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Grad Seminar - "Design and Implementation of Maliciously Secure Two-Party Computation Based on Garbled Circuits"

Date & Time:
June 13, 2017 | 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm
Location:
ICT 618B
Speaker:
PhD Candidate, Arash Afshar

Abstract:

In this thesis we design and implement three approaches to provide efficient Secure Two-Party Computation (2PC) protocols that are secure in presence of malicious adversaries. The field of secure two-party computation enables two mutually distrusting parties, each with their own private input, to run a computation of an arbitrary program. At the end of the computation, nothing about their private input is leaked except for what can be learned from the output of the computation. The seminal work of Yao in 1986 provided the first proof that such a computation is feasible using the so called garbled circuits and given an Oblivious Transfer protocol.

In this thesis, we follow Yao's garbled circuit approach and focus on efficient protocols that are secure against malicious adversaries. We examine three different categories of optimization. In each category, we present a 2PC protocol, prove its security, and implement it as a proof of concept to demonstrate its practicality.

  • Non-interactive Secure Computation: In this category, we offer the first efficient malicious 2PC protocol that reduces the required rounds of interaction between the two parties to only two rounds (i.e., each party sends only one message to the other party).
  • Mixed Secure Two-Party Computation: In the second category we target big and complex programs and break them into subprograms. Then, we compute each subprogram using the most efficient 2PC protocol that is suitable for it. Finally, we securely connect these subprograms together. The goal is to reduce the overhead of the garbled circuits significantly, which results in a more efficient overall 2PC protocol.
  • Secure Computation for Random Access Machine Programs: In the third category, we target programs that require random access to the memory (as opposed to a sequential access). We present the first efficient maliciously-secure protocol for computing such programs.