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GHANA -  A Note from Ghana to Homosexuals: “Go Elsewhere” (2011): As you pass through immi­gra­tion at Accra Inter­na­tional Air­port, before you reach the bag­gage claim, there is a sign which reads “Wel­come!!  Akwaaba!!”  in large let­ter­ing at the top.  The tone of the seem­ingly friendly sign changes abruptly, how­ever, when you read the note high­lighted in red below the greet­ing: “Ghana does not wel­come pae­dophiles and other sex­ual deviants.”  The sign then pro­ceeds to assert that Ghana “imposes extremely harsh penal­ties on such sex­u­ally aber­rant behav­ior,” and that if you hap­pen to be one of these sex­ual deviants, then you should “go else­where” for “everybody’s good.” In Ghana, “sex­u­ally aber­rant behav­ior” includes homo­sex­u­al­ity, and for that mat­ter any kind of sex­u­al­ity other than het­ero­sex­u­al­ity.  Homo­sex­u­al­ity is socially and legally unac­cept­able in Ghana.  It is lumped together with bes­tial­ity in Sec­tion 104 of Ghana’s crim­i­nal code, oth­er­wise known as the “Unnat­ural Car­nal Knowl­edge” law.  The law defines unnat­ural car­nal knowl­edge as “sex­ual inter­course with a per­son in an unnat­ural man­ner or with an ani­mal.”  - Ghana:- Reggae star Blakk Rasta says being gay is "a mental/genetic disorder" (2011). - Ghana Drive to Limit Same-Sex Marriage Paves way for Gay Criminalization (2010). - Gay rights activist spreads his message in Ghana (2010).

Gay Life in Ghana--In Danger and In the Closet (2003-2011). - Coming out in Africa - or staying in (2004): In Ghana, a culture of silence exists around same-sex love, and Europeans and Americans are sometimes accused of enticing the locals to break their contradictory taboos. - One percent of Ghanaians are gay or lesbian (2011): More than 200,000 people or one per cent of Ghana's adult population regard themselves as gay or lesbian, according a study. - Catholic Bishops Condemn Pedophilia, Homosexuality in Country (2009). - GEC condemns attempts to promote homosexuality (2010): The Global Evangelical Church (GEC) has appealed to the government not to yield to the pressures to promote cultures that were inimical to the moral and spiritual health of Ghanaians in the name of human right. - Anglican Church in Ghana Condemns Homosexuality at Synod Meeting (2010). - Homosexuality gaining grounds in Ghana as two men wed in Kumasi (2011).

Homophobia in Ghana (Homophobia Plagues Africa) (2010): Monday’s statements by a prominent Ghanaian activist provide further evidence of the alarming homophobia that is sweeping across Africa.  Ms. Bernice Sam, National Programme Coordinator of WiLDAF (Women in Law and Development) in Ghana argued publicly for the Constitution Review Commission to limit Ghana’s definition of marriage to include heterosexual couples only.  Ms. Sam then went even further.  She was quoted as saying that it will be “almost impossible for the act of homosexuality to be considered criminal” if the constitution is not reworded in this way. These statements are just the most recent addition to a growing fervor of discrimination, paranoia, and hatred directed at sexual minorities in Africa.

John Dumelo Slammed In Nigeria For Acting In Gay Movie (2010): The film is entitled “Men In Love.” It features scenes where top Enugu-based actor Muna Obiekwe is romancing and hitting the back side of Ghana top actor John Dumelo who is facing down on the bed without any string of inner wears. In a larger way, the movie depicts how Muna goes about chasing any man and is ready to give anything to get them. While it will be explained to be a make believe, people are wondering the kind of lesson that the movie will teach the public, as it shows how a man can find delight in a fellow man. - Ghanaian Actor John Dumelo Denies Being Gay (2010). - John Dumelo Cries Foul “I Am Not Gay, Homosexuality Is Evil” (2010). - Ghana's Challenges With Homosexuality (2010).

Gay rights are human rights: Ghana's laws do not prohibit homosexuality! - Homosexuality In Ghana: An Increasing Growth In Numbers (2011): On the 1st of September 2006, Mr. Kwamena Bartels, Minister of Information in the Kufuor government, warned that government would like to make it absolutely clear that it would not permit a proposed gay conference anywhere in Ghana. He explained that unnatural carnal knowledge is illegal under the criminal ode in Ghana. Homosexuality, lesbianism and bestiality are, therefore, offences under the law... But attitudes are changing in Ghana too. Not long ago, there were no gay clubs, organisations, activities, etc. in our country. But now there are many with university students leading the way. Ghanaian youth have a more favourable attitude to gays than the old – the same trend found in other countries too. But it is today still difficult for prominent Ghanaian gays to come out and a politician who is known to be gay will never be voted for. - More men sleep with men (2009, Alternate Link).

Ghana’s gays condemn anniversary celebrations (2007): The 50 years anniversary milestone achievement of independence on 6 March this year in Ghana did not as such mean anything to homosexuals in that country... MacDonald’s political stance is assuring in that as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) leader, he also poses a challenge at the corruption turf of government. He used the day as the opportunity to confront corrupt officials saying they’re worse than colonials. .  - No to gay lesbian conference in Ghana (2006). - Male prostitutes practice openly in Accra (2008): Homosexual prostitutes, who were hitherto said to be operating under cover, have now hit the streets of Accra openly soliciting for men, The Mirror investigations have revealed. The gay harlots operate in and around Adabraka, especially the area around Henri's Place, a popular spot at Adabraka Official Town, known for hosting earring wearing men, suspected to be homosexuals. The homosexual prostitutes also operate in and around Osu and La.

Opinion: A Ghanian take on homosexuality (2007):  It is an extraordinary reflection on Ghanaian culture that as I sit and write this article, I have yet to speak, let alone see, a homosexual person. It is not difficult to understand why this might be the case in the backdrop of a society where religious creed reigns large and where, as Afrol News reports: "Unnatural carnal knowledge of any person," which is interpreted as homosexuality by Ghanian judges, "is a sexual offense comparable with bestiality, assault and rape in the criminal code… a relic of repressive British sodomy laws from the colonial age." While homosexuality is officially banned under Ghanaian law, the right to organize and form groups has allowed for a gay rights organization to take root. In an August 2007 Afrol News report, Prince MacDonald, the leader of one such group, commented on the plight of the homosexual in Ghana. "The police beat and punish people who are found to be gays… in our communities when found, you are treated as an outcast or lowered to beatings from people who call themselves straight," he said.

Media leads anti-gay witch-hunt (2006, Alternate Link). - Homosexuals and Lesbians in the Ghanaian Society (2006): There is no denying the fact that the practice in many mixed or even single-sex boarding schools where senior students sleep with junior students they call their sons and daughters or even where students at the same level frequently make intimate passes at one another. The problem with the Ghanaian system is that terminologies such as “gay, “homosexual,” or “lesbian,” had not caught on with the Ghanaian system, thus, in the mental dictionary, discussions bordering on recent developments have not been given the treatments they have been. If we will be honest with ourselves, such practices have gone on since Adam and because in the past there were not many media activities going on in some areas of the country, such practices were not reported and even when people were seen or caught in such acts, society quickly swept it under the carpet. With increasing level of education due to easy access to information in newspapers, and the internet, these terminologies have been common to the Ghanaian so when a Ghanaian sees two people in any intimate relationship, they know they are homosexuals or gay... - Ghana's secret gay community: (2007, Alternate Link) In deeply religious Ghana, homosexuality is seen as an imported foreign lifestyle choice and a moral aberration. Last year, a proposed gay and lesbian conference was banned. "Ghanaians are unique people whose culture, morality and heritage totally abhor homosexual and lesbian practices and indeed any other form of unnatural sexual acts," Information Minister Kwamena Bartels said in a statement banning the conference... There are gay bars in Accra and some organisations do work with the gay community, raising awareness about HIV/Aids, but mostly their work is underground...

MSM Research in Ghana: Revealing the Pandora Box or Playing the Ostrich? A Situational Appraisal of Men Having Sex With Men in The Accra Metropolitan Area and its Environs (2004).  Key Findings: MSM is real in Ghana with Ghanaians fully involved.  It is not a recent phenomenon being visited on Ghana and Ghanaians by ‘whites’ or foreigners. The youth is actively being drawn into it and most of them at a very young age by their peers and older colleagues and relatives. MSM in Ghana cuts across all social classes, religions, ethnicity and married men are involved. It is practically happening everywhere, particularly where people gather for celebrations and merry making in urban areas and in places most people will least suspect. There are many prevailing factors that make MSM attractive particularly to the youth including adventure seeking, poverty, ignorance, lure of older gays looking for partners and the belief that anal sex is safer than vaginal sex. Public’s reaction to gays and homosexuality, has driven it underground creating a safe haven for people to practise and making it difficult for services to be rendered to them. - Related article: Fighting HIV in Ghana requires addressing homosexuality (2004).  - Gay and Lesbian Health Initiative Launches in Africa (2005): Bold new program aims to help those who not only have few resources, but are also turned away from health providers... Recognizing that sexual minorities in developing countries often face a double setback from lack of resources and discrimination in accessing healthcare, the Health Equity Project (HEP), a New York based nonprofit group, has launched a new initiative to assist gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT) and commercial sex worker populations in the West African country of Ghana. HEP plans to expand the program to other African countries...

MSM and HIV in Ghana (2004, Overview/Contents):  1. Background. - 2. Literature Review. -  3. Findings: 3.1 Background of Respondents. - 3.2 Areas of Operation / Known MSM Sites. - 3.3 Factors Influencing MSM in Ghana. - 3.4 STI/HIV/AIDS and MSM. - 3.5 Health Problems Associated with MSM. - 3.6 Bridging from Bisexual Men to Women. - 4. Conclusions and Recommendations. - 5. Appendix: Terms, Survey, References. - 6. Acknowledgements. - 7. Abbreviations and Acronyms. ...MSM and HIV in Ghana: Influencing Factors (2004): For love and money: Respondents engage in MSM for a number of reasons. Some of these include: Pleasure Versus Economic Reasons. The role played by money in MSM cannot be over-emphasised. A total of 137 respondents or 91.3% engage in MSM for pleasure while 80 or 53.3% do it for economic reasons, even though only 2 or 1.3% regard themselves as commercial sex workers. Almost half of the respondents (71 or 47.3%) do it both for pleasure and for economic reasons... Some 56 respondents or 37.3% do it for pleasure only, 6 or 4.0% do it for economic reasons only and a small number 4 or 2.7% find themselves in it neither for money nor fun. - Ghana: HIV/AIDS Hrealth Profile (2010):  Sex workers and their clients are most-at-risk populations in Ghana and drive the country’s epidemic. Female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) contribute disproportionately to the number of new infections... According to UNAIDS, a study conducted in three prisons in Nsawam and Accra revealed high HIV prevalence among inmates (19 percent), the most likely cause of which was sex between men, followed by injecting drug use. At 8.5 percent, HIV prevalence was also high among officers at the prisons.

Case Study: CEPEHRG and Maritime, Ghana: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been neglected in HIV programming in sub-Saharan Africa, frequently ignored in national strategies and hidden in the face of intolerance, stigmatization, and punitive laws. In Ghana, community-based organizations (CBOs) have been at the forefront of HIV interventions for MSM. Among the small number of CBOs working with this highly vulnerable population are the Accra-based Center for Popular Education and Human Rights, Ghana (CEPEHRG) and Maritime Life Precious Foundation (Maritime) in Takoradi. With the support of PEPFAR, these two organizations have been part of much-needed efforts to reach MSM with prevention messages, condoms, and lubricant and to increase uptake of HIV-related services using cell phone-based communications... Many African MSM are surprised to discover that the sex they have with other men puts them at risk for acquiring the virus. The media and most prevention programming in the region consistently describe HIV vulnerability in terms of heterosexual risk, and many African MSM do not realize that they too are vulnerable. The few programs that do target this population face significant challenges in reaching MSM with the information and services they need. Ghana, which like its neighboring states condemns homosexuality, is distinguished from most countries in sub-Saharan Africa by the level of activity addressing HIV among MSM. With the support of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), groundbreaking HIV programming for MSM has been developed in the country. Although the Ghanaian government has not publicly embraced these efforts, officials have also not prevented the development of these interventions despite the legal prohibition of homosexual behavior.

They Are Able To Speak To Us More Freely” - Cell Phone Technology Supports Stigma Reduction And Increased CT Uptake Among MSM In Ghana. HIV/AIDS Implementers’ Meeting Windhoek, Namibia ~ June 12, 2009 - by Lydia G. Clemmons: PPT Presentation.

Gay in Ghana: From gay-bashings to AIDS (2004). - Gay Rights Dawn in Ghana: Faced with prison or blackmail, queers begin to organize (2003). - Ghana's gays organise to fight British criminal law (2005, Alternate Link). - Ghanaian Rule: Gays Be Silent (2003, Alternate Link). - Is Ghana Ready for Gay Rights? (2004, Alternate Link) - Ghana: Gay 'Rights' is an Affront to Public Interest (2007). - Gay in Ghana? (2006) - Media Leads Anti-Gay Witch-Hunt (2006).

Homosexuality in Ghana  (Access to Articles - 2003 to the Present): Why are Ghanaian women switching men for women? - Same Sex Wedding Held In Kumasi. - One percent of Ghanaians are gay or lesbian. - The Woes Of A Lesbian Ghanaian Woman. - GEC condemns attempts to promote homosexuality. - Gays have rights, they must be respected - Lithur. - Thousands Attend First Anti-gay Protests In Ghana. Gays, Lesbians Go Gospel. - Gays and lesbians invade Takoradi. Ghana's laws do not prohibit homosexuality - Law lecturer. - Gays To Boycott Elections? - Sodomy Cases Rise In Prisons - British sodomite to be deported. - Opinion: A Ghanian take on homosexuality. - Gays persecuted by criminal legislation in Ghana. - Gay Prostitutes Invade Accra. - Lesbian In Ghana To Lobby. - Gays address Kufuor in UK. - Ghanaian gays to meet Kufuor. - ‘Fa wo to begye sika’ syndrome rises. - 62% of Ghanaian Gays indulge in heterosexual activities. - Lesbians Meet In Accra. - Gays Target Kufuor's UK visit. - Gays Demostrate Against Ghana. - Stiff Opposition for Gays, Lesbians in Ta'di. - Gay leader asks: What is Ghanaian culture? - Gay Laws in Ghana And Around the World. - Thank You, Mr President. - Apostle Appiah's Take On The Lesbian-Gay Syndrome. - E/R Residents Rage Over Gays, Lesbians Issue. - The conference that never was! - Ordination of gay Anglican Bishops.  - 'Ghana cannot comment'- Gay Conference At Legon? = Ghana To Endorse Gay & Lesbian Practices? - Homosexuality in Ghana: The Great 'Coming out'- Presbyterian Church condemns homosexuality. - Why Should Kufuor Peep Into Our Bedrooms. - Ghanaian gay leader attacks media. - Charismatic churches support ban on homo conference. - Chief Imam supports homo conference ban. - Homosexuality: The Last Ghanaian Taboo? - Christian Council calls for aluta. - Muslims hail decision to stop homo conference. - Is it illegal to use a 'sex toy' in Ghana? - Research Showed Homosexuality Is Real In Ghana. - Gays Meet Opposition In Ghana. - Govt bans International Homo Conference. - Proposed gay conference still sketchy. - Is Homosexuality Really New In Ghana? - Ghana's gays battle AIDS underground. - Ghana Gay and Lesbian group concerned. - Gay, lesbianism against God's purpose for marriage - Bishop. - Students dismissed for homosexuality. - Ghana's gays organise to fight British criminal law. - CHRAJ Won't Advocate Gay Rights - Short. - Anglican Church Opposed to Any Form of Unnatural Carnal Behaviour. - Study Shows Homosexuality Hits High in Tema, Eastern Regions.

The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Returned Peace Corps Volunteers Web Pages: - Has Cher Come Out with Anything New? (1995): I felt the session was incredibly successful in that it opened up discourse on sexual orientation. The audience was extremely interested in the results of the questionnaire. Basically, the results indicated that the respondees perceived homosexuality as unacceptable behavior. 59% said they would feel uncomfortable about discussing it and 30% said they would refuse to discuss it entirely. This reflects the general climate in the country concerning the issue. Only two Ghanaian trainers didn't return the questionnaire. After my session, there was no difference in my interaction with the Ghanaians. This year I have handed out a slightly different questionnaire and have been involved in the entire training process. While it is apparent that my Ghanaian colleagues don't approve of homosexuality, I see it as a somewhat passive disapproval... This is not to say I would feel comfortable proclaiming my sexuality to the people in my town. But in contrast to a fellow volunteer who served in the West Indies, I have been fortunate enough to discuss homosexuality with some host country nationals without feeling any danger.  - Friends of Dorothy: A letter from Ghana (1998): I do not know if he recognized my Freedom Rings (Accra is a remarkably cosmopolitan city) or made assumptions about my long hair, which is a novelty to the Ghanaians. People will often reach out from nowhere just to stroke it. But I was thrilled to meet my first gay Ghanaian. The Ghanaian trainers in Salt Pond said at first that homosexuality does not exist in Ghana. When pressed, they conceded that it does exist in the larger cities, but insisted it was unheard of in the villages. In fact I had been in my very small, very rural village less than 24 hours after training was over when I had unambiguous advances made: middle finger scratching my palm during a hand shake, combined with eye contact and body language, and repeated requests that I visit the man’s house. He made similar advances again recently. I offered no response on either occasion, both because I do not find him so attractive and because I am frightened at the potential dangers of having a relationship in the village. At the same time I would like to ask him what it’s like to be gay here..

 Come for Two Years, Stay for Four (2002): It’s not that it was easy being a gay volunteer in Ghana. It was bloody difficult most of the time. I didn’t try to hide my sexual identity (much to my trainers’ chagrin during pre-service training), but there weren’t a lot of opportunities to be open about it either. There were people in my school and my community who knew. Whether they spread the word to everybody else I never knew and didn’t really care. - Finding Acceptance in Ghana (2009): No matter how tight our bond grew, I never shared one of my personal struggles with Maame. I joined the Peace Corps suspecting that I was gay, and with every intention of using my time in Ghana to come to terms with and accept my sexuality. After a year I came out to my fellow PCVs, who were supportive, and the Peace Corps Medical Officer, who advised me not to come out to any Ghanaians. She informed me that several LGBT PCVs who chose to come out to Ghanaians in the past had been molested or abused. That was enough to convince me to come out only to Americans. I spent the remainder of my service living the typical LGBT PCV double life, being open with Americans and closeted with Ghanaians. As time went on, I started having conversations with Ghanaians about LGBT rights, painted murals throughout the village featuring pink triangles and the Human Rights Campaign logo, and even flirted with a Ghanaian man who I thought, under a different set of cultural norms, might be openly gay. Even though I never came out to any Ghanaians in my village, I was pushing the envelope and life was good.

A Post N/A: - Let me not skirt around the issue here: Guys, when you travel to Africa, PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE do not treat the men like they are sex machines that are only there for your gang-banging jungle-fever fantasy. These are real human beings with feelings and a desire to be treated with respect and humanity. I have heard stories from my friends in Africa about the disgusting chats and vulgar requests and demeaning treatment inflicted by crass unthinking gays from the West. This only reinforces the poor image of gays throughout Africa. When people live in such crushing poverty, yes, they will do just about anything for money. It is offensive and morally wrong to exploit people because of this. If the words you type are not words you would say to a person's face, then they are not good words. When having sex chat with a guy in Ghana, the offer for group sex may be made relatively quickly. This is a learned behavior due to all the requests from Western gays. One of my friends there once stated to me very matter-of-factly that all Westerners like group sex because this is all they ask for online. While I have enjoyed group things too, please act in a culturally sensitive manner when chatting with people from other cultures. Sometimes I am embarassed to be a gay knowing how some guys are online... - Sex tourism as potential contributor to transmission of HIV/AIDS; case study of boys who have sex with men in Ghana (2002).

Cobbinah, Mac-Darling (2011). Because of You”: Blackmail and Extortion of Gay and Bisexual Men in Ghana. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 60-73. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Ghana: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

Mark S Luckie Articles (Access Page): - Somewhere over the rainbow: Homosexuality is considered evil and disgraceful to many Ghanaians and any public display of affection or accusation could mean swift arrest and jail time under Ghanaian law.- Gay for pay: Ghanaians are known for their enterprising spirit and using their resources to sustain themselves financially. For some men that means selling the only resource they have—their bodies.- Mixed messages: Homosexuality is illegal in the Ghana and many in the country blame gays for the spread of HIV/AIDS, yet there is no government agency that directly targets the prevention of the disease within the gay community.- Multimedia: Ghana's HIV advertisements: A look at the AIDS advertisements in Ghana and how they lead many gay men and women to believe HIV/AIDS is a heterosexual disease..

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by CountryGhana. Ghana Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Ghana. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - news & Articles: Africa. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has allowed countries to bring their response to HIV/AIDS to an unprecedented scale, resulting in innovative projects that reach otherwise underserved communities with HIV prevention, treatment, and care. But in regions and countries where sex workers, men who have sex with men, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons are criminalized or stigmatized, organizations that are led by or work with these groups face challenges participating in Global Fund processes and accessing funding. This article explores the potential of the Global Fund to create space for the participation of these groups in decision-making and to increase their access to resources; examines barriers that hinder their participation; and proposes measures to overcome them.

Global Gayz: Africa: Ghana News Reports from 2000 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Ghana. - LGBT rights in Ghana. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Ghana Individual Documents since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Gay and Lesbian Association of Ghana. - Gay and Lesbian Association of Ghana (GALAG, To 2007-2008). - MSM: West Africa Aids Foundation (Ghana) (To 2008). - Gay Ghana Online Community.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Ghana.

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