were openly discussed and expressed in Mozambique society. A woman’s sexuality was something of her own, part of her personality and identity as a woman, not defined in relation to, or ‘opened up’ by men. Although these women were bound by the heterosexual norms and cultural expectations of having a husband and children and playing the roles of wife and mother, she discovered that there was a space for women to have same-sex relationships where the lines between friendship and lover were blurred... The women in northern Mozambique and Lesotho are examples of same-sex relationships and sexualities located outside of the “heterosexual norms in Africa.” These relationships were socially and culturally accepted in Mozambique, and were celebrated by women and their husbands in the Lesotho context, maybe because they existed alongside women’s heterosexual relationships and were not disruptive to the gender power system. However, we must hesitate to label these relationships as homosexual relationships, especially in the Lesotho context where the women themselves did not identify themselves as lesbians or homosexual because “homosexuality is not a conceptual category everywhere… and the kinds of sexual acts it is thought possible to perform, and the social identities that come to be attached to those who perform them, vary from one society to another”...

Field of Sexuality Studies: What Is It? (2004): Categories such as ‘heterosexual’ or ‘homosexual’ or ‘bisexual’ as defined in Western societies do not necessarily carry the same meaning elsewhere... With all these questions in mind, we were reminded of pre-colonial practices such as that of the Azande of Sudan, whose un-married warriors were once expected to take ‘boy wives’ from age-grades lower than themselves. How could we explain the ‘yan dandu cross-dressers amongst the Nigerian Hausa who have sex with men, or the seemingly bisexual gordjiguene, well known amongst the Wolof of Senegal? What about the practice of bukhontxana on the mines in South Africa or kunyenga amongst contemporary street-boys in Tanzania, are there no historical or cultural antecedents? As is the case throughout the world, increasing research on sexuality in Africa is showing that Africans have had, and continue to have a very rich and diverse experience of human sexuality... Acknowledging the Western and Victorian-era roots of the study of sexuality is important for imagining the future direction of this growing field. The historic legacy still impacts on the way we conceptualise, interpret and write about sexuality around the world. A good example here is the study of sexual exchange practices sometimes called ‘transactional sex’. Reference to the western-derived notion of ‘prostitution’ has provided the most common starting point for our research on this topic during the past quarter century. Exchanges where cash or kind are given in return for sexual favours have been largely conceived within the narrow confines of Victorian-inspired assumptions that link sex to money to immorality to social pathology. Today the term ‘prostitution’ conjures up all those historic meanings. For scholars like myself who try to write about contemporary sexual exchanges, especially in the African context of women’s poverty and economic dependence on men, we are greatly hampered by limited and inappropriate vocabulary that is the product of Victorian-era sexology. Such dilemmas should serve to alert us to the need for Afro-centric conceptual frames for understanding sexuality, and to motivate us to develop more culturally sensitive ways of engaging with sexual phenomena...

Homosexualité en Afrique Noire 2 (Translation): De manière générale, les rapports sexuels entre les individus (femmes ou hommes) de même sexe ont un nom générique en dehors des pratiques spécifiques dans lesdits rapports. Cette réalité est ainsi désignée dans certaines langues locales par : dan kashili (haoussa), masu harka, mke-si-mume (kiswahili), kuswerana nk’imbwa, kunonoka (kirundi), quimbandas. Le rôle sexuel ambivalent que ce soit le rôle insertif ou réceptif à la fois où à tour de rôle est aussi connu, il est alors désigné dans d’autres langues omututa (wawihé). Les relations interfémorales ne sont pas en reste, otjizenja (wawihé). Cependant, tout cela ne permet toujours pas d’établir un lien entre ces termes et l’homosexualité identitaire. Dans une certaine mesure, il apparaît plutôt que ce sont les homosexualités qui sont plutôt désignés, plus précisément, la forme « entendido » espagnole... « Homosexualité » en Afrique : construction historique ... Pratiques homosexuelles à travers les classes d’âge : les jeux érotiques chez les jeunes garçons .... Les premières expériences homosexuelles se font parmi les garçons, parfois issus de la même famille, ce qui a pour but d’accroître la confiance au sein des parties prenantes ... « Homosexualité » dans les rites initiatiques ... « Homosexualité » en l’absence d’hommes et/ou de femmes ... - Homosexualité en Afrique Noire Mythe ou réalité ? (1) (Translation).Homosexualité en Afrique Noire (3) (Translation).

HISTORY: Homosexuality in Ancient Africa - references and citations given. Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies in African Homosexualities: Homosexuality in “Traditional” Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa - Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Sudan -Mabasha and Their Mashoga in Mombasa. - Interpreting Absence of Evidence and Assertions of Absence (Nuer and Lango). - Spiritual Vocations in Western Africa. - Hausa Roles. - Yoruba Exceptionalism: Antagonistic Acculturation? - A Sometimes Lifelong ”Adolescent Phase” (Dahomey). - Gender-Crossing Wolof and Their Neighbors. - The Kitesha Role Among the Bala - Other Central African Reports. - Angola. - Wives of the South African Mines. - Contemporary Black South Africa and Zimbabwe. - Relations Between Women. (Google Books) (Book Review) (Book Review) (Review Essay) (Excerpts) ( (A review by Gert Hekma par Gert Hekma, Université d'Amsterdam, published in Thamyris). - Homosexuality has a fine history in Africa (2006). - Ces hommes qui aiment d’autres hommes (2001): PDF Download N/A. - L'homosexualité en Afrique : sens et variations d'hirer à nos jours - Homosexualité en Afrique Noire Mythe ou réalité ? (2006, Translation). - Patriarchal Ideology and Discourses of Sexuality in Nigeria.Understanding Human Sexuality Seminar Series 2 (2004, PDF Download). - L'homosexualité en Afrique : sens et variations d'hier à nos jours (2008, Translation). - African myths about homosexuality (2010).

Homosexuality in "Traditional" Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa: An overview by Stephen O. Murray (49 pages, PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download, in 2 paper sizes.) - Thanks to the efforts of a group of Norwegian researchers…: "... homosexual behaviour amongst members of a tribe in the north of Namibia, a tribe that has not been influenced by Christianity. In the same vein, the American  psychologist Marc Carlson unearthed powerful evidence pointing towards similar practices amongst no less than 48 tribes in Zimbabwe. Not to mention the ubiquitous mineworker’s marriages, or the liberated sexual behaviour prevalent amongst followers of gang leader Nongoloza at the beginning of this century, or the traditionally sanctioned Venda system of female marriages, or the caresses that the young shepherds of the Botswana bushveld heap on each other….You see! - African Art: Traditional. - Homosexuality in Pre-Colonial and Ancient Africa. - Homosexuality in Prehistoric Africa. - Afrique: Quand l'homosexualité était rituelle (2010, Translation): Un sociologue explique comment, avant la colonisation, la sodomie était pratiquée dans les rites de passage de certaines ethnies. - Une histoire de l'homosexualité en Afrique est-elle possible ? (Translation). - L’homosexualité au Buganda, une acculturation peut en cacher une autre (1999, Translation)

Queer Theory and Alternative Sexualities - 2004 - by Gaurav Desai: PDF Download N/A: "I offer here a text that was first written as an Encyclopedia entry on “homosexuality” in the context of African literary studies. This short piece, along with my longer article “Out in Africa,” published in the Journal Genders (25 : 120-143) in 1997, represents my initial attempts to come to terms with discussions of alternative sexualities in the context of African literary studies. In my opinion, a thorough discussion of the complexities of the subject has yet to take place and there is much room for dialogue and debate. My contribution here is offered in keeping with that spirit... Thus, for instance, when someone suggests that there are no “gays” or “queers” in Africa, it is well worth questioning whether or not the reading of “gay” or “queer” in that suggestion is based on very specific cultural practices that are, indeed, of western descent. But the rejoinder to that observation must necessarily be that the question as to whether or not there are “gay” and “queer” identified people in Africa today (which increasingly there are), leaves untouched the historical and ethnographic observation that a great range of homosexual practices have indeed been recorded on the continent and that such practices continue to articulate themselves albeit in forms modulated according to the changing demands of African modernity. “Gay” and “Queer,” it must be remembered are terms that specify a particular constellation of identities that are both sexual as well as sociocultural. While they are predicated upon a set of same-sex object choices they are not the necessary or inevitable result of such behaviors. Indeed, one of the most significant aspects of homosexuality in Africa is that in many cases the ndividuals who engage in homosexual acts do not necessarily identify themselves as homosexuals. Homosexual acts need not always translate into homosexual identities and this makes discussions of African homosexuality all the more difficult..."

Mumbi Machera, Mumbi (2003). Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. In: Signe Arnfred, ed., Re-Thinking Sexualities in Africa, 157-170. PDF Download. Whenever I raise the issue of homosexuality in class, students are up in arms. They say "it is not African, that it is purely a Western development", "our cultures do not condone such behaviours", "it is deviant behaviour", and so on. I often ask them: "what would you do if your own sister is ‘a lesbian’? Or if your brother chose to be gay?" This always elicits another onslaught on me: "that is impossible!",
"it can’t happen!", "if it does, they will be cast out!", "I would advise them to go to America" ... the suggestions are endless - no compromise. What does this tell us? That the belief that heterosexuality is the only natural form of sexual expression is rooted in a cultural framework that defines heterosexuality as compulsory and homosexuality as deviant or pathological.  ... In the course of writing this paper, the Daily Nation, a daily newspaper published in Kenya, put out an article entitled: "Bi-curious: An emerging trend." The article (published on November 17, 2001) addressed an "emerging breed of young Kenyan women who are choosing a different kind of sexual relationship - they love occasional dalliances with other women, which is considered a bit of fun". What I found very curious about the bi-curious girls is the difficulty they face in self-defining their new sexual identities. The girls interviewed reiterated that they are not lesbians; so what are they? They admitted having sexual intimacies with their girlfriends "but they do not consider these trysts as cheating on their boyfriends." The girls interviewed also said that they are not bisexual.

Behind the Mask, a non-profit website magazine on gay and lesbian affairs in Africa, was launched at 8 May 2000. This independent project of the Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (GALA) is funded by the Humanist Institution for Development Co-operation (HIVOS), the Heinrich Boehl Foundation and the Netherlands Institute on Southern Africa. - Internet Resources: GLBT information on Africa on a by country basis. - Behind the Mask - BBC Poll: Is homosexuality un-African? - Homosexuality: Is it "un-African"? (1999) - Coca-Cola, MacDonalds and homosexuals? "Is homosexuality African? If you inclined to believe Mugabe, Nujoma and some other Africans, homosexuality is yet another one of those perfidious Western vices. Yet there are many indications that even  in Africa, homosexuality is as old as mankind itself. But the prison sentences do come from the West. The big question is whether the concept that homosexuality is un-African is correct. San -Bushmen- cave paintings at least two thousand years depict copulating men. Anthropologists in, for instance, Zimbabwe, describe various forms of sex between African men in the pre-colonial era. Experts in the field of Shona customary law note that relationships between men were not uncommon. In some cultures it was in fact expected of boys in puberty that they would experiment with each other. Especially in warrior cultures there would be sexual relationships between men..." - Etre homosexuel en Afrique: Behind the Mask, l’adresse des gays et lesbiennes du continent (Translation) (Alternate Link) (Translation).

La France reçoit les dirigeants africains, pas leurs victimes (2003, Translation): "Pour les homosexuelLES, il ne fait pas bon vivre en Afrique. A l’exception de la Côte d’Ivoire et de l’Afrique du Sud, la majorité des états mènent une politique discriminatoire et criminelle à l’encontre des gays, des lesbiennes et des transsexuelLES. MontréEs du doigt par des dirigeants soucieux de détourner l’attention de leur opinion publique des vrais problèmes et masquer leur propre incapacité à gouverner, les homosexuelLES africainEs sont victimes d’une vraie « chasse aux sorcières », et sont donnéEs en pâture aux extrémistes religieux désireux de rétablir l’ordre moral et de punir les comportements occidentaux, dont selon eux l’homosexualité fait partie. Alors que se tenait le sommet France-Afrique du 18 au 23 février 2003, voici un état des lieux des législations homophobes qui y règnent..."

Gays and Lesbians in African Studies (GLAS) (To 2004, Mostly 1996-97) - Gays & Lesbians in African Studies (GLAS) Mission (To 2004, Mostly 1996-97) - Statement by the Black Radical Congress:  African leaders hide political woes behind homophobia (2001). - Homosexuality in Africa: Opinions (2002, BBC). - Legal Status of Homosexuality in Africa: 1998-1999 (2000) (Alternate Link): "In the past few months, gays and lesbians in Somalia, Egypt, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Namibia and elsewhere in Africa have come under attack because of their homosexuality..." - L’Homosexualité en Afrique: entre tabous et haine (2004, Translation): L’émission commence par un micro-trottoir avec cette question : « Selon vous, pourquoi l’homosexualité reste encore un tabou en Afrique ? » Les interviewés sont tous des « Africains de Paris », ce qui leur vaudra d’ailleurs de la part de l’un des invités quelques quolibets (fort discutables et d’ailleurs discutés par le second invité) sur leur lien réel avec l’Afrique dont certains se prévalent pour dénoncer l’homosexualité.

Yan Daudu’ and Proud - Same-Sex Bonds Take Many Forms In Africa Today (1999): Marriages between women have been reported from over 30 ethnic groups across the continent, though some Africans warn against imposing a Western, sexual interpretation on what they argue is a series of social rather than sexual constructs. Today, in the north of Africa, it is unusual for women to live on their own. In most of the rest of the continent, women have greater freedom, but only in South Africa is it not unknown for two women to set up a household together. (Even there, it is usually only after they have had children and separated from their partners.) While Westerners insist that all desire be defined as homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual, African cultures allow for a variety of emotional bonds, as long as the traditions of family life are maintained. Thus, many African men see no contradiction between marriage to a woman and sex or love with men— while many studies show that women in Africa, as elsewhere, are often dissatisfied with the roles they must play. "In the West you have a particular line you have to follow until you come out as a happy homosexual," says Graeme Hendricks of the Triangle Project in Cape Town, South Africa. "Are we saying that any community where same-sex behavior is happening is underdeveloped because it doesn't identify as homosexual?".  

Out of the closet, into the firing line (1997): "The issue of homosexuality tests the commitment of African states to a culture of  human rights, argues Shaun de Waal. HOMOSEXUALITY as a social issue - and gay and lesbian rights as a political issue - has recently arisen several times in the region, raising controversy in Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana and Swaziland. It seems  to be coming out of the closet all over the subcontinent, testing the commitment of post-liberation African regimes to a culture of human rights." - Desmond Tutu: "La homofobia es igual al apartheid" (2004, Translation). - L'Homosexualité en Afrique (2004, Translation). - Legal Status of Homosexuality in Africa (1998-99, Alternate Link): In Africa, homosexuality is illegal for gay men in 29 countries and for lesbian women in 20 countries. The legal status in many ways mirrors the widespread homophobia on the continent... 

Nigerian Closet (2002): "As in many countries homosexuality remains an enormous taboo in Nigeria. Many gay men face intense social and family pressure. Homosexuality is regarded as a Western import but activists point out that it has always been an integral part of the culture. There are no laws regarding same sex relations between women, but lesbians have also suffered persecution. Producer Eric Beauchemin reports on the perils of being gay in Africa's most populous nation." - Homosexuality in Africa (2003): "African Anglican clerics are concerned that the appointment of a gay bishop could diminish the Church's standing in the eyes of local Muslims - with dangerous consequences for Christians... Transcript..."

Perversion’ Is a Right (1999): "There is one right that most southern Africans refuse to accommodate: The right to sexual preference. The norm is a man to a woman. The man to man or woman to woman is ‘perversion’. Those in authority say it is ‘unAfrican’ and evangelists religiously believe it works contrary to God’s intentions and therefore sinful." ... With all these moving statements, ‘perverts’ in Africa—especially in Zimbabwe—are overtly and constantly persecuted, have their homes raided, beaten while police watch idly. Even calls to respect their right to life go unheeded. But is homosexuality a crime? Edwin Sakala of the Zimbabwe Catholic Church replied when asked in 1995 that it was not. "The police are infringing homosexuals’ rights when they invade their homes..." Sakala advised, but in vain... Other observers ask: Why do we have persons claiming this right only now? The general consensus among critics is that homosexuality is cherished because of money and poverty. It is normally the poor being exploited, they say. However, others rightly point out that it has until now not been possible for most who would otherwise come open about their sexual preference largely because of fear of being persecuted.

Masango, Maake (2002). Homosexuality: A challenge to African churches. HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies, 58(3): 956-972. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Globalization has brought numerous challenges to churches. Homosexuality is one of those challenges facing African churches. There has been a growing evidence of rejection, isolation, discrimination and condemnation as sub-human of homosexuals. Some conservative churches have misused Scripture in order to strengthen their case of condemnation. This article seeks to correct the misinterpretation or misuse of Scriptural passages. For example, Sodom and Gomorrah is often referred to as a passage of Scripture to justify condemnation, while this passage actually deals with judgment. Finally, the article challenges churches to use a pastoral approach which should lead to a healing ministering, especially to all of those who are isolated and rejected.

Corboz, Julienne (2008). Results of a Contextual Scoping Study: East Africa - Kenya and Uganda. PDF Download. Download Page. In the East African region of Kenya and Uganda, documented patterns of discrimination and abuse persist on the basis of gender identity and sexual identities. In general, victims of harm and disadvantage are often the poorest and most marginalised in our societies and they are already dealing with other layers of discrimination based on their class, ethnicity, gender and disabilities. There is evidence that “…dominant institutional discourses on sexuality and their attendant effects on the issues that are being raised in East Africa with regards to sex work, adolescent sexuality, sexual minorities, and HIV/AIDS have seen a re-moralising of sexuality; and contributed to oppressive gender ideologies and partial Africanist discourses that foreclose or limit discussions and understandings about sexuality”.

Wood J, Simon S, Anmeghichean M (2007). LGBT Health and Rights in East Africa: A Snapshot of Successes and Challenges for the Advocacy Community. New York, New York: Open Society Institute Public Health Program. PDF Download. Download Page. The information is organized into five topics: Challenges to the LBGT movement; LGBT groups operating in East Africa; reports and convenings focusing on LGBT issues in Africa; potential opportunities for future advocacy on LGBT issues; and recommended next steps for funders. We hope this analysis will help donors develop strategies and collaborations for supporting LGBT health and rights in the region... Homophobia remains the overarching concern for LGBT activists.... Identity claims can result in dissension among LGBT persons. MSM and bisexuals, for example, are considered in some circles to be outcasts of the LGBT movement because they are “not really gay.” Those considered most stigmatized within LGBT communities are sex workers of any orientation who face added marginalization because of their activities... Amidst this debate, one point of consensus was reached: women (of any orientation or identity) are largely underserved and overlooked within the broader LGBT “movement.” Numerous organizations have chosen to separate men from women based either on the fact that their needs are different or that the lower status of women creates an added burden to already stigmatized groups... Apart from the myriad social, cultural, and political barriers, LGBT groups identify a huge need for resources and capacity-building support. Attempting to organize around health and rights in a hostile environment without materials and skills creates a situation ripe for burnout. Because of the relatively small population of self-identified LGBT and MSM persons, social circles overlap and relationships gone sour can affect the level of support and cohesion within communities....

Oxfam (2010). Break Another Silence: Understanding Sexual Minorities and Taking Action for Sexual Rights in Africa. PDF Download. Introduction -- 1. Basics Information about Sex, Gender & Sexuality: Human rights and sexual rights -- Do people choose their sexual orientation? - Some common beliefs. 2. Reactions to Sexual Minorities: In the past - - The situation now. 3. Sexual minorities and HIV programming. 4. Why are Civil Society Organisations working in Africa silent on sexual minorities and human rights? - - Conclusion: A Call to Break Another Silence.

The Rape of Men (2011): During his escape from the civil war in neighbouring Congo, he had been separated from his wife and taken by rebels. His captors raped him, three times a day, every day for three years. And he wasn't the only one. He watched as man after man was taken and raped... I've come to Kampala to hear the stories of the few brave men who have agreed to speak to me: a rare opportunity to find out about a controversial and deeply taboo issue. In Uganda, survivors are at risk of arrest by police, as they are likely to assume that they're gay – a crime in this country and in 38 of the 53 African nations. They will probably be ostracised by friends, rejected by family and turned away by the UN and the myriad international NGOs that are equipped, trained and ready to help women. They are wounded, isolated and in danger. In the words of Owiny: "They are despised." But they are willing to talk, thanks largely to the RLP's British director, Dr Chris Dolan. Dolan first heard of wartime sexual violence against men in the late 1990s while researching his PhD in northern Uganda, and he sensed that the problem might be dramatically underestimated. Keen to gain a fuller grasp of its depth and nature, he put up posters throughout Kampala in June 2009 announcing a "workshop" on the issue in a local school. On the day, 150 men arrived. In a burst of candour, one attendee admitted: "It's happened to all of us here."... Eleven rebels waited in a queue and raped Jean Paul in turn. When he was too exhausted to hold himself up, the next attacker would wrap his arm under Jean Paul's hips and lift him by the stomach. He bled freely: "Many, many, many bleeding," he says, "I could feel it like water." Each of the male prisoners was raped 11 times that night and every night that followed... 

Amour au masculin et culture arabe francophile (Bibliography 1948-1998). - Un Maghreb très gay (Translation) - Ces hommes qui aiment d'autres hommes... (2001): PDF Download.

Patron EJ (1995). Heart of lavender: in search of gay Africa. Harvard Gay and Lesbian Review. (Alternate Link)

Black Gay and Lesbian Writing Comes Out in the '90s by Reginald Harris (1998). - Ilga Africa 2000 Report (Alternate Link).

Doing Research on Sexuality in Africa: Ethical Dilemmas and the Positioning of the Researcher. PDF Download.

Africa: Gay and lesbian voices in African blogosphere (2009). Afrique : La blogosphère homosexuelle anglophone (2009).

'Africagay', un nouveau réseau des gay d'Afrique francophone (2008, Translation): Les anglophones disposant de leurs propres structures, le réseau Africagay rassemble 18 associations de 10 pays francophones : Burkina-Faso, Burundi, Cameroun, Mali, Maroc, Niger, Côte d'Ivoire, République démocratique du Congo, Sénégal, Tunisie, ainsi que des homosexuels africains résidant en France. Note: Africagay seems to have died in 2009. Archives to the end of 2008.

African Success: people changing the face of Africa. -  Africa at large: Website honours Africa’s gay heroes (2008): A new website honouring African success stories has asked the public to assist in identifying remarkable individuals from Africa’s gay community who have contributed to positive developments on the continent. The first biographies of Africa's gay heroes to appear on the site are those of Supreme Court Judge Edwin Cameron, Treatment Action Campaign founder Zackie Achmat and Simon Nkoli, gay rights and anti-apartheid activist who died of Aids in 1998..

Gay Life In Africa Exposed: Videos: Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 1/5 (2010). - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 2/5. - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 3/5. - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 4/5. - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 5/5. -- Gay Africa, Part 1. - Gay Africa, Part 2. - Gay Africa, Part 3. - Gay Africa, Part 4. - Gay Africa, Part 5. - Gay Africa, Part 6. - Gay Africa, Part 7. - Gay Africa, Part 8. - Gay Africa, Part 9. - Gay Africa, Part 10. - Gay Africa, Part 11. - Frontline Club: Homosexuality in Africa (2011, Alternate Link). 

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Black Images). - The Power of Culture Special: Cinema in Africa - South African Queer Cinema Exposes Double Standards. - Out In Africa (2011): South African Gay and Lesbian Film Festival 2009. Archives

Bibliography: Africa (To 2001). - Books on homosexuality in Africa (To 2001). - GLBTQ: African Art: Traditional. - GLBTQ: African Literatures. - GLBTQ: Africa: Sub-Saharan, Pre-Independence.  - Bibliography: GLBT people in Africa (1988-1992). - Bibliography on Sexuality - 3 Parts (To 2003, Alternate Link). - Interactive bibliography on same-sex issues in Africa (To 2004). - Bibliography: Homosexuality in Africa.

Book to document experiences of African LBT women: In its mission to educate policy makers about the existence of LBT women in Africa and to tackle the myth that homosexuality is unAfrican, The Coalition of African Lesbians (CAL) is planning to publish a book that will document lived experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women in the continent... The book is scheduled to be published in 2008 in South Africa through Jacana books...

Resources: - (Global Gayz):  - Africa general: News/Report. Africa by Country News. - Africa GLBTI News Items. - African Veil: Countries Covered. - Queer Afrol News. - Jeune Afrique: Homosexualité: Articles.  Jeune Afrique: Homosexualité: Articles. - Homosexuels en Afrique et VIH: L'épidémie cachée: Articles (Translation).

Resources: - MondoQueer - Rapporto Africa (1998-1999). - NetGai: Afrique. - news & Articles: Africa (2000-2006). - Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (Archive Link, Old Site, to 2008). - Some links about being Gay in Africa. - QRD (1992-1998). - Pridelinks - Africa: GLBT Resources. - African Activist: Amplifying Africa's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) Voices. - African Gay Youth Foundation: Emancipation, Diversity & Inclusion! The African Gay Youth Foundation is a Community based organization that provides support to the LGBT Community of African origin living not only in the Netherlands but in the Diaspora (worldwide). - Nubian Knights Network.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Middle East & North Africa: - Algeria. - Bahrain. - Egypt. - Iran. - Iraq. - Israel. - Jordan. - Kuwait. - Lebanon. - Lybia. - Mauritania. - Morocco. - Occupied Palestinian Territory. - Oman. - Qatar. - Saudi Arabia. - Sudan. - Syria. - Tunisia. - Turkey. - United Arab Emirates. - Yemen. - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Angola. - Benin. - Botswana. - Burkina Faso. - Burundi. - Cameroon. - Cape Verde. - Central African Republic. - Chad. - Comoros. - Congo. - Côte d'Ivoire. - Democratic Republic of the Congo. - Djibouti. - Equatorial Guinea. - Eritrea. - Ethiopia. - Gabon. - Gambia. - Ghana. - Guinea. - Guinea-Bissau. - Kenya. - Lesotho. - Liberia. - Madagascar. - Malawi. - Mali. - Mauritius. - Mayotte. - Mozambique. - Namibia. - Niger. - Nigeria. - Réunion. - Rwanda. - Saint Helena. - Sao Tome and Principe. - Senegal. - Seychelles. - Sierra Leone. - Somalia. - South Africa. - Swaziland. - Tanzania. - Togo. - Uganda. - Zambia. - Zimbabwe.

Books: - Defiant Desire : Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa - 1995 - by Mark Gevisser & Edwin Cameron (Eds) (Review). -  The Invisible Ghetto : Lesbian & Gay Writing from South Africa - 1995 - by Matthew Krouse (Ed). - The Spirit of Intimacy: Ancient Teachings in the Ways of Relationships - 1999 - by Sobonfu E. Somé (Amazon) - Book Section: - Homosexuality: The Gatekeepers. - Moffies: gay life in Southern Africa - 2000 - by Bart Luirink (Review) (Abstract) (Amazon). - Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities - 1998 - edited by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (Google Books). (Review, Alternate Link) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Amazon). - Tommy Boys, Lesbian Men, and Ancestral Wives: Female Same-Sex Practices in Africa - 2006 - by Ruth Morgan, Saskia Wierenga (Google Books) (Related Information) (Review) (Book Launch). - African Masculinities: men in Africa from the late 19th century to the present - 2005 - edited by Lahoucine Ouzgane, Robert Morrell (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Unspoken Facts. A History of Homosexualities in Africa - 2008 - edited by Marc Epprecht (Review). - Islam and homosexuality, Volume 1 - 2010 - by Samar Habib (Google Books). - Islam and Homosexuality, 2 Volume Set - 2009 - edited by Samar Habib. - Homosexuality in Islam: Islamic Reflection on Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims - 2009 - by Scott Alan Kugle (Google Books). - Sida et homosexualité(s) en Afrique. Analyse des communications de prévention (Translation) - 2009 - de Charles Gueboguo (Review, Translation). - Sida et sexualité en Afrique - 2000 - by Daniel Vangroenweghe (Google Books, Translation).

The country we want to live in Hate crimes and homophobia in the lives of black lesbian South Africans (Free Download) - 2010 - by Nonhlanhla Mkhize, Jane Bennett, Vasu Reddy, Relebohile Moletsane (Full Text) (HSRC Seminar: The Country We Want to Live In - Hate Crimes and Homophobia in the Lives of Black Lesbian South Africans). - From Social Silence to Social Science: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa - 2009 - edited by Vasu Reddy, Theo Sandfort & Laetitia Rispel (Amazon) (Review) (Podcast Package: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa) (Free Download. Download Page). - The Prize and the Price: Shaping sexualities in South Africa (Free Download) - 2009 - edited by Melissa Steyn, Mikki van Zyl. - Queer Malawi: Untold Stories (Book): Review: The accounts in the book portray the joys of love and the heartache of rejection, the dangers posed by homophobia and hatred in communities, and the sublime comfort of close friends and relatives. According to the publishers, the twelve life stories are "intended to invoke compassion and support for the rights of African LGBTI people to live freely and harmoniously alongside their heterosexual counterparts in Malawi and beyond her borders". - 'Queer Malawi' opens lid on same sex relations. - Queer Malawi lifts the gay curtain. - Skadumense in Malawi kry stem. - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Review by Gary Kinsmans: "Third World 'Queer' Liberation "A revolution within the revolution." Contains: "Mandela's stepchildren: homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa" (P. 111-36, Alternate Link for Review) "Mark Gevisser, co-editor of the South African anthology Defiant desire (1994), discusses the development of homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa." Plus: "Awakenings: dreams and delusions of an incipient lesbian and gay movement in Kenya" (P. 179-92) "John Mburu writes from the embattled movements in southern Africa, where a spate of dictatorial presidents have made anti-homosexual pronouncements and embarked on campaigns of anti-gay and lesbian harassment. Mburu specifically deals with the movement in Kenya." - The Dictionary of Homophobia: A Global History of Gay & Lesbian Experience - 2008 - edited by Louis-Georges Tin, translated by Marek Redburn (Introduction) (Africa: Central & Eastern) (Review). Arsenal Pulp Press: Based on the work of seventy researchers in fifteen countries, The Dictionary of Homophobia is a mammoth, encyclopedic book that documents the history of homosexuality, and various cultural responses to it, in all regions of the world: a masterful, engaged, and wholly relevant study that traces the political and social emancipation of a culture. The book is the first English translation of Dictionnaire de L'Homophobie, published in France in 2003 to world-wide acclaim.

Books: - African Sexualities: A Reader - 2011 - edited by Sylvia Tamale (Introduction) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Re-thinking Sexualities in Africa - 2004 - edited by Signe Arnfred (Contents) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Hungochani: the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa - 2004 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Related Article: homosexuality taboo in africa. - African Intimacies: Race, Homosexuality, and Globalization - 2007 - by Neville Hoad (Abstract/Contents) (Review). - La question homosexuelle en Afrique: Le cas du Cameroun (Translation) - 2006 - Charles Gueboguo (Amazon, Translation) (Author Interview, Translation) (Author Interview, Translation) (Excerpt, Translation) (Review, Translation) (Review, Translation). - Heterosexual Africa?: The History of an Idea from the Age of Exploration to the Age of AIDS - 2008 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Introduction) (Review) (Review). - TRANS: Transgender life stories from South Africa - 2010 - edited by Ruth Morgan, Charl Marais, Joy Rosemary Wellbeloved (Book Launch) (Press Release) (Review) (TRANS Authors Speak Out Against Lulu Xingwana).

Accessing African Resources

To Locate
Resources About an African Country Click the Country

Map of Africa - Africa Map Algeria Sao Tome - Principe Morocco Vape Verde gambia senegal reunion mauritius benin togo ghana ivory coast liberia sierra leone guinea guinea bissau burkina faso nigeria niger mali mauritania Egypt tunisia libya chad egypt eritrea sudan central african republic cameroon djibouti ethiopia somalia seychelles kenya uganda equitorial quinea gabon congo Dem. Rep. Congo (Zaire) rwanda burundi tanzania angola zambia malawi mozambique zimbabwe botswana namibia madagascar swaziland lesotho south africa

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Searching for Free Papers & Abstracts / Reports / Presentations / Articles on the Internet

The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. many free full text articles and papers. -

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available -

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.

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