African Sexual Minorities & Gender Variant Resources
Homosexuality - Gay - Lesbian - Bisexual - Transgender - Transsexual - Same-Sex Sex
To: Map of Africa
African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity Conference (2011): Over 85 persons from all over Africa participated in the African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity conference last week in Pretoria, South Africa. The central role of religion and spirituality among African lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons was one of the key topics at the conference. Another key topic was the importance of placing LGBTI activism in a context that resonates with African life. - Coming out: Africans discuss sexuality and gender diversity (2011, Conference Related). - International Conference: Struggle for equality: Sexual orientation, gender identity and human rights in Africa (2010). - Gays in Africa face growing persecution, human rights activists say (2010). - Are gay rights backsliding in Africa? (2010). - The Struggle of Gay Christians in Africa (2010): It is almost impossible to deal with the deteriorating human rights situation in Africa for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people without addressing the dominant role of religion, particularly Christianity. It is LGBTI Christians themselves most affected by the cutting hate of many of Africa's churches. - Is Africa Ready for Gay Movies? (2008).
Gay rights in Africa: now for the good news (2010, Alternate Link): Although times are still hard for gays and lesbians in many African countries, hard-won gains are being made. - To be or not to be gay in Africa, that’s the question
(2009): I bear no man or woman ill will, so I wish them a happy
marriage. However, for all the flood of outraged comments, gay
relationships are not “forbidden fruit” or as unAfrican, as critics
make them out to be. When I last checked, there were 11 African
countries where gay relationships were either legal, had been
decriminalised, or were tolerated: Madagascar, Congo, South Africa
(most famously), Central African Republic, Cape Verde, Gabon,
Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, and Rwanda...
In other words, the chances that an African country with a
liberal attitude toward gays also has the death penalty is 28.5 per
cent. However, the chances that a country that doesn’t have a tolerant
attitude towards gays also has the death penalty is 50 per cent. - Strangling Africa with the Gay Agenda (2010). - Africa’s Gays Say They’re ‘Under Siege’ (2011). - Africa Map (2011): Lesbian & Gay Rights by Countries.
Homosexuality and the battle for Africa’s soul (2010). - Religion, politics and Africa's homophobia (2010). - La problématique de l’homosexualité et du lesbianisme en Afrique (2007, Translation). - Les gays en campagne contre les préjugés (2007, Translation): Une minorité “invisible” revendique des garanties juridiques et l’acceptation sociale. - 'Warriors' take on the fight for gay Africa
(2010): For the first time in its existence, the Amsterdam Gay Pride
put the African continent in the picture. African gays were partying
along on their very own boat during the canal parade. - Emergence des associations homosexuelles en Afrique (2007, Translation).- International pressure on anti-gay laws in Africa must not stop (2011).
Kaoma, Kapya (2009). Globalizing the Culture Wars: U.S. Conservatives, African Churches, and Homophobia. Political Research Associates. PDF Download. - Rev. Dr. Kapya Kaoma's Presentation at at the International AIDS Conference, Vienna, 2010: Globalizing the Culture Wars (PPT as PDF). - Rev. Dr. Kapya Kaoma's 2009 Panel Discussion Presentation at at the United Nations: Opposing Grave Human Rights Violations on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. - Sexual orientation and gender identity panel discussion at UNHQ (2009). - Panel Discussion on “Opposing grave Human Rights Violations on the basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity” (2009): Links given to discussion in Englisg and Spanish. - The Anti-Gay Highway: New Report Details Mutually Beneficial Relationship Between US Evangelicals and African Antigay Clergy (2009). - Could Rick Warren be the man to stop pending anti-gay legislation in Uganda? 2009): That’s
the hope of Rev. Kapya Kaoma, an Episcopalian Priest from Zambia, the
author of a new report from Political Research Associates, which traces
a wave of homophobia on the African continent to the efforts of
conservative evangelical pastors in the US. In a conference call with
members of the media today, Kaoma declared that, “The US culture wars
are being exported to Africa. They’re having an impact not just in the
US, but also amongst African Christians.” - Globalizing the Culture Wars: The United Nations Battle Over Sexual Rights (2010). - As Eye See It : Globalizing the Culture Wars: US Conservatives, African Churches and Homophobia (2010).
Long, Scott (2004). Anatomy of a Backlash: Sexuality and the "Cultural" War on Human Rights. Human Rights Watch. PDF Download. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people have learned one lesson over the last twenty
years: violence follows visibility. People can be killed for their
courage in standing up, in speaking out about themselves. Yet
FannyAnn’s life and death, on a continent where homosexuality is again
and again called "un-African," call attention to another truth.
Cultures are made up of faces. They are not monoliths; they are
composed of diverse individuals, each contributing to and minutely
changing what the culture means and does. When a culture is reinvented
for ideological purposes as a faceless, seamless whole - incapable of
dissent from within, so that any dissenter automatically becomes an
outsider; incapable of changing, so that growth seems like destruction
-it has ceased to be an environment in which people can live and
interpret their lives. It has become a rhetorical weapon to be wielded
against individuals, a tool of repression. And any phenomenon that
embraces innumerable Africans like FannyAnn can be called good or bad,
right or wrong; but it cannot be called "un-African."
Afrique: "Les homosexuels sont pris pour cibles" (2011, Translation). - L'Afrique est-elle homophobe ? (2010, Translation). - The development of an anti-gay Africa (2010). - Who's to blame for African homophobia? We are, of course (2003). - L’homosexualité en Afrique : entre tabous et haine - Journal télévisé consacré à l’Afrique présenté par Joseph Andjou (2004, Translation). - En Afrique, les homosexuels sont des boucs émissaires (2011, Translation, Alternate Link, Translation). - Africa’s gays ‘scapegoated’ (2010). - African
leaders 'scapegoat gays' (2003).- Southern Africa: Politicians Blamed For Using Homosexuals As Scapegoats (1998).
Mœurs et culture : L’homosexualité en Afrique (2009, Translation): Pour s’être permis de condamner des homosexuels à des peines de prison, le Sénégal fait aujourd’hui l’objet de critiques dont les plus acerbes viennent de la communauté homosexuelle. Le libre arbitre disent-ils permet que chacun vive sa sexualité selon ses choix. Ce n’est pas l’avis de la quasi totalité des Africains pour qui cette forme de sexualité est une abomination. - L’homosexualité africaine. un tabou et pas qu’en Afrique (2011, Translation): Le site Aides.org fait un communiqué en cette fin d’année sur l’homosexualité et sa visibilité sur la population africaine. Le tabou existe evidamment en Afrique, mais ce que veut mettre en avant Aides c’est que ce tabou se retrouve aussi dans la population immigré et la difficulté d’approché cette population entraine des difficultés à lutter contre le sida que se soit ici ou en Afrique. - Study reveals state of HIV/AIDS in Middle East, North Africa (2010).
Consultancy Africa Intelligence (2010). Colonial Sodomy: Homophobic threat within common law. Full Text.
The majority of countries around the world that still criminalise
homosexuality are former British colonies or territories. Sodomy laws
are a common feature in 16 of the 18 African Commonwealth nations.(2)
Almost all anti-sodomy laws date back to the British colonial era penal
codes. These have never been repealed and are still in effect in almost
all of the common law countries in Africa. Caselaw and customary
practice have redefined these pieces of legislation, reshaping them as
laws that criminalise any aspect of homosexual conduct and facilitate
extreme homophobic policies in a number of countries. In recent months,
some Governments have sought to radically increase the penalties for
individuals convicted under anti-sodomy laws, a worrying development
from a human rights perspective...
BBC Debate on "Is homosexuality un-African?" Deeply Emotional
(2011, Part 1, Video. Alternate Link): The BBC World News debate in
Johannesburg, South Africa on the question "Is homosexuality
un-African?" almost came to blows on Sunday. The debate included
Ugandan MP David Bahati, the lead sponsor of the Anti-Homosexuality
Bill of 2009. Bahati said that the debate made him more determined than
ever to pass his bill in Uganda's Parliament. BBC World News will
televise the debate on March 12 and 13. - Is Homosexuality un-African? Part 1 (Video). Part 2. Part 3. Part 4. - L'homosexualité en Afrique, un tabou persistant L'exemple de la RDC (2009, Full
Text, Translation. Full
Text, Translation). - L’homosexualité et la Jeunesse Africaine au XXIe siècle (2008, Translation). - Being lesbian or gay in Africa (2006): Is being lesbian or gay un-African?
Gay rights in developing countries: A well-locked closet (2010): Gays are under attack in poor countries—and not just because of “local culture” - Crackdowns on gays make the closet safer (2010). - Homophobic Attacks on the Rise in Africa
(2011): Anti-homosexuality has been a coherent issue on discussion in
Africa and speculation goes around that the hatred directed at African
gays and lesbians was driven by so-called evangelism in the United
States and being pushed on to Africa. - L’homosexualité en
Afrique noire : Entre tabou et idées fausses (2011, Translation). - Homosexualité en Afrique: où sont les femmes? (2009, Translation):
La littérature scientifique sur l’homosexualité en
Afrique concerne très majoritairement les hommes. Ce fait
était notable avant l’apparition du sida et s’est
évidemment renforcé dans le contexte de
l’épidémie. Cependant, les recherches sur les femmes qui
ont des pratiques homosexuelles en Afrique se développent
également, y compris en lien avec le sida.
Chi Mgbako: Fighting For LGBT Rights In Africa
(2011): In 2004, leading African gay rights activist Fannyann Eddy was
brutally murdered while she worked alone in the office of the gay
rights organization she founded in Sierra Leone. She was a courageous
crusader for the rights of Africa's lesbian, gay, bisexual and
transgender community. Years after Fannyann's death, the state of LGBT
rights in Africa may at first blush seem woefully bleak, but in fact
now is a time for cautious hope. African NGOs and community groups
championing the rights of Africa's sexual minorities are publicly
condemning institutionalized homophobia, filing lawsuits arguing for
the recognition of LGBT rights, and taking their grievances directly to
government officials -- collective action that was exceedingly rare at
the time of Fannyann Eddy's death. In spite of ongoing discrimination
against Africa's sexual minorities, fearless advocates fighting for
LGBT rights continue to win small but significant victories. As the law
school human rights program I lead grew, I remembered Fannyann and
looked for opportunities to collaborate with some of those brave
LGBT and HR training for Africa (2010): The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida invites
candidates to apply to the LGBT and Human Rights International Training
The first part of the training will take place in Stockholm, Sweden,
October 18-November 5, 2010. The follow-up part of the programme will
take place in Africa region, May 30-June 3, 2011. The programme is open
for application by candidates from the following countries in Africa:
Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Moçambique,
Namibia, Rwanda,South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. - Africa's Gay Activists Use Internet to Advance Homosexual Rights (2010). - The Rise and Rise of Homophobia
(2009): Recently, some African states, such as Burundi and Rwanda that
did not have sodomy laws in their penal code acts have made efforts to
include these laws. Burundi has managed to achieve this, while in
Rwanda, a revision of the penal code act in which homosexuality is
criminalized has been tabled in Parliament and could be passed as law
soon. Uganda and Nigeria too have recently proposed legislation that
further exacerbates already alarmingly harsh penalties for
homosexuality... My experience might be unique to me, but in the way
that African states collectively negate the basic human rights of LGBT
people, it is a shared experience. African states are increasingly
committing human rights violations against LGBT people, encouraging and
inciting violence through leaders’ homophobic speeches or silence in
the face of others’ calls to violence, and failing in their duty to
protect their LGBT citizens from abuses. Lack of security, arbitrary
arrests and detentions, violence, and executions of LGBT people have
become the order of the day in Africa...
LGBTQ Rights in Africa (2011). - International pressure on anti-gay laws in Africa must continue (2011).- Gay Politics In Africa – Forces And Strategy (2011). - Lesbiennes d'Afrique : Etat d'urgence ! (2011, Translation). - Anti-Gay Violence in Senegal and Throughout Africa (2010). - Gay Life In Africa Met With Complexity (2009). - How American Evangelicals are Killing Gay People in Africa (2009). - High Occurrence in Africa of HIV among Homosexual Men Study Finds
(2009). - L'Afrique et la représentation de l'homosexualité: Une interview de Patrick Awondo (2009, Translation). - African myths about homosexuality (2010). - The Price of Ignorance: Homosexuality in Ghana (2010). - Is Uganda's Antigay Fervor Spreading? An African Domino Theory, Examined (2009). - Strengthening work with MSM in Africa (2008). - The Politics of Homoseuxality in Africa (2007). - The new struggle for equality: Gay rights (and wrongs) in Africa (2006). - Gay Africans and Arabs come out online (2008). - Africains homosexuels et sida : le silence enfin rompu (2009, Translation). - Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in
sub-Saharan Africa (Review, 2009).- From Persecution to Pride - Fighting LGBT Oppression in Africa (2009).
African lesbians demand greater rights (2008, Alternate Link, Alternate Link):
An African lesbian group on Tuesday called on governments in the
largely conservative continent to stop treating homosexuals like
criminals. The Coalition of African Lesbians is holding a conference
attended by about 100 people in Mozambique to highlight discrimination
against lesbians. "Our main goal is that lesbian and homosexuality can
no longer be seen as a criminal offence," the group's director and
conference spokeswoman, Fikile Vilakazi, told Reuters. "You should not
be arrested and charged for how you use your own body." African gay
activists accuse authorities in many countries of "state-sponsored"
homophobia and tacitly condoning their persecution. In some cases,
possible sentences against gays include eath by stoning. - African lesbian conference demands equal rights (2008). - Homosexuals in the Periphery: Gay and Lesbian Rights in Developing Africa (2006, PDF
Download) - Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2006, Alternate Link):
The South African decision to legalise same-sex marriages has caught
much of Africa by surprise... The news spread rapidly to all corners of
sub-Saharan Africa, where in many countries the issue of homosexuality
never had reached national media or legislators. Mostly a taboo or even
totally unknown issue among the sexual majority, homosexuality first
needed to be explained by the many media breaking the news from South
Homophobia in Ghana: Homophobia Plagues Africa (2010): Monday’s statements by a prominent
Ghanaian activist provide further evidence of the alarming homophobia
that is sweeping across Africa. Ms. Bernice Sam, National Programme
Coordinator of WiLDAF (Women in Law and Development) in Ghana argued
publicly for the Constitution Review Commission to limit Ghana’s
definition of marriage to include heterosexual couples only. Ms. Sam
then went even further. She was quoted as saying that it will be
“almost impossible for the act of homosexuality to be considered
criminal” if the constitution is not reworded in this way. These statements are just the most
recent addition to a growing fervor of discrimination, paranoia, and
hatred directed at sexual minorities in Africa. Dangerous rhetoric is being spewed not only by individual citizens such
as Ms. Sam, but by heads of state, members of parliaments and
judiciaries, religious leaders, and others in powerful positions
throughout the continent.
West turns Africa into gay battlefield
(2010): Western evangelists and gay rights groups are stoking Africa’s
bitter rows over homosexuality, writes RW Johnson in Cape Town. - Gay Africans and Arabs come out online (2008): When Ali
started blogging that he was Sudanese and gay, he did not realize he
was joining a band of African and Middle Eastern gays and lesbians who,
in the face of hostility and repression, have come out online. But
within days the messages started coming in to
black-gay-arab.blogspot.com. "Keep up the good work," wrote Dubai-based
Weblogger 'Gay by nature'. "Be proud and blog the way you like," wrote
Kuwait's gayboyweekly. Close behind came comments, posts and links
purporting to be from almost half the countries in the Arab League,
including Egypt, Algeria, Bahrain and Morocco.. - George Kanuma, Burundi on tolerance of gay community in french-speaking Africa (2008, Video). - What kept away African professionals from studying MSM and addressing their needs in Africa? Challenges and obstacles.(2004).
African Same Sex Sexualities & Gender Diversity: The conference "African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity"
(2011): Mission: To identify and celebrate indigenous and evolving male
and female same-sex sexual practices, identities and communities in
Sub-Saharan Africa, including expressions of gender diversity, and to
promote their social acceptance and their physical and social
well-being... - - Target Audience: Persons (primarily from
Sub-Saharan Africa) who are knowledgeable about or scholarly engaged in
the study of same-sex practices, identities, and communities from a
liberating or emancipatory perspective. - Persons from Sub-Saharan
Africa engaged in the artistic expression of gender and same-sex
sexuality issues. - Other scholars and researchers. - Persons involved
in the African LGBT movement and interested policy makers and funders.
- - Format of Conference: Invited presentations. - Competing
submissions (abstract-driven). - Mixture of scientific and artistic
contributions. - Skill-building activities. - Book, poster and art
exhibition. - Between sexuality, gender and rights: A story from Sub-Saharan Africa:
“There are very specific cultural and political considerations that
make issues of gays, lesbians, transgender and intersex people in
Africa not necessarily similar to the rest of the world”, He-Jin Kim
points out. “One example is the argument often used by conservatives on
the continent that same sex practices are ‘un-African’. While the
modern concept of homosexual identity is a fairly new one and western,
same sex practices have been present in Africa since before the arrival
of white settlers. Yet this argument shapes the reality in which LGBTI
activists do their work”. The idea that homosexuality is a “white
disease”, “a threat located outside the bounds of culture and the
nation and therefore excluded and without any claim to moral proximity”
is also strongly present in the report “Nowhere to turn” that the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission.
Coming out: Africans discuss sexuality and gender diversity
(2011): The African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity
conference has just concluded in Pretoria, South Africa. Perhaps the
first major meeting of its kind, it brought scholars, activists,
programmers, policymakers and funders from all over Africa and the
world together for the week-long conference that lasted from February
13 to 18. More than 20 African countries were represented, including:
South Africa, Burundi, Namibia, Togo, Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire,
Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso
and Senegal. The hosting of this conference on African soil is
significant because in the words of Vasu Reddy, the conference chair,
it is a “continent where, despite some positive changes in a few
countries, same-sex sexualities and gender diversity remain deeply
steeped in cultural prejudice and stigma. Such is the case that many
continue to pay with their lives for being homosexual.”... Other issues
raised and thrashed out during the conference also comprised of the
extortion and blackmailing of homosexuals, same-sex autobiographies by
Muslim and Christians, creating context-based leadership for LGBTI-led
programming as it relates to the antagonistic environment they live in,
diversity of men that have sex with men (MSM) and their practical
experiences. Transvestition/breaking the frame of traditional gender
identities, intersex status in relation to laws in Africa, gays and
lesbians in exile, gender diversity and variance from an African
cultural perspective, and topics of analysis that enhance LGBTI’s
access to HIV treatment services in Africa, were also up for
HRW & IGLHRC (2003). More than a Name: State-Sponsored Homophobia and Its Consequences in Southern Africa. New York, N.Y: Human Rights Watch. PDF Download. II. The Spread of Homophobic Rhetoric in Southern Africa: A. Zimbabwe: From Book Fair to Book Burning. - B. Namibia: Obsession and Opportunism. - C. Zambia: "Wanting to Help Others Was the Worst Crime of All". D. Botswana. - E. South Africa: Signs of Hope... IV. “Nowhere is Really Safe”: Violence and Harassment by Non-State Actors.
Homophobia: Pervasive in Africa’s Media, Despite Gender Diversity Campaigns
(2011): The African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity
conference was recently held in Pretoria. The conference coordinator
was none other than Vasu Reddy, co-editor of The Country We Want to
Live In and From Social Silence to Social Science. Reddy said at the
conference that Africa is a “continent where, despite some positive
changes in a few countries, same-sex sexualities and gender diversity
remain deeply steeped in cultural prejudice and stigma.” Ironically,
this is revealed in the media reportage of the event where we obtained
this quote. The style of writing and the title of the article (“Making
a Case for Lesbians, Homos”) reveal the level at which homophobic
stereotypes remain entrenched, even among the “neutral” media. The
piece begins with the phrase, “US-based writer and scholar, Unoma
Azuah, captures the feelings of stakeholders at a conference she
recently attended in Pretoria, South Africa, on the marginalisation
that people with unusual sex habits suffer especially in Africa.” In
another article on the event, mockery and anger ignited in the reader
feedback section, with one reader saying, “What a shame! Even animals
know their sex. Not surprise, the END is near. ” Another one rants, “if
you know whats good for you, you better stay locked in the damn closet
until maybe two generations down time. down here we don’t play.” Quite
a shocking response. Fortunately, the turnout at the conference itself
surpassed expectations. Azuah observed that Africa’s LGBTI groups are
“basically invisible” but that the large gathering at the conference
was “impressive”. Here are the articles, mixing information with a
slant that many will do doubt find upsetting:..
Thoreson R, Cook S, Eds. (2011). Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. - LGBT Africans face blackmail and extortion on a regular basis (2011, Alternate Link).
Gueboguo C (2008). Mobilisations transnationales des communautés homosexuelles en Afrique : une affaire à suivre. Anthropologie et Sociétés, 32 (numéro hors série 1): 85-93. PDF Download. En plus des mobilisations collectives pour la défense des droits de l’homme, en passant par celles qui luttent pour l’intégration des personnes vivant avec le VIH/Sida ou encore celles qui luttent pour la reconnaissance basée sur le genre, on remarque aussi de plus en plus souvent des mobilisations de communautés homosexuelles qui se réclament d’une identité africaine en dépit des interdits sociaux qui prohibent l’homosexualité et les pratiques homosexuelles. Ces mobilisations communautaires homosexuelles africaines ont ceci de particulier qu’elles ont commencé à s’organiser en mouvements transnationaux panafricains pour une plus grande visibilité et une plus forte représentativité dans l’espace public. C’est ainsi qu’au mois de mai 2007 est né la Pan African ILGA (PAI) en Afrique du Sud. C’est une coalition d’une quarantaine d’associations africaines lesbiennes, gaies, bisexuelles, transgenres et intersexuelles (LGBTI) qui forme une branche régionale du regroupement mondial d’associations homosexuelles (International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA)). Le fait que la PAI est née en Afrique du Sud est révélateur, car il s’agit du premier pays au monde à avoir reconnu dans sa constitution des droits aux personnes sur la base de leur orientation sexuelle. Nous sommes également en Afrique et c’était la première fois qu’une telle mobilisation d’envergure regroupant les associations homosexuelles avait lieu.
Queerying Borders: An Afrikan Activist Perspective (2008): Abstract: This article offers an overview of academic work that focuses on queer sexualities in Africa and argues that binary categories, those imported from outside Africa are not adequate for addressing African sexualities... So how should one define lesbian? Many people I associate with define lesbian as the equivalent of gay homosexual, i.e. the opposite of heterosexual. While the construct queer embraces those who are non-heteronormative and includes the inbetween fluids and thus the construct lesbian does not necessarily include me, because I define myself as beyond binaries, as inbetween and fluid, dynamic and variable. Perhaps some may call me bisexual, but this term too subscribes to a notion of polarity, that I am both poles, when in fact I shift and change positions, not on a static linear continuum, but on an endlessly spiralling ellipse, that not ironically is ovoid, symbolic of female reproductive power. Is lesbian defined as orientation, or as preference? Are we victims of biology, or active agents with choice?
Intolérance sans frontières (2005, Translation)
En Afrique, dit-on, le silence est d'or. Cette richesse est cependant
loin de profiter à une communauté homosexuelle
particulièrement discrète. Du Cap au Caire, les
homosexuels font profil bas. L'homosexualité est punie par la
loi dans la majeure partie du continent, à l'exception notable
de la Côte d'Ivoire et de l'Afrique du Sud... Ils sont nombreux
ceux qui, comme lui, professent que l'homosexualité est
d'origine étrangère et constitue pour l'Afrique un
« produit d'importation ». À leur tête, Yoweri
Museveni : en application d'une loi datant de l'époque coloniale
qui assimile l'homosexualité à un « crime contre
nature » passible d'emprisonnement à vie... En Afrique,
cette débauche de condamnations et de réprobations
concerne avant tout les homosexuels de sexe masculin puisque la loi -
comme d'ailleurs dans d'autres régions du monde - se limite le
plus souvent à sanctionner la sodomie. Pour le meilleur et pour
le pire, les lesbiennes du continent sont ignorées, hormis les
Sud-Africaines, les premières à rompre le silence... - Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2005). - "Yan Daudu" and Proud: same-sex bonds take many forms in africa today (1999).
On Transgender Human Rights Issues in Africa (2006, Plus Speech Audio Link, Alternate Link): In Africa, transgender people are seriously punished for being who they are. - Transgender Rights Not Simply Gay Rights (2011, Alternate Link, Alternate Link). - Taking Freedom Home: it feels good to be Queer & African (2011): Kenyan filmmaker and activist, Kagendo Murungi talks with Nigeria Queer performance poet and dancer, Yvonne Fly Onakeme Etaghene and filmmaker Selly Thiam project director of None on Record. They talk about their art, coming out and what it means to be Queer and African. - Revue de presse Afrique: L’homosexualité en Afrique (2007, Translation): Un sujet tabou… Rarement abordé par la presse ou alors seulement à la rubrique des faits divers tragiques...
Afrique/liberté et homosexualité (Analyse): L’exclusion au nom des moeurs tabous! (2002, PDF Download). - Homosexualité dans le monde Arabe (2003, Translation): L’homosexualité est illégale dans 26 pays islamiques. - Le malheur d'être hommo dans le monde arabe (Translation). - Les
homosexuels en campagne contre les préjugés: Une
minorité “invisible” revendique des garanties juridiques et
l’acceptation sociale (2007, Translation). - IHEU and Homophobia in Africa (2005). - Il est temps de faire reculer l'homophobie en Afrique (2005, Translation). - Queer Africa (2007): despite state repression and persecution, LGBT organizing has taken off across the continent and diaspora. - African gays and lesbians combat bias: An ‘invisible’ minority seeks legal safeguards, acceptance (2007). - Crises Across Africa: Gays Under Government Attack in Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda (2007). - Homosexuality, Human Rights and the Media in Africa (2007). - Queer Eye for the WSF: ‘Sexual rights’ as a concept really captured the imaginations of straight and gay alike...
The many African lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex
activists made this one of the largest public gatherings mobilizing for
sexual rights in Africa to date. The Q-Spot, a venue set up by the Gay
and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya, was one of the most popular hangouts in
the stadium. Numerous workshops, training sessions, debates, film
screenings, exhibits and poetry readings were well attended, and there
was a real buzz about the place... - Gay and lesbian people 'are here in Africa' (2006, Alternate Link).
New laws in Africa further restrict gays (2006). - Mixed Response As Gays Come Out (2007, Must Scroll). - Perils of being out in Africa (2006). - Afrique: l'homosexualité est toujours un tabou (2006, PDF Download, Translation). - Afrique: deux visions de l'homosexualité (2006, Translation): Afrique du Sud vers
la légalisation du mariage homosexuel... Nigeria : Le
gouvernement veut interdire les mariages entre personnes de même
sexe. - Juliet, ou la double peine lesbienne (Translation):
En marge du Forum, se tient une réunion des féministes.
Cette Ougandaise raconte sa condition de femme et d'homosexuelle, ses
amis perdus, ses errances d'un pays à l'autre. - Assessing the role of anal intercourse in the epidemiology of AIDS in Africa (2003, PDF
The present paper reviews the anthropological, proctologic, and
infectious disease literature, and argues that both homosexuality and
heterosexual anal intercourse are more prevalent in Africa than has
traditionally been believed.
The new struggle for equality: Gay rights (and wrongs) in Africa (2006): South Africa has legalised same-sex marriage - but despite this pioneering measure, the rest of the continent remains one of the most homophobic places in the world... - Anglican head calls for humility in gay clergy row (2007, Must Scroll): The spiritual leader of the world's 77 million Anglicans reminded his bishops of the need for humility on Sunday in a veiled rebuke to those whose wrangling over gay clergy threatens to tear the church apart. "Very early in the history of the church there was a great saint who said God was evident when bishops were silent," Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams said to some laughter in a packed cathedral in the predominantly Muslim Indian Ocean island of Zanzibar. Anglican Church leaders are meeting in Tanzania to try to resolve a long simmering row over the U.S. Episcopal Church's consecration of openly gay bishop Gene Robinson in 2003, which has set a liberal minority against a conservative majority.
Global Gayz.com, 1999-2011 News Items:
Gender DynamiX’ First Transgender Association Established in Africa for
Trans Issues. - One step forward, two steps back for Africa's gay
people. - African gay issues finally taken to the world--ILGA Africa
Conference May. - LGBT Activists Unite in Africa. - First Pan African
LGBTI Conference. - Focus on male-male sex in global AIDS fight. -
Circumcision "ineffective" as HIV prevention in gay men. ...
Samba, Chesterfield (2006). The Issues of Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender organising in Africa. Centre For Peace and Reconciliation Studies. PDF
Download. Download Page.
This paper centres mainly on issues of LGBT (Lesbian Gay Bisexual
Transgender) organising in Africa. It mainly looks at the inroads that
have been made in trying to organise and also the lessons and
challenges that we have encountered along the way I will look at the
history of organising around LGBT issues on the continent.
Blackwood, Evelyn (2004). Conference Report: The Women’s Same-Sex Forum and African Women’s Life History Project of Sex and Secrecy: The 4th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Sexuality, Culture, and Society. Johannesburg, South Africa, June 22-25. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 1(1): 104-107. PDF Download. In addition to the many excellent presentations on these topics, two forums specifically addressed lesbian sexualities, the Women’s Same-Sex Forum and the African Women’s Life History Project. Since the 1st international meeting of IASSCS, Saskia Wieringa, a Dutch anthropologist, feminist, and activist - and the new president of IASSCS - initiated and organized a women’s same-sex forum to ensure that lesbian voices are represented in the association and at the conferences. The forum consists of a set of panels oriented to topics addressing lesbian identities, sexualities, and health practices. Papers presented in the women’s same-sex forum in Melbourne, Australia (2001) specifically focused on lesbian and female transgender practices in Asia. With the addition of relevant papers from the Johannesburg forum, these papers will be published in a volume edited by Saskia Wieringa, Abha Bhaiya, and Evelyn Blackwood..
African LGBTI activists meet in Johannesburg and elect a regional body to further advance towards equal rights in Africa:
Despite these challenges, activists at the conference made significant
progress in establishing an African regional LGBTI federation. African
activists at the conference created an 11-member, interim board to
govern the newly formed Pan-African LGBTI federation. The activists set
up five regions in Africa – North, South, East, West, and Central – and
elected two representatives from each region. Special attention was
paid to the issue of gender parity and it was decided that each region
should be represented by one male and one female representative if
possible. The final seat on the board was reserved for a Transgender
activist... - ILGA hosts the first regional african conference (2007). - ILGA gears up African region reps (2007).
Africa: Crackdowns on gays make the closet safer
(2010): More than two-thirds of African countries have laws
criminalizing homosexual acts, and despite accounting for a significant
percentage of new infections in many countries, men who have sex with
men tend to be left out of the HIV response. "[They] are going
underground; they are hiding themselves and continuing to fuel the
epidemic," UNAIDS executive director Michél Sidibé told
IRIN/PlusNews recently. "We need to make sure these vulnerable groups
have the same rights everyone enjoys: access to information, care and
prevention for them and their families."
Sexual orientation under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights
(2010): his paper discusses the relevance of the issue of sexual
orientation to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights,
while recognising the controversial nature of the subject, and suggests
ways in which the commission can proceed. It is intended as an internal
paper for the information of and discussion by the commissioners. NGOs
and others from across the African continent have been drawing the
attention of the African Commission during the last four sessions,
seeking redress for attacks on the civil, political, economic, social
and cultural rights of individuals on the basis of their sexual
orientation. Commissioners have raised questions during the examination
of state reports regarding the treatment of individuals in certain
countries on the basis of their sexual orientation. Given reports of
on-going allegations of human rights violations based on sexual
orientation across the continent and the sensitivities of this area, is
worth examining this issue in greater detail...
Gender & Sexuality: Review essay on teaching gender and sexualities (2009, Part 1) (Part 2):
Introduction: Over the past ten years, there has been an increasing
emphasis in African scholarship and research on the importance of
understanding sexualities. Several prominent African-based journals
have dedicated issues to questions of identity, sexualities, and sexual
rights (Southern African Feminist Review, Development Update, Feminist
Africa, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights), the African
Regional Centre for Sexuality Research has been launched in Lagos, and
many different workshops and conferences have been held, where
connections between rights, gender and sexualities have been debated.
Despite this, Africa has often found herself positioned within
international reporting on the Beijing +5 process at the U.N., in June
2000, as predominantly hostile to any discussion of “sexual and
reproductive rights”. Fierce debate then around the wording of the
declaration on women’s rights to be issued as the Beijing+5 Platform
for Action polarized, in print, “developing” and “developed” countries:
“sexual right activists from the West are also said to be ‘blaming’
developing countries for holding up the document”. Nigerian and Ugandan
ministers were reported as being disconcerted at the thought of lesbian
presence within their countries, and Africa was represented mainly as a
conservative block of voices connecting dismay at the notion of women’s
rights to reproductive freedom with disgusted objection to the idea
that gay and lesbian people have civic and human rights. In 2009, it is
certainly true that some prominent African state leaders have denounced
homosexualities in ways that seem to offer carte blanche to violent
mouvement africain LGBTI se réunit à Johannesburg et
élit un comité régional pour faire progresser
l’égalité des droits en Afrique (2007, Translation): Un des
objectifs de la conférence visait à permettre aux
militants LGBTI africains de s’organiser au niveau continental sachant
que des tentatives similaires de fédération africaine
s’étaient soldées par des échecs dans le
passé. Un obstacle principal à ce type d’initiative en
Afrique est la prédominance de la homophobie d’Etat. A ce jour,
38 pays africains possèdent des lois pénalisant
l'homosexualité. "En Afrique, les lois homophobes ont soit
été importées par les empires coloniaux ou sont le
résultat des législations culturellement
influencées par une interprétation conservatrice des
textes religieux" ont indiqué Rosanna Flamer-Caldera et Philipp
Braun, Co-secrétaires généraux de la
Fédération internationale gaie et lesbienne, dans
l'introduction d'un rapport sur l’homophobie d’État en Afrique
lancée à la conférence... En dépit de ces
difficultés, les militants présents à la
conférence ont accompli des progrès significatifs en vue
de la constitution d’une fédération régionale
africaine de LGBTI. Les participants africains à la
conférence ont créé un conseil d'administration
provisoire constitué par onze membres pour guider les travaux de
cette fédération. - Homosexualité en Afrique du Sud : C’est ça leur progrès? (Translation).
Homosexuality comes to East Africa:
Same gender sex is currently raising moral and legal hairs in Kenya,
Uganda and Tanzania. Coupled with often confusing notions like human
rights, freedom of expression, and democracy, homosexuality is becoming
a thorny issue in this part of the African continent where largely
conservative cultures are clashing with sexual liberalism in a world
galloping headlong towards urbanisation...But why is homosexuality
frowned upon in Africa? Homosexuality, according to Peter Akinola, the
Anglican Archbishop of Nigeria, is a sin, rebellion against God,
rejection of God’s order and will, and violence to nature. Like
bestiality, homosexuality is a form of slavery, he writes in Church
Times. Moloney argues, “African tradition generally has not accepted
homosexuality because of the strong link in African culture between
sexuality and the giving of new life through procreation.” Besides
being a perversion, homosexuality is opposed on the ground of its
promiscuity, lack of serious commitment among couples, disease, and
sadomasochism (the joy of degrading and being degraded). People “caught
in homosexual behaviour should be hanged immediately,” suggests
anthropologist Prof Ocholla-Ayayo. “Human beings learn more quickly
when punitive measures against wrongs are instant and
Southern Africa: Anglican Province Moves to Support Homosexual Couples
(2009): In a move that will be viewed by orthodox Anglican leaders on
the continent of Africa as both divisive and dangerous, The Anglican
Diocese of Cape Town, which includes Anglican bishops from South
Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Namibia, St Helena, Tristan da
Cunha and Angola, passed a resolution this past week asking the
church's bishops to provide pastoral guidelines for gay parishioners
living in "covenanted partnerships". The push for recognition of gay
and lesbian couples came from delegates from St. George's Cathedral in
Cape Town, whose dean, the Rev. Rowan Smith, is an openly gay priest.
The Cathedral clergy said the parish has come to be seen as a "safe
space" for gay Christians in Cape Town. The Cathedral also said it
needed guidelines to help it provide pastoral care to gay parishioners
in same-sex relationships. The resolutions were passed in a session of
the Synod, which was held at St. Cyprian's Church, Retreat in Cape Town
from August 20 to 22. The move will deepen the fissures between the
evangelical African Anglican provinces and the liberal Anglican
province in Southern Africa, viewed by orthodox African Anglicans as
having close ties with the heavily funded Episcopal Church USA..
"Cutting the Head of the Roaring Monster": Homosexuality and Repression in Africa (2009, PDF, PDF).
Abstract: This paper examines how a proposed conference of gays and
lesbians in 2006 in Ghana created tensions and repercussions from the
social, cultural, religious and political factors, which worked to
repress same-sex discourse in the country. The new wave of homophobic
expression that ensued is partly a product of the new globalization and
also a manifestation of the clash between what is considered “African”
and “un-African” social and sexual behavior. This study shows that the
government of Ghana and religious institutions did not view
homosexuality as a human rights issue as in the case of South Africa,
but a form of “sexual colonialism” or Western imposition on Ghanaians.
Africanists working on West Africa have yet to seriously place
homosexuality on academic agenda. We fill this gap in the current stage
of sexuality and African studies by looking at how the proposed
conference of gays and lesbians in 2006 in Ghana integrated Ghana’s
experience of “unnaturalness” of homosexualityand homophobia into those of other parts of the world.
Crises across africa: Gays Under Government Attack in Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda (2007). - HRW (2002): This chapter identifies the leaders who
helped, and some who hindered, the spread of homophobia in southern
Africa-and records the words they used to do it. The rest of this
report explores the consequences. - Homosexuality
is all-african: (2000, Alternate Link). - Sexualités entre hommes, VIH et Afrique (2004, Translation). - Gays Call On Governments Not To Ignore Them (2005):
Gay activists at an international conference on AIDS in Africa have
called on governments to acknowledge the existence and specific needs
of the gay community in the fight against HIV/AIDS. - HIV programmes must include gay community (2007).- An Ethnography of Silences: Race, (Homo)Sexualities, and a Discourse of Africa (2000).
Update HIV/AIDS May 2007:
- Africa - HIV programmes must include gay community: Homosexuality is
a reality in Africa, and the continent's leaders need to include men
who have sex with men (MSM) in their national HIV programmes if they
are to meaningfully reach all at-risk groups, delegates attending an
HIV research conference in the western Kenyan city of Kisumu heard this
week. - Homosexualité et sida : un sujet trop souvent tabou en Afrique (2009, Translation).
Gray, Daniel (2009). The relationship between the spread of HIV/AIDS and inequality in Africa. International Relations. Full Text. The next ‘unequal’ group that this essay will address is men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM HIV transmission is not a new phenomenon... Lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Western world show that MSM are at a higher biological risk of infection, primarily due to biological factors such as the nature of MSM sexual activities, but also because of social stigma... For example five African countries appear in the top ten countries worldwide with the highest HIV prevalence rate among MSM; Kenya for example has a prevalence rate of 43% the highest in the world, compared to an infection rate of 6% nationally. This is however, a problem that is not being universally or comprehensively addressed within Africa. One of the major contributory factors in the MSM HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is much the same as the factors that saw the MSM populations of the developed world rise disproportionately; a lack of targeted education and prevention strategies. Traditional mainstream prevention techniques focus on other transmission routes which exclude homosexual sexual activities... - The MSM Epidemic: 2011. What prevention? (2011, Africa & Worldwide).
Editorial: Men Who Have Sex With Men and Their HIV Epidemics in Africa (AIDS, Frits van Griensven, 2007; If not avaiable, access via Google Search Results.): This information shows that even in the absence of a high HIV prevalence in the general population, the concurrent HIV prevalence among MSM may be substantial. The size of the MSM population and the percentage of adult men practicing male-to-male sex in African countries are unknown. However, if we tentatively assume that male-to-male sex occurs in 3% of adult males, a high HIV prevalence in MSM may contribute between 10 and 20% of all prevalent HIV infections in the general population. In Kenya for instance, if 3% of men engage in male-to-male sex (1.5% of the total population), with a 40% HIV prevalence, and an adult HIV prevalence of 6.1%, the percentage of current infections in males attributable to MSM is: (0.015 * 40)/6.1 = 9.8%. In Senegal, with 21% HIV prevalence in MSM and 1.6% in the general population, this figure is (0.015 * 21)/1.6 = 19.7% (Tim Brown, personal communication). This does not include the transmission of HIV to female sexual partners of MSM, and subsequently, to their children and other low risk heterosexuals. Bisexuality is common in African MSM, with more than two-thirds of MSM reporting sex with both men and women. MSM have long been overlooked in HIV research and prevention on the African continent. There are strong local convictions that MSM behavior is non-compatible with traditional African culture. The studies from Kenya, Senegal and Sudan show otherwise and indicate that male-to-male sex is an integral part of activities of at least some African men. These studies also show that when respectful and considerate approaches are used to ensure their safety, dignity and anonymity, MSM will come forward to work with public health authorities and others to help improve their sexual health. Additional research is needed to assess the prevalence of male-to-male sex behavior among African men. Now that HIV epidemics in several African countries have shown encouraging signs of decline,[7,8] the willingness of MSM populations to be engaged in HIV research and prevention provides an unique window of opportunity to research and stop the HIV epidemic as it diversifies into smaller populations at risk. If this opportunity is not taken, the proportional contribution of MSM to the HIV epidemic in Africa will continue to grow. - Sub-Saharan Africa: HIV and AIDS statistics and features, in 2003 and 2005.Coming out in Africa (2004). - Gays Are Easy Targets For Macho Leaders. (1999, Alternate Link) - Gays are main evil, say African leaders N/A (1999). - Etre homosexuel en Afrique (2004, Translation; Alternate Link, Translation). - En Afrique, condamnation quasi-unanime de l'homosexualité (2003, Translation). - African Gays and Lesbians: Under Fire (2002). - The spread of Homophobic rhetoric in Southern Africa (2002). - Africa's gays persecuted as cause of ills Even blamed for drought, homosexuals are widely condemned, increasingly threatened (2004, Must Scroll) (Alternate Link). - "Gay Apartheid" in South Africa (2003). - South Africa ends anti-gay apartheid (2006). - Congolese Anglican Church condemns homosexuality (2004). - Fear and Loathing In Africa (2003). - African Churches Take Stand Against Gays (2004). - Is homosexuality really 'unafrican'? (2006). - On the (African) national question: Sexuality and tradition (2000, PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page).
roman, un exercice fascinant (2003): "Je repense à ce que disait
Tahar Ben Jelloun dans La plus haute des solitudes : dans le Maghreb, tout
le monde sait que l’homosexualité est une réalité,
mais on n’en parle jamais. Dans le cas de certaines pratiques martiales
en Afrique, on sodomisait les captifs de guerre. C’était là
une façon de leur enlever tout honneur. Du coup, la sodomie est
ancrée dans l’inconscient africain comme un acte plus dégradant
encore que contre nature. D’où cette pirouette qui consiste à
dire que l’homosexualité est « une affaire de Blancs ».
Je ne porte pas de jugement. Je sais seulement que chez nous, l’homosexualité
existe. Mais comme on vit dans une société patriarcale, on
Focus on safe-sex in prisons in Southern Africa: (Alternate Link) "Thousands of inmates in Southern African prisons face a constant threat of HIV-infection because conservative national authorities deny them condoms, a United Nations agency said. The United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) said many governments refuse to provide condoms in prisons because they fear it would encourage homosexuality among inmates. However, governments' refusal to acknowledge the problem means that inmates forced by circumstances into same-sex relationships are denied the right to safe sex. The UN agency said in a report compiled with southern African NGOs that studies had uncovered a practice of rampant homosexuality in prisons in the sub-region. "No survey of HIV risk has been undertaken in Swazi prisons, but surveys from neighbouring Malawi and Zambia show that at least one in eight men has sex in prison," the report, entitled 'Men and HIV in Swaziland' said. The report, based on studies by the Family Life Association of Swaziland (FLAS), the Southern Africa AIDS Information Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS) and Panos said homosexuality in prison was either consensual or the result of rape or other forms of exploitation. "It may also be a mutually beneficial arrangement whereby a younger or weaker man receives protection or benefits such as food from an older, stronger man in exchange of sexual services," the report said. "In most cases, men who have sex in prison would never do so in the world outside," it added..."
The Global Gay: Issues Of Individual Subjectivity And Sexuality In Southern
Download): Published in Sexuality in theLegal Arena - 2000 -
edited by Carl Stychin and Didi Herman. - Men who love other men
Download): The transmission of HIV/AIDS through sexual relations between
men is one of the routes of infection by the virus which is acknowledged
in all countries. Everywhere except Africa..." - MSM in Africa: highly stigmatised, vulnerable and in need of urgent HIV prevention (2007). - Anti-Gay Discrimination Fueling HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Africa: Report (2007). - HIV/AIDS in Africa Overview (Article Listing to the Present). - En Afrique, l’homophobie des gouvernements fait le jeu de l’épidémie de sida (2007, Translation). - Men who have sex with men: the silent continent (2004, PDF Download):
The life of men who have sex with men is characterised by violence and
rejection from the community and family. In most African countries,
there are - as yet - no prevention, care or treatment programmes to
reach sexual minorities.
Anyamele C, Lwabaayi R, Nguyen T-V, Binswanger H (2005). Sexual Minorities, Violence and AIDS in Africa. Africa Region Working Paper Series No 84. PDF
Sex between people of the same gender occurs in all societies. In
Africa such behavior is most often not associated with a homosexual
identity, but men having sex with men usually have sex with women as
well, get married, and have children. In most countries of Africa sex
between people of the same gender is still prohibited under sodomy laws
which were introduced by the colonial powers. Great stigma and
discrimination occurs against those people who are either unable or
unwilling to hide the fact that they have sex with partners of the same
sex. The adverse consequences documented in this paper include eviction
from families and neighborhood, loss of jobs and housing,
discrimination in the health services, and a high level of violence,
including from the police. As a consequence many sexual minority
members are among the poorest and most marginalized members of society,
and have no social safety net. They are at a high risk of engaging in
transactional sex. Since anal sex is one of the most efficeint ways of
transmitting HIV, men having sex with men are heavily affected by the
epidemic. There are virtually no programs in Africa focusing on
prevention among men having sex with men, and most of them have
unprotected sex with both their male and female partners...
Addressing The Problem: Men Who Have Sex With Men In Africa Are A High Risk Group For HIV Infection (2009). - Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in
sub-Saharan Africa (2009, PDF
Abstract). - Responding to the HIV-related needs of MSM in Africa
(2009): This guide has been produced for people who want to improve the
response to the HIV-related needs of men who have sex with men (MSM) in
Africa. - Funding available for HIV/AIDS programs addressing MSM in Africa (2010). - A Matter of Life and Death: Homophobia Threatens HIV/AIDS Work in Africa (2010).
Africain et gay : vous rigolez ! (2011, Translation):
« L’épidémie de sida est
hétérosexuelle » et, de toute façon, «
l’homosexualité est un problème de blancs ». Ce
discours, qui fait barrage à la lutte contre le VIH/sida sur le
continent africain depuis les premiers mouvements de mobilisation,
commence à s’effriter. Il était temps !
Conséquence de la pression religieuse, sociale, et de la
répression menée par les pays qui pénalisent
l’homosexualité, la grande majorité des Africains restent
prisonniers du « tabou gay » et les associations commencent
seulement à s’en préoccuper… - Homosexuels et musulmans, oui, ça existe! (2010, Translation). - Burkina Faso: Les droits humains à l'épreuve de l'homosexualité (2010, Translation):
Parmi les groupes vulnérables au VIH, figurent en bonne place
les homosexuels, notamment les hommes ayant des relations sexuelles
avec d'autres hommes (MSM). Condamné par la
société africaine, ce type de comportement se pratique
dans la plus grande clandestinité... L'homosexualité est
une pratique condamnée et reprimée en Afrique.
Néanmoins à Yaoundé au Cameroun, comme dans
d'autres villes du continent, ce phénomène reste une
réalité en dépit des moeurs africaines...
Epprecht, Marc (2008). Resources for Uncovering the History of Same-Sex Sexualities in Africa South Of the Sahara. SEPHIS e-magazine, 4(3). PDF
This paper challenges the dominant perception that lgbti issues are
hidden or insignificant in Africa south of the Sahara in relation to
the pressing health, economic, and political concerns of the majority
population. It examines the rich body of scholarship, art, and activist
writing by and about African lgbti people that is readily available for
researchers and teachers, arguing that transnational queer and feminist
scholarship, teaching, and activism could benefit from listening to
these African voices... The history of same-sex sexualities in Africa
south of the Sahara has been substantively documented and analysed. Yet
this history continues to be marginalised in scholarship and activism
around gender and sexuality, particularly as they pertain to HIV and
AIDS. That disease, after all, "is based on heterosexual transmission"
in Africa, as Susser and Stein would flatly proclaim in line with
mainstream AIDS discourse, even in hip South Africa. Issues of specific
concern to women who have sex with women (wsw), or women who may be
infected with HIV by men, who have sex with men (msm), are almost
totally invisible in this discourse. The presumption, sometimes made
explicit, is that research and open debate about same-sex sexuality are
taboo or "dangerous" in Africa on account of deep-seated, pervasive and violent homophobia throughout the continent.
Homosexuality, HIV and human rights in Africa
(2011, Radio Program): This week we chat with Dr Marc Epprecht,
Graduate Chair of Global Development Studies and professor of History
at Queen's University. Dr Epprecht discusses his studies of
homosexuality in Africa, and the different tactics that he sees rights
groups using – including the use of HIV/AIDS public health messages –
to promote greater acceptance of diverse sexual identities. - "Hidden" Histories of African HomosexuaIities (2005), PDF
Download. Download Page):
history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex
(LGBTI) identities andstruggles in Africasouth of the Sahara has been
substantively documented and analyzed.' Yet this history continues to
be marginalized in scholarship and activism around gender and
sexuality, particularly as they pertain to HIV and AIDS. That disease,
after all, "is based on heterosexual transmission" in Africa, as Ida
Susser and Stein (133) flatly proclaim in line with mainstream AIDS
discourse, even in hip South Africa. Issues of specific concern to
women who have sex with women (WSW), or women who may be infected
withHIV by men who have sex with men (MSM), are almost totally
invisible in this discourse..
Achmat, Zackie (2010). LGBTI Freedom and Equality in Africa: a Different South African Perspective. Newsletter: International AIDS Society (PDF,
Must Scroll). In theory, we are equal as gay men. We can have sex
without any fear of prosecution. The constitution and a myriad of laws
guarantee us equal access to social services, employment benefits,
fostering, adoption, marriage, divorce and inheritance. We can also
serve in the South African National Defence Force and enjoy gay culture
and freedom of expression. However, that young, Black gay man’s only
rights include sex with a partner of his choice and to openly associate
with LGBTI people. These rights are vital, but real equality is a
chimera. Equality, privacy and freedom are privileges enjoyed by
middle- and upper-class people, including gay men of all races. LGBTI
people both consciously and unconsciously lay claim to their rights as
human beings and they locate these rights as global citizens. These
rights to freedom and equality correctly inspire and activate people
everywhere. However, the uncritical adoption of the American,
Australian and European rights–based strategies focused on the lobbying
of parliaments, litigation and visibility through the media has led to
an impasse. A rightsbased movement that looks only to parliaments and
the courts must fail, since they are largely captured by corporations and the urban, middle- and upper-class elites...
Johnson CA (2007). Off the Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing SameSex Practicing Men and Women in Africa. International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PPT Presentation as PDF.
Failure of African governments, foreign donors, intergovernmental
agencies, foundations and NGOs, to provide advocacy, services, and
funding for LGBT prevention, treatment and care programming is both a
fundamental violation of human rights and a major tactical error.
Ranchod S, Boezak S (2007). Hivos’ role in LGBT emancipation in southern Africa: 1995 - 2006. PDF
Download. Download Page. PDF
the Humanist Institute for Development Co-operation, is a
secular organisation whose core activities comprise of providing
financial and political support to local NGOs in the global South.
Hivos also actively facilitates networking, lobbying and information
sharing between and among development-related organisations. Since the
mid-1990s Hivos has supported a number of lesbian, gay, bisexual,
transgender (LGBT) organisations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as
part of its human rights programme. This support was to further the aim
of LGBT emancipation, i.e. for LGBT people to have equal access to
resources, to express themselves freely as LGBT, and to participate in
decision-making processes that determine their lives. The purpose of
this Programme Evaluation (PE) is to evaluate Hivos’ support to LGBT
organisations and projects in the southern Africa region in answer to
the question: To what degree have Hivos’ interventions in the period
1995 – 2005 contributed to LGBT emancipation in southern Africa? The
southern African countries where Hivos has been active in this regard
are Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and
Mushayabasa S, Bhunu CP (2011). Modeling HIV Transmission Dynamics among Male prisoners in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Applied Mathematics, 41(1): 62-67. PDF Download. Download Page. HIV epidemic has struck prisons and other places of detention around the world with particular severity. A deterministic HIV/AIDS model which incorporates male prisoners and homosexuality is considered... A key result arising from this model is that, efforts to control the HIV epidemic in Africa that ignore the prison situation are probably doomed to failure.
Abu-Raddad LJ, et al. (2010). Characterizing the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa. Washinton, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. PDF
3: Men Who Have Sex with Men and HIV... This chapter focuses on
the biological evidence for the extent of human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV) spread among men who have sex with men (MSM), the behavioral
evidence for sexual and injecting risk practices among this population
group, and the context of homosexuality in the Middle East and North
National AIDS Control Council of Kenya and Population Council (2009). The overlooked epidemic: Addressing HIV prevention and treatment among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa, report of a consultation, Nairobi, Kenya, 14–15 May 2008,” Consultation Report. Nairobi: Population Council. PDF
Globally, less than one out of 20 men who have sex with men (MSM) has
access to HIV prevention and care.1 This is evident in much of the
developing world—and in Africa in particular—where the stigmatization,
discrimination, and criminalization of homosexual behavior persists,
and where the existence of MSM has been publicly denied at all levels
including by some heads of state. As a result, the Joint United Nations
Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has declared that: “Faced with legal or
social sanctions, men having sex with men are either excluded from, or
exclude themselves from, sexual health and welfare agencies because
they fear being identifi ed as homosexual.”2 In addition, even when MSM
are aware of general HIV prevention interventions, misconceptions about
the risk of their own sexual practices may preclude them from accessing services. Moreover, HIV service providers are not
always trained or equipped to meet the specifi c prevention and
treatment needs of MSM.. In Africa, recent studies have reported
that 25 percent of MSM in coastal Kenya and 22 percent in Dakar,
Senegal4 are HIV-positive. Other studies in Africa documented high
proportions of MSM reporting recent sexual relationships with women and
bisexual men, indicating that the sexual networks of MSM extend to the
International HIV/AIDS Alliance (2009). Responding to the HIV-related Needs of MSM in Africa: A guide to facilitating a consultation workshop with stakeholders. Download Page.
This guide has been produced for people who want to improve the
response to the HIV-related needs of men who have sex with men (MSM) in
Africa. The guide provides a set of activities for you to facilitate a
meeting with key stakeholders who are responsible for improving local
and national responses to HIV among MSM. It includes step-by-step
advice about how to run sessions, together with a variety of resource
material and presentations that will be useful to you and your group.
It also provides basic information to increase understanding about MSM
and, in particular, MSM and the HIV epidemic. The guide is designed to
help participants: explore their own attitudes and feelings about
working with MSM. - identify what is being done already, or has been
done elsewhere, that could be usefully adapted to their local setting.
-identify and plan a course of action in response to local situations. - Alarming Africa male gay HIV rate (2009).
AMSHeR: Addressing vulnerability of MSM and M2F Trans Women to HIV
(2010): AMSHeR is the regional coalition of MSM/LGBT led organizations
and other organizations (Mainstream HIV and Human Rights Organizations)
that work to address the vulnerability of MSM and Male-to-female
transgender women to HIV. AMSHeR is currently made up of 15
organizations from 13 Countries (Botswana, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire,
Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa,
Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and intend to extend invitations to other
countries and organizations to ensure the visibility and
representativeness of all aspects of MSM and transgender life on the
continent. It is currently the only regional coalition working to
address the human rights and health related issues faced by MSM and MTF
persons in Africa... AMSHeR is currently hosted in South Africa by OUT LGBT Well-being, a Pretoria-based LGBT health organization. AMSHeR was formed in March 2009, with support from UNDP, Oxfam and IGLHRC.
The Influence of Gender identity on Risk Behaviour: A Closer Look at Men who have Sex with Men in Africa
(2010): MSM are not necessarily only homosexual practicing men; the
term describes behaviours rather than a group of men. This includes men
who are bisexual, identify themselves as gay, heterosexual (some of
whom are married) or men who have practised MSM but do not necessarily
consider themselves homosexual or bisexual. This group, or behavioural
pattern, is gaining a great deal of attention regarding their
vulnerability towards HIV infection and the associated high HIV
infection rate. The primary problem that arises from the broad spectrum
of gender identities held by MSM is the fact that many of these men do
not consider themselves homosexual or bisexual, which therefore
influences their gender identity and often leads to more risk taking
behaviour regarding their sexual interactions with other men and also
The global epidemic of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (2009, PDF
Abstract): Recent findings:
In the Western world, the increase in notifications of new HIV
infections among MSM is continuing. Steep increases in reports of new
HIV diagnoses among MSM were also seen in the developed economies of
East Asia. In the developing world, epidemiologic studies have now
established the presence of MSM populations in Africa, China and Russia
and a high HIV prevalence among them. High and increasing HIV
prevalence was also reported from South and Southeast Asia, and Latin
America and the Caribbean. Summary: HIV continues to spread
among MSM on a global level. Current prevention efforts have been
unable to contain or reduce HIV transmission in this population.
Additionalbehavioral and biomedical interventions are urgently needed.
Johnson CA (2007). Off The Map: How HIV/AIDS Programming is Failing Same-Sex People in Africa. New York, New York: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC). PDF
Download. Executive Summary. Across
Africa, for too many aching years, there has been an immense silence
about African men and women who yearn for, desire, love and embrace
same-sex partners. The silence denied truth, for throughout history
same-sex practice has been as prevalent here as anywhere else in the
world. The silence wrought injustice, for it was born from repression
and fear, and from disrespect for the humanity of those who yearned,
desired, loved and embraced. Worst, the silence has exacted a terrible
toll in lives. As our continent has faced a deathly epidemic of
sex-borne disease, the silence has cost lives, for the muteness about
same-sex practice has extended, devastatingly, to a muteness about
prevention, care and treatment...
Kotzé, Marinda (2009). Men who have sex with men: A neglected HIV risk population in Africa. Full
Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are generally not considered
to be a high HIV infection risk group in Africa, recent studies have
shown that this may not be the case. Recent research has revealed
alarmingly high HIV prevalence rates amongst MSM in Africa. These
findings bring into question the decision made by many HIV & AIDS
organisations and African Governments to focus primarily on
heterosexual individuals in their HIV & AIDS campaigns, often
completely excluding MSM from these initiatives. This CAI brief takes a
closer look at the reasons behind the neglect of MSM in HIV & AIDS
campaigns in Africa, their vulnerability to HIV infection as well as
what can be done to reach this often ignored high risk group..
MSM law in francophone Africa and the fight against AIDS: the hypocrisy of certain countries (2010 Abstract. PDF Download): Hypocritically, some countries have pledged to fight discrimination while
continuing to support legislation that criminalizes
homosexuality. Drawing on the testimony of local MSM organizations,
this analysis of criminal legislation concerning MSM and priorities
related to MSM in four francophone sub-Saharan African countries
(Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal) seeks to show the
disconnect of government health strategies directed toward MSM
incountries where homosexuality isillegal. The aim is to help develop
an strategy that highlights the of criminal laws against homosexuality
and to fight more effectively against them, especially in countries
that receive foreign aid. We will also consider the relationship
between religion, homosexuality and criminalization, since these appear
to be key factors in understanding the policies of countries that criminalize homosexuality.
Social Discrimination Against Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Implications for HIV Policy and Programs (2010, PDF Download):
“The failure to respond effectively has allowed HIV to reach crisis
levels in many communities of men who have sex with men and transgender
people. Efforts to reverse this crisis must be evidence informed,
grounded in human rights and underpinned by the decriminalization of
homosexuality.…we must work together to end homophobia and ensure the barriers that stop access to HIV services are removed.” - New MSM Awards for HIV/AIDS Groups in Six African Countries (2009): Awards coincide with landmark study of HIV risk and human rights abuses among MSM in Southern Africa... The announcement of the new MSM awards coincides with the publication
of a landmark study of HIV prevalence, HIV risk, and human rights among
MSM in Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia. Published in the journal PLoS One,
the study concludes that MSM in each of the three countries are at high
risk for both HIV infection and human rights abuses. Among the 537 men
surveyed in the study, 36 percent of those older than 30 were HIV
positive. Forty-two percent reported at least one instance of abuse,
such as blackmail and denial of housing and healthcare.
Africa 'needs anal sex awareness'
(2003): A study published in The Journal of Sexually Transmitted
Diseases and Aids claims awareness of the risks posed by anal sex is
ignored in many of the continent's health campaigns. However, HIV
experts reject the findings, maintaining that vaginal sex is the main
route of transmission for the Aids virus. The study by researchers at
the University of Tuebingen in Germany proposes that anal sex, both
heterosexual and homosexual, is the second biggest cause of HIV
transmission in Africa, following transmission in medical settings,
such as through dirty needles. - Perceptions of anal sex in rural South Africa
(2008): Discussion of anal sex among those who had heard about it
linked it to socially marginal groups and asymmetrical power relations.
- Heterosexual anal sex amongst young adults in South Africa: Risks and perspectives. (2008).
TrustAfrica (2009). Conference Report: 15th International Conference on AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Africa (ICASA). Dakar-Fann, Sénégal: TrustAfrica. PDF
Nana reported that the conference was the first time that LGBT persons
were receiving such attention in Africa. He said that homophobia had
fueled the spread of AIDS and the violation of human rights, and that
HIV/AIDS organizations are reluctant to address this issue mainly
because homosexuality is still illegal in most African countries. Nana
also described the problems that sexual minorities face, such as
silencing of voice, sexual orientation, human rights violations, and
social inequalities. He mentioned that samesex practicing individuals
have been prevented from attending African policy meetings because of
homophobia. Nana concluded: “We are invisible when serious matters such
as HIV are concerned.” Research conducted in Africa has shown that MSM
are up to nine times more vulnerable to contracting HIV than heterosexuals.
Population Council (2010). Understanding the HIV Risk and Sexual Health Needs of Men Who Have Sex With Men: Horizon Studies 2001 to 2008. PDF
the world, men who have sex with men (MSM) face stigma and
discrimination. The stigma attached to male-to-male sexual behavior
hinders men from seeking appropriate health care and counseling that
might reduce their risk of HIV infection and results in programs and
policies that do not address the needs of MSM. Horizons approached this
situation using innovative techniques for finding and interviewing MSM
about their experiences in Africa and South America. While the lives of
MSM in these settings are different, Horizons results highlighted HIV
vulnerabilities across all the studies. The Population Council and its
Horizons Program researchers were among the first to document and
characterize the population of MSM in Africa, a crucial first step in
developing appropriate programs for them. Findings suggested increasing
outreach via peer educators and sensitizing service providers and
counselors to the specific medical and prevention needs of MSM.
Anal sex a major driver in HIV epidemic
(2010): Anal sex is viewed as something that only takes place among men
who have sex with men (MSM) denying the fact that this form of sexual
intercourse was a major driver in the HIV epidemic among heterosexual
couples, researchers told the Microbicides 2010 conference this week...
“There is still massive denial that anal intercourse happens among
heterosexuals. Consequently, an important driver in the global HIV
epidemic remains invisible. This silence allows people to entertain
dangerous misconceptions from ‘anal sex is less risky than vaginal
intercourse’ to ‘you can’t get HIV from anal intercourse,”said Pickett.
- Uganda: Respect Your Wife, Avoid Anal Sex
(2010): The conference brought together about 1,000 researchers,
scientists, advocates and community leaders. One new phenomenon
researchers discovered was that the incidence of anal sex was rising
among married heterosexual couples. Several researches found incidences
of rectal sexual acts between men and women both in and outside
marriage. Apart from men who have sex with men, there was a widespread
occurrence of anal sex between husbands and wives and with female
prostitutes. Studies in Kenya, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, South Africa,
Peru, India and Boston US, revealed that men practice anal sex with
women as well as men..
Barker G, Ricardo C (2005). Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence. Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, Paper No. 26. PDF
much of Latin America, Europe and North America, homophobia is often
part of the socialization of boys. Boys are enjoined to act in certain
ways, or risk being stigmatized by being called gay. In this way,
homophobia is used as a way to reinforce prevailing norms on
gender-appropriate behavior. This appears to be somewhat less an issue
in Africa in that being a “real man” is not being not-gay, but more
about being not-woman, not-girl and not-child. In some cultural groups
in parts of Africa, a culturally recognized concept of same-sex
attraction does not exist, is denied or is repressed to the extent that
the problem is not so much homophobia as it is denial and lack of
familiarity with same-sex attraction. With a few notable
exceptions—South Africa being the most obvious one—there is not a
strong gay minority that has asserted its identity and created identity
politics in ways common to parts of Latin America, North America and
Europe. There may in fact be significant same-sex sexual attraction and
sexual encounters in Africa that are invisible or hidden precisely for
this reason... The limited research on same-sex attraction in Africa
shows that male-to-male sex is more common than assumed and that often,
young men might have sexual experiences with other men, without
necessarily considering themselves of a non-heterosexual orientation
(Kiama 1999). In this context of fear and social ostracism, there are
many men in Africa, as in many parts of the world, who live
“constitutionally homosexual and socially heterosexual” (Kiama 1999).
For example, a study in Senegal with men who have sex with men showed
that the vast majority had also had sex with women (Niang et al.
‘African Homosexuality’ Imagined: Doing Sexuality in Contested Spaces (2005):
During her time in the northern region of Mozambique, one Danish
anthropologist observed that unlike her own experiences learning about
women’s sexuality in a European, Christian context, sexualities were
openly discussed and expressed in Mozambique society. A woman’s
sexuality was something of her own, part of her personality and
identity as a woman, not defined in relation to, or ‘opened up’ by men.
Although these women were bound by the heterosexual norms and cultural
expectations of having a husband and children and playing the roles of
wife and mother, she discovered that there was a space for women to
have same-sex relationships where the lines between friendship and
lover were blurred... The women in northern Mozambique and Lesotho are
examples of same-sex relationships and sexualities located outside of
the “heterosexual norms in Africa.” These relationships were socially
and culturally accepted in Mozambique, and were celebrated by women and
their husbands in the Lesotho context, maybe because they existed
alongside women’s heterosexual relationships and were not disruptive to
the gender power system. However, we must hesitate to label these
relationships as homosexual relationships, especially in the Lesotho
context where the women themselves did not identify themselves as
lesbians or homosexual because “homosexuality is not a conceptual
category everywhere… and the kinds of sexual acts it is thought
possible to perform, and the social identities that come to be attached
to those who perform them, vary from one society to another”...
Field of Sexuality Studies: What Is It? (2004): Categories such as ‘heterosexual’ or ‘homosexual’ or ‘bisexual’ as defined in Western societies do not necessarily carry the same meaning elsewhere... With all these questions in mind, we were reminded of pre-colonial practices such as that of the Azande of Sudan, whose un-married warriors were once expected to take ‘boy wives’ from age-grades lower than themselves. How could we explain the ‘yan dandu cross-dressers amongst the Nigerian Hausa who have sex with men, or the seemingly bisexual gordjiguene, well known amongst the Wolof of Senegal? What about the practice of bukhontxana on the mines in South Africa or kunyenga amongst contemporary street-boys in Tanzania, are there no historical or cultural antecedents? As is the case throughout the world, increasing research on sexuality in Africa is showing that Africans have had, and continue to have a very rich and diverse experience of human sexuality... Acknowledging the Western and Victorian-era roots of the study of sexuality is important for imagining the future direction of this growing field. The historic legacy still impacts on the way we conceptualise, interpret and write about sexuality around the world. A good example here is the study of sexual exchange practices sometimes called ‘transactional sex’. Reference to the western-derived notion of ‘prostitution’ has provided the most common starting point for our research on this topic during the past quarter century. Exchanges where cash or kind are given in return for sexual favours have been largely conceived within the narrow confines of Victorian-inspired assumptions that link sex to money to immorality to social pathology. Today the term ‘prostitution’ conjures up all those historic meanings. For scholars like myself who try to write about contemporary sexual exchanges, especially in the African context of women’s poverty and economic dependence on men, we are greatly hampered by limited and inappropriate vocabulary that is the product of Victorian-era sexology. Such dilemmas should serve to alert us to the need for Afro-centric conceptual frames for understanding sexuality, and to motivate us to develop more culturally sensitive ways of engaging with sexual phenomena...
Homosexualité en Afrique Noire 2 (Translation):
manière générale, les rapports sexuels entre
les individus (femmes ou hommes) de même sexe ont un nom
générique en dehors des pratiques spécifiques dans
lesdits rapports. Cette réalité est ainsi
désignée dans certaines langues locales par : dan kashili
(haoussa), masu harka, mke-si-mume (kiswahili), kuswerana nk’imbwa,
kunonoka (kirundi), quimbandas. Le rôle sexuel ambivalent que ce
soit le rôle insertif ou réceptif à la fois
où à tour de rôle est aussi connu, il est alors
désigné dans d’autres langues omututa (wawihé).
Les relations interfémorales ne sont pas en reste, otjizenja
(wawihé). Cependant, tout cela ne permet toujours pas
d’établir un lien entre ces termes et l’homosexualité
identitaire. Dans une certaine mesure, il apparaît plutôt
que ce sont les homosexualités qui sont plutôt
désignés, plus précisément, la forme
« entendido » espagnole... « Homosexualité
» en Afrique : construction historique ...
Pratiques homosexuelles à travers les classes d’âge : les
jeux érotiques chez les jeunes garçons .... Les
premières expériences homosexuelles se font parmi les
garçons, parfois issus de la même famille, ce qui a pour
but d’accroître la confiance au sein des parties prenantes ...
« Homosexualité » dans les rites initiatiques ...
« Homosexualité » en l’absence d’hommes et/ou de
femmes ... - Homosexualité en Afrique Noire Mythe ou réalité ? (1) (Translation).Homosexualité en Afrique Noire (3) (Translation).
in Ancient Africa - references and citations given. - Boy
Wives and Female Husbands: Studies in African Homosexualities:
Homosexuality in “Traditional” Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South
Africa - Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Sudan -Mabasha
and Their Mashoga in Mombasa. - Interpreting Absence of Evidence and Assertions
of Absence (Nuer and Lango). - Spiritual Vocations in Western Africa. -
Hausa Roles. - Yoruba Exceptionalism: Antagonistic Acculturation? - A Sometimes
Lifelong ”Adolescent Phase” (Dahomey). - Gender-Crossing Wolof and Their
Neighbors. - The Kitesha Role Among the Bala - Other Central African Reports.
- Angola. - Wives of the South African Mines. - Contemporary Black South
Africa and Zimbabwe. - Relations Between Women. (Google Books) (Book
Review) (Review Essay) (Excerpts)
review by Gert Hekma par Gert Hekma, Université d'Amsterdam,
published in Thamyris). - Homosexuality has a fine history in Africa (2006). - Ces hommes qui aiment d’autres hommes (2001): PDF
Download N/A. - L'homosexualité en Afrique : sens et variations d'hirer à nos jours - Homosexualité en Afrique Noire Mythe ou réalité ? (2006, Translation). - Patriarchal Ideology and Discourses of Sexuality in Nigeria.Understanding Human Sexuality Seminar Series 2 (2004, PDF
Download). - L'homosexualité en Afrique : sens et variations d'hier à nos jours (2008, Translation). - African myths about homosexuality (2010).
Homosexuality in "Traditional" Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa: An overview by Stephen O. Murray (49 pages, PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download, in 2 paper sizes.) - Thanks to the efforts of a group of Norwegian researchers…: "... homosexual behaviour amongst members of a tribe in the north of Namibia, a tribe that has not been influenced by Christianity. In the same vein, the American psychologist Marc Carlson unearthed powerful evidence pointing towards similar practices amongst no less than 48 tribes in Zimbabwe. Not to mention the ubiquitous mineworker’s marriages, or the liberated sexual behaviour prevalent amongst followers of gang leader Nongoloza at the beginning of this century, or the traditionally sanctioned Venda system of female marriages, or the caresses that the young shepherds of the Botswana bushveld heap on each other….You see! - African Art: Traditional. - Homosexuality in Pre-Colonial and Ancient Africa. - Homosexuality in Prehistoric Africa. - Afrique: Quand l'homosexualité était rituelle (2010, Translation): Un sociologue explique comment, avant la colonisation, la sodomie était pratiquée dans les rites de passage de certaines ethnies. - Une histoire de l'homosexualité en Afrique est-elle possible ? (Translation). - L’homosexualité au Buganda, une acculturation peut en cacher une autre (1999, Translation)
Theory and Alternative Sexualities - 2004 - by Gaurav Desai: PDF
Download N/A: "I offer here a text that was first written as an Encyclopedia
entry on “homosexuality” in the context of African literary studies. This
short piece, along with my longer article “Out in Africa,” published in
the Journal Genders (25 : 120-143) in 1997, represents my initial attempts
to come to terms with discussions of alternative sexualities in the context
of African literary studies. In my opinion, a thorough discussion of the
complexities of the subject has yet to take place and there is much room
for dialogue and debate. My contribution here is offered in keeping with
that spirit... Thus, for instance, when someone suggests that there are
no “gays” or “queers” in Africa, it is well worth questioning whether or
not the reading of “gay” or “queer” in that suggestion is based on very
specific cultural practices that are, indeed, of western descent. But the
rejoinder to that observation must necessarily be that the question as
to whether or not there are “gay” and “queer” identified people in Africa
today (which increasingly there are), leaves untouched the historical and
ethnographic observation that a great range of homosexual practices have
indeed been recorded on the continent and that such practices continue
to articulate themselves albeit in forms modulated according to the changing
demands of African modernity. “Gay” and “Queer,” it must be remembered
are terms that specify a particular constellation of identities that are
both sexual as well as sociocultural. While they are predicated upon a
set of same-sex object choices they are not the necessary or inevitable
result of such behaviors. Indeed, one of the most significant aspects of
homosexuality in Africa is that in many cases the ndividuals who engage
in homosexual acts do not necessarily identify themselves as homosexuals.
Homosexual acts need not always translate into homosexual identities and
this makes discussions of African homosexuality all the more difficult..."
Mumbi Machera, Mumbi (2003). Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. In: Signe Arnfred, ed., Re-Thinking Sexualities in Africa, 157-170. PDF Download.
I raise the issue of homosexuality in class, students are up in arms.
They say "it is not African, that it is purely a Western development",
"our cultures do not condone such behaviours", "it is deviant
behaviour", and so on. I often ask them: "what would you do if your own
sister is ‘a lesbian’? Or if your brother chose to be gay?" This always
elicits another onslaught on me: "that is impossible!",
"it can’t happen!", "if it does, they will be cast out!", "I would advise them to go to America" ... the suggestions are endless - no compromise. What does this tell us? That the belief that heterosexuality is the only natural form of sexual expression is rooted in a cultural framework that defines heterosexuality as compulsory and homosexuality as deviant or pathological. ... In the course of writing this paper, the Daily Nation, a daily newspaper published in Kenya, put out an article entitled: "Bi-curious: An emerging trend." The article (published on November 17, 2001) addressed an "emerging breed of young Kenyan women who are choosing a different kind of sexual relationship - they love occasional dalliances with other women, which is considered a bit of fun". What I found very curious about the bi-curious girls is the difficulty they face in self-defining their new sexual identities. The girls interviewed reiterated that they are not lesbians; so what are they? They admitted having sexual intimacies with their girlfriends "but they do not consider these trysts as cheating on their boyfriends." The girls interviewed also said that they are not bisexual.
Behind the Mask, a non-profit website magazine on gay and lesbian affairs in Africa, was launched at 8 May 2000. This independent project of the Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (GALA) is funded by the Humanist Institution for Development Co-operation (HIVOS), the Heinrich Boehl Foundation and the Netherlands Institute on Southern Africa. - Internet Resources: GLBT information on Africa on a by country basis. - Behind the Mask - BBC Poll: Is homosexuality un-African? - Homosexuality: Is it "un-African"? (1999) - Coca-Cola, MacDonalds and homosexuals? "Is homosexuality African? If you inclined to believe Mugabe, Nujoma and some other Africans, homosexuality is yet another one of those perfidious Western vices. Yet there are many indications that even in Africa, homosexuality is as old as mankind itself. But the prison sentences do come from the West. The big question is whether the concept that homosexuality is un-African is correct. San -Bushmen- cave paintings at least two thousand years depict copulating men. Anthropologists in, for instance, Zimbabwe, describe various forms of sex between African men in the pre-colonial era. Experts in the field of Shona customary law note that relationships between men were not uncommon. In some cultures it was in fact expected of boys in puberty that they would experiment with each other. Especially in warrior cultures there would be sexual relationships between men..." - Etre homosexuel en Afrique: Behind the Mask, l’adresse des gays et lesbiennes du continent (Translation) (Alternate Link) (Translation).
La France reçoit les dirigeants africains, pas leurs victimes (2003, Translation): "Pour les homosexuelLES, il ne fait pas bon vivre en Afrique. A l’exception de la Côte d’Ivoire et de l’Afrique du Sud, la majorité des états mènent une politique discriminatoire et criminelle à l’encontre des gays, des lesbiennes et des transsexuelLES. MontréEs du doigt par des dirigeants soucieux de détourner l’attention de leur opinion publique des vrais problèmes et masquer leur propre incapacité à gouverner, les homosexuelLES africainEs sont victimes d’une vraie « chasse aux sorcières », et sont donnéEs en pâture aux extrémistes religieux désireux de rétablir l’ordre moral et de punir les comportements occidentaux, dont selon eux l’homosexualité fait partie. Alors que se tenait le sommet France-Afrique du 18 au 23 février 2003, voici un état des lieux des législations homophobes qui y règnent..."
and Lesbians in African Studies (GLAS) (To 2004, Mostly 1996-97) - Gays
& Lesbians in African Studies (GLAS) Mission (To 2004, Mostly 1996-97) - Statement
by the Black Radical Congress: African leaders hide political woes
behind homophobia (2001). - Homosexuality
in Africa: Opinions (2002, BBC). - Legal Status of Homosexuality
in Africa: 1998-1999 (2000) (Alternate Link): "In the past few months, gays and lesbians in Somalia,
Egypt, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Namibia and elsewhere in Africa have come under
attack because of their homosexuality..." - L’Homosexualité
en Afrique: entre tabous et haine (2004, Translation):
L’émission commence par un micro-trottoir avec cette question :
« Selon vous, pourquoi l’homosexualité reste encore un
tabou en Afrique ? » Les interviewés sont tous des «
Africains de Paris », ce qui leur vaudra d’ailleurs de la part de
l’un des invités quelques quolibets (fort discutables et
d’ailleurs discutés par le second invité) sur leur lien
réel avec l’Afrique dont certains se prévalent pour
‘Yan Daudu’ and Proud - Same-Sex Bonds Take Many Forms In Africa Today (1999): Marriages between women have been reported from over 30 ethnic groups across the continent, though some Africans warn against imposing a Western, sexual interpretation on what they argue is a series of social rather than sexual constructs. Today, in the north of Africa, it is unusual for women to live on their own. In most of the rest of the continent, women have greater freedom, but only in South Africa is it not unknown for two women to set up a household together. (Even there, it is usually only after they have had children and separated from their partners.) While Westerners insist that all desire be defined as homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual, African cultures allow for a variety of emotional bonds, as long as the traditions of family life are maintained. Thus, many African men see no contradiction between marriage to a woman and sex or love with men— while many studies show that women in Africa, as elsewhere, are often dissatisfied with the roles they must play. "In the West you have a particular line you have to follow until you come out as a happy homosexual," says Graeme Hendricks of the Triangle Project in Cape Town, South Africa. "Are we saying that any community where same-sex behavior is happening is underdeveloped because it doesn't identify as homosexual?".
Out of the closet, into the firing line (1997): "The issue of homosexuality tests the commitment of African states to a culture of human rights, argues Shaun de Waal. HOMOSEXUALITY as a social issue - and gay and lesbian rights as a political issue - has recently arisen several times in the region, raising controversy in Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana and Swaziland. It seems to be coming out of the closet all over the subcontinent, testing the commitment of post-liberation African regimes to a culture of human rights." - Desmond Tutu: "La homofobia es igual al apartheid" (2004, Translation). - L'Homosexualité en Afrique (2004, Translation). - Legal Status of Homosexuality in Africa (1998-99, Alternate Link): In Africa, homosexuality is illegal for gay men in 29 countries and for lesbian women in 20 countries. The legal status in many ways mirrors the widespread homophobia on the continent...
Nigerian Closet (2002): "As in many countries homosexuality remains an enormous taboo in Nigeria. Many gay men face intense social and family pressure. Homosexuality is regarded as a Western import but activists point out that it has always been an integral part of the culture. There are no laws regarding same sex relations between women, but lesbians have also suffered persecution. Producer Eric Beauchemin reports on the perils of being gay in Africa's most populous nation." - Homosexuality in Africa (2003): "African Anglican clerics are concerned that the appointment of a gay bishop could diminish the Church's standing in the eyes of local Muslims - with dangerous consequences for Christians... Transcript..."
‘Perversion’ Is a Right (1999): "There is one right that most southern Africans refuse to accommodate: The right to sexual preference. The norm is a man to a woman. The man to man or woman to woman is ‘perversion’. Those in authority say it is ‘unAfrican’ and evangelists religiously believe it works contrary to God’s intentions and therefore sinful." ... With all these moving statements, ‘perverts’ in Africa—especially in Zimbabwe—are overtly and constantly persecuted, have their homes raided, beaten while police watch idly. Even calls to respect their right to life go unheeded. But is homosexuality a crime? Edwin Sakala of the Zimbabwe Catholic Church replied when asked in 1995 that it was not. "The police are infringing homosexuals’ rights when they invade their homes..." Sakala advised, but in vain... Other observers ask: Why do we have persons claiming this right only now? The general consensus among critics is that homosexuality is cherished because of money and poverty. It is normally the poor being exploited, they say. However, others rightly point out that it has until now not been possible for most who would otherwise come open about their sexual preference largely because of fear of being persecuted.
Masango, Maake (2002). Homosexuality: A challenge to African churches. HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies, 58(3): 956-972. PDF
Download. Download Page. PDF
Globalization has brought numerous challenges to churches.
Homosexuality is one of those challenges facing African churches. There
has been a growing evidence of rejection, isolation, discrimination and
condemnation as sub-human of homosexuals. Some conservative churches
have misused Scripture in order to strengthen their case of
condemnation. This article seeks to correct the misinterpretation or
misuse of Scriptural passages. For example, Sodom and Gomorrah is often
referred to as a passage of Scripture to justify condemnation, while
this passage actually deals with judgment. Finally, the article
challenges churches to use a pastoral approach which should lead to a
healing ministering, especially to all of those who are isolated and
Corboz, Julienne (2008). Results of a Contextual Scoping Study: East Africa - Kenya and Uganda. PDF Download. Download Page.
the East African region of Kenya and Uganda, documented patterns of
discrimination and abuse persist on the basis of gender identity and
sexual identities. In general, victims of harm and disadvantage are
often the poorest and most marginalised in our societies and they are
already dealing with other layers of discrimination based on their
class, ethnicity, gender and disabilities. There is evidence that
“…dominant institutional discourses on sexuality and their attendant
effects on the issues that are being raised in East Africa with regards
to sex work, adolescent sexuality, sexual minorities, and HIV/AIDS have
seen a re-moralising of sexuality; and contributed to oppressive gender
ideologies and partial Africanist discourses that foreclose or limit
discussions and understandings about sexuality”.
Wood J, Simon S, Anmeghichean M (2007). LGBT Health and Rights in East Africa: A Snapshot of Successes and Challenges for the Advocacy Community. New York, New York: Open Society Institute Public Health Program. PDF
Download. Download Page.
The information is organized into five topics: Challenges to the LBGT
movement; LGBT groups operating in East Africa; reports and convenings
focusing on LGBT issues in Africa; potential opportunities for future
advocacy on LGBT issues; and recommended next steps for funders. We
hope this analysis will help donors develop strategies and
collaborations for supporting LGBT health and rights in the region...
Homophobia remains the overarching concern for LGBT activists....
Identity claims can result in dissension among LGBT persons. MSM and
bisexuals, for example, are considered in some circles to be outcasts
of the LGBT movement because they are “not really gay.” Those
considered most stigmatized within LGBT communities are sex workers of
any orientation who face added marginalization because of their
activities... Amidst this debate, one point of consensus was reached:
women (of any orientation or identity) are largely underserved and
overlooked within the broader LGBT “movement.” Numerous organizations
have chosen to separate men from women based either on the fact that
their needs are different or that the lower status of women creates an
added burden to already stigmatized groups... Apart from the myriad
social, cultural, and political barriers, LGBT groups identify a huge
need for resources and capacity-building support. Attempting to
organize around health and rights in a hostile environment without
materials and skills creates a situation ripe for burnout. Because of
the relatively small population of self-identified LGBT and MSM
persons, social circles overlap and relationships gone sour can affect
the level of support and cohesion within communities....
Oxfam (2010). Break Another Silence: Understanding Sexual Minorities and Taking Action for Sexual Rights in Africa. PDF
Download. Introduction -- 1. Basics Information about Sex, Gender & Sexuality: Human rights and sexual rights -- Do people choose their sexual orientation? - Some common beliefs. 2. Reactions to Sexual Minorities: In the past - - The situation now. 3. Sexual minorities and HIV programming. 4. Why are Civil Society Organisations working in Africa silent on sexual minorities and human rights? - - Conclusion: A Call to Break Another Silence.
The Rape of Men (2011): During his escape from the civil war in neighbouring Congo, he had been separated from his wife and taken by rebels. His captors raped him, three times a day, every day for three years. And he wasn't the only one. He watched as man after man was taken and raped... I've come to Kampala to hear the stories of the few brave men who have agreed to speak to me: a rare opportunity to find out about a controversial and deeply taboo issue. In Uganda, survivors are at risk of arrest by police, as they are likely to assume that they're gay – a crime in this country and in 38 of the 53 African nations. They will probably be ostracised by friends, rejected by family and turned away by the UN and the myriad international NGOs that are equipped, trained and ready to help women. They are wounded, isolated and in danger. In the words of Owiny: "They are despised." But they are willing to talk, thanks largely to the RLP's British director, Dr Chris Dolan. Dolan first heard of wartime sexual violence against men in the late 1990s while researching his PhD in northern Uganda, and he sensed that the problem might be dramatically underestimated. Keen to gain a fuller grasp of its depth and nature, he put up posters throughout Kampala in June 2009 announcing a "workshop" on the issue in a local school. On the day, 150 men arrived. In a burst of candour, one attendee admitted: "It's happened to all of us here."... Eleven rebels waited in a queue and raped Jean Paul in turn. When he was too exhausted to hold himself up, the next attacker would wrap his arm under Jean Paul's hips and lift him by the stomach. He bled freely: "Many, many, many bleeding," he says, "I could feel it like water." Each of the male prisoners was raped 11 times that night and every night that followed...
'Africagay', un nouveau réseau des gay d'Afrique francophone (2008, Translation):
Les anglophones disposant de leurs propres structures, le réseau
Africagay rassemble 18 associations de 10 pays francophones :
Burkina-Faso, Burundi, Cameroun, Mali, Maroc, Niger, Côte
d'Ivoire, République démocratique du Congo,
Sénégal, Tunisie, ainsi que des homosexuels africains
résidant en France. Note: Africagay seems to have died in 2009. Archives to the end of 2008.
African Success: people changing the face of Africa. - Africa at large: Website honours Africa’s gay heroes
(2008): A new website honouring African success stories has asked the
public to assist in identifying remarkable individuals from Africa’s
gay community who have contributed to positive developments on the
continent. The first biographies of Africa's gay heroes to appear on
the site are those of Supreme Court Judge Edwin Cameron, Treatment
Action Campaign founder Zackie Achmat and Simon Nkoli, gay rights and
anti-apartheid activist who died of Aids in 1998..
Gay Life In Africa Exposed: Videos: Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 1/5 (2010). - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 2/5. - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 3/5. - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 4/5. - Africa's taboo - Homosexuality 5/5. -- Gay Africa, Part 1. - Gay Africa, Part 2. - Gay Africa, Part 3. - Gay Africa, Part 4. - Gay Africa, Part 5. - Gay Africa, Part 6. - Gay Africa, Part 7. - Gay Africa, Part 8. - Gay Africa, Part 9. - Gay Africa, Part 10. - Gay Africa, Part 11. - Frontline Club: Homosexuality in Africa (2011, Alternate Link).
The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Black Images). - The Power of Culture Special: Cinema in Africa - South African Queer Cinema Exposes Double Standards. - Out In Africa (2011): South African Gay and Lesbian Film Festival 2009. Archives.
Africa (To 2001). - Books
on homosexuality in Africa (To 2001). - GLBTQ:
African Art: Traditional. - GLBTQ:
African Literatures. - GLBTQ:
Africa: Sub-Saharan, Pre-Independence. - Bibliography:
GLBT people in Africa (1988-1992). - Bibliography on Sexuality - 3 Parts (To 2003, Alternate Link). - Interactive bibliography on same-sex issues in Africa (To 2004). - Bibliography: Homosexuality in Africa.
Book to document experiences of African LBT women: In its mission to educate policy makers about the existence of LBT women in Africa and to tackle the myth that homosexuality is unAfrican, The Coalition of African Lesbians (CAL) is planning to publish a book that will document lived experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women in the continent... The book is scheduled to be published in 2008 in South Africa through Jacana books...
Resources: - (Global Gayz): - Africa general: News/Report. Africa by Country News. - Africa GLBTI News Items. - African Veil: Countries Covered. - Queer Afrol News. - Jeune Afrique: Homosexualité: Articles. Jeune Afrique: Homosexualité: Articles. - Homosexuels en Afrique et VIH: L'épidémie cachée: Articles (Translation).
- Rapporto Africa (1998-1999). - NetGai:
Afrique. - theGully.com
news & Articles: Africa (2000-2006).
- Gay and Lesbian
Archives of South Africa (Archive Link, Old Site, to 2008). - Some
links about being Gay in Africa. - QRD (1992-1998).
- Pridelinks. - Africa: GLBT Resources. - African Activist: Amplifying Africa's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) Voices. - African Gay Youth Foundation:
Emancipation, Diversity & Inclusion! The African Gay Youth
Foundation is a Community based organization that provides support to
the LGBT Community of African origin living not only in the Netherlands
but in the Diaspora (worldwide). - Nubian Knights Network.
MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: Middle East & North Africa: - Algeria. - Bahrain. - Egypt. - Iran. - Iraq. - Israel. - Jordan. - Kuwait. - Lebanon. - Lybia. - Mauritania. - Morocco. - Occupied Palestinian Territory. - Oman. - Qatar. - Saudi Arabia. - Sudan. - Syria. - Tunisia. - Turkey. - United Arab Emirates. - Yemen. - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Angola. - Benin. - Botswana. - Burkina Faso. - Burundi. - Cameroon. - Cape Verde. - Central African Republic. - Chad. - Comoros. - Congo. - Côte d'Ivoire. - Democratic Republic of the Congo. - Djibouti. - Equatorial Guinea. - Eritrea. - Ethiopia. - Gabon. - Gambia. - Ghana. - Guinea. - Guinea-Bissau. - Kenya. - Lesotho. - Liberia. - Madagascar. - Malawi. - Mali. - Mauritius. - Mayotte. - Mozambique. - Namibia. - Niger. - Nigeria. - Réunion. - Rwanda. - Saint Helena. - Sao Tome and Principe. - Senegal. - Seychelles. - Sierra Leone. - Somalia. - South Africa. - Swaziland. - Tanzania. - Togo. - Uganda. - Zambia. - Zimbabwe.
Books: - Defiant Desire : Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa - 1995 - by Mark Gevisser & Edwin Cameron (Eds) (Review). - The Invisible Ghetto : Lesbian & Gay Writing from South Africa - 1995 - by Matthew Krouse (Ed). - The Spirit of Intimacy: Ancient Teachings in the Ways of Relationships - 1999 - by Sobonfu E. Somé (Amazon) - Book Section: - Homosexuality: The Gatekeepers. - Moffies: gay life in Southern Africa - 2000 - by Bart Luirink (Review) (Abstract) (Amazon). - Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities - 1998 - edited by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (Google Books). (Review, Alternate Link) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Amazon). - Tommy Boys, Lesbian Men, and Ancestral Wives: Female Same-Sex Practices in Africa - 2006 - by Ruth Morgan, Saskia Wierenga (Google Books) (Related Information) (Review) (Book Launch). - African Masculinities: men in Africa from the late 19th century to the present - 2005 - edited by Lahoucine Ouzgane, Robert Morrell (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Unspoken Facts. A History of Homosexualities in Africa - 2008 - edited by Marc Epprecht (Review). - Islam and homosexuality, Volume 1 - 2010 - by Samar Habib (Google Books). - Islam and Homosexuality, 2 Volume Set - 2009 - edited by Samar Habib. - Homosexuality in Islam: Islamic Reflection on Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims - 2009 - by Scott Alan Kugle (Google Books). - Sida et homosexualité(s) en Afrique. Analyse des communications de prévention (Translation) - 2009 - de Charles Gueboguo (Review, Translation). - Sida et sexualité en Afrique - 2000 - by Daniel Vangroenweghe (Google Books, Translation).
Searching for Free Papers & Abstracts / Reports / Presentations / Articles on the Internet
Search Engines & Directories: - Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN
Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer
Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.
Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal. - Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. - findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com.
Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers). eScholarship Repository: University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries. - NTUR, National Taiwan University. - Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. - UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory.
Search for Free Articles, Papers or Reports: FindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. - NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere. The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.
Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project
Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.
Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses, Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.