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Page Index: Tanzania (Zanzibar) - Burundi

TANZANIA (Zanzibar, Below) -  Tanzania Film Censorship Board Bans Films "Promoting Homosexuality." (2011, Alternate Link). - Tanzania: Ministry Bans Films ‘Promoting Homosexuality’ (2011, Alternate Link). - Tanzania: Arbitrary Arrests and Detentions of Gay and Lesbian Activists (2009). - Gay marriages a violation of Tanzanian laws (2007): In Tanzania the Penal Code makes it an offence to either have carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature or to permit a male person to have carnal knowledge of him or her against the order of nature. - Zanzibar Outlaws Gay, Lesbian Sex. - A small survey of LGBT people in Dar es Salaam (2004). - Not at all so hard-to-reach: same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam (2012).

Not at all so hard-to-reach: same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam (2011): Based on research in Tanzania, this paper critically examines the widely circulating notion that African same-sex attracted men are hard-to-reach individuals and populations. Despite expectations to the contrary, it was neither time consuming nor difficult to identify and get to know same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam. On the contrary, a large and diverse group of such men could readily be encountered, befriended and involved in HIV-related research. The fieldwork was characterised by communicative openness and the researcher was treated with immense kindliness, hospitality and inclusivity...

Homosexuality on the rise, say Muslim clerics (2005): Youth homosexuality is on the rise along east Africa's Indian Ocean coast and must be stopped, a Muslims clerics' meeting in Tanzanian's semi-autonomous island of Zanzibar said on Thursday... On Zanzibar, lawmakers last April amended the penal code to specifically outlaw sexual acts between men and to impose lengthy jail terms for men convicted of seducing boys under the age of 18. They prescribed a maximum of 25 years in prison for male partners found having sex and seven years for lesbian sexual acts. Despite the harsh penalties, the clerics complained that homosexuality had resurfaced on Zanzibar and further afield, heaping much of the blame on foreign, mainly western, tourists who holiday there. And despite the laws, they lamented that it was difficult to successfully prosecute alleged homosexuals in court, suggesting that alternate methods of preventing the practise might have to be found.

Gay priest in dar es salaam court: The Kinondoni District court passed the sentence after finding John Paul (39) guilty of sodomising his "partner" for the period of eight months. In mitigation, the partner, a 16 years old boy, agreed that they have been having sex for that period and that he never really reported the incident to anyone... The prosecution lined up five witnesses who told the court that they knew of the above mentioned affair with the boy for a long time. Although the age of consent in Tanzania is 16, section 154 to 157 of the Penal Code describes homosexuality, or sexual acts between two men, as criminal with a maximum penalty of up to 14 years' imprisonment. - A group of four men accused of killing a gay man in Zanzibar charged with murder (2005).

Tanzanian gays and lesbians are mobilising (2000). - Tanzania: Deported for being gay and Homosexuality in Tanzania N/A (1999). - Deported for being gay (2000). - LGBT group opens office in Dar es Salaam (2000). - Anti-Gay Protest Targets Gay Tourists (2003). - Hundreds protest cancelled visit of gay tourists N/A (2003, Alternate Link). - Tanzanie : Un évêque se distancie des propos homophobes de ses pairs Anglicans (2007, Translation).

'Nasty' cardinal prompts gay wedding N/A (2000, Alternate Link): Earlier this year, the archbishop of Dar es Salaam, Cardinal Polycarp Pengo, hit out at homosexuality, saying it was one of the most heinous sins on earth. "God said people should bear children to fill the world. How can a sexual relationship between two men, or two women for that matter, fill the world? ... - The gay Muslim marriage in Tanzania (2000). - As South Africa Approves Homosexual 'Marriage' , Tanzania Reaffirms Stand for Traditional Marriage (2006). - Gay question is ‘not central to faith’ says Tanzanian bishop (2007): Bishop Mdimi goes on: “We live in our cultural context where gays and lesbians are regarded as criminals, punishable by long-term imprisonments. We also live in a country where gays and lesbians are violently persecuted, mistreated, hated, and ostracised. . . We as Black Africans know the hurts and permanent damage caused by our past experiences, which still linger on to the present. . . We have gone through that, and we don’t want to go that way again.” The Bishop concludes that the issue of homosexuality “is not fundamental to the Christian faith, although many try to make it that way”. He also writes that although the House of Bishops’ statement carries weight, it “does not express the will and wishes of the whole Anglican Church of Tanzania”..

Homosexuality in Tanzania (2000): In Swahili there is traditionally no word for "male homosexual". (If one has been coined recently, it is not generally known.) There is a term for "lesbian": msagaji, literally, one who grinds. The verb for lesbian lovemaking, sagana, means "grind together". In Tanzania lesbians are even less visible than gay men. I was told that certain women were lesbians, but I never met anybody who said she was. As in other African countries, the idea exists of one man playing the woman’s role in sexual intercourse. This man (the msenge) is usually expected to be younger. It is thought that he consents to be used by another man for money or because he is impotent. The other man (the basha) is assumed to sleep with women as well as men. He will probably be older than the msenge and give him money. In other words, these roles are not unlike the dated "butch" and "femme" stereotypes of Western gay circles... The small town that I lived in, Bagamoyo, had very few young men who were "known" to be a msenge. (All of the ones that I knew of eventually moved to larger towns, such as Dar es Salaam.) By contrast, many men would in certain circumstances have sex with a msenge. The prevalent hostility to gays was therefore somewhat hypocritical. However, there were many people who treated homosexuality sympathetically, as just another human quirk. These were not necessarily the more educated people...

The Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Persons in The United Republic of Tanzanis: A Shadow Report (2009): The report by Tanzania equates sexual orientation (a person‘s sexual and emotional attraction to people of the same sex, another sex, or both sexes) with sexual activity (a man/woman having sex with a man/woman). Furthermore, Tanzania‘s penal code reaches far beyond private, adult same-sex sexual activity. According to a report by Human Rights Watch, ―a 1998 amendment to the Tanzanian Penal Code clarified that gross indecency included any act that ‗falls short of actual intercourse and may include masturbation and indecent behaviour without any physical contact.‘ Thus two men kissing, holding hands, sleeping together, or conceivably even looking at one another with sexual intent, could break the law... The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania has demonstrated enmity toward LGBT people through both statements and actions, and the trend has yielded harsher criminalization of the private lives of MSM/WSW. According to a report by the LGBTI Support Unit, Tanzania has continued to strengthen the criminalization of same-sex relations...

Tanzania: Treatment of homosexuals by society and government authorities; recourse and protection available to homosexuals who have been subject to illtreatment (2005 - January 2007) : A World Bank-supported working paper entitled Sexual Minorities, Violence and AIDS in Africa (Anyamele et al July 2005, i) – written by a medical doctor based in Nigeria, the co-founder of an international development non-governmental organization (NGO) in Uganda and two World Bank professionals (ibid.) – reports that homosexuals in Tanzania run a high risk of experiencing violence and intolerance (ibid.,16). The paper surveys relevant literature and reports on the results of an assessment done at the 2004 All Africa Symposium on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights (ibid., 1). The findings reported in the working paper indicate that social risks – such as the risk of being evicted or losing a job (ibid., 9) – were "especially high" in Tanzania (ibid., 10). In addition, the paper reported that "adverse comments" against homosexuals in Tanzania were regularly made by senior politicians, including the head of state (ibid., 8)..

HIV vulnerability and HIV prevention needs among men who have sex with men in Tanzania (2008): All over the world, sex between men has been associated with increased risk for HIV transmission. In Africa, however, the impact of the HIV epidemic on men who have sex with men (MSM) has not been well studied. In Tanzania, no previous study has been cond ucted. MSM have also not been a prominent target group in prevention programs.Although Tanzanian law criminalizes sex between men, the country's multisecoral strategic framework on HIV has identified MSM as a vulnerable group and advised increased effort s to develop services, interventions and studies. Similar calls have been voiced by the Norwegian government in a recent position paper on HIV and development. The proposed study will explore identities, sexualities and HIV-related vulnerabilities among MSM in Dar es Salaam..

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Tanzania. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Tanzania Tanzania Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Tanzania.   - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - news & Articles: Africa.

Global Gayz: Africa: Tanzania News Reports From 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Tanzania. - LGBT rights in Tanzania. - Sodomy Laws: Tanzania. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Tanzania Individual Documents since 2000 - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa - Tanzania.

ZANZIBAR- Zanzibar is an archipelago made up of Zanzibar and Pemba Islands, and several islets. It is located in the Indian Ocean, about 25 miles from the Tanzanian coast. Zanzibar is an island state within the United Republic of Tanzania, and has its own semi-autonomous government made up of a Revolutionary Council and House of Representatives. - In Tanzania, sex acts between men are illegal, and carry a penalty of Life imprisonment. Sex acts between women are not mentioned in Tanzanian law, though the autonomous region of Zanzibar outlaws same-sex sexual acts for both men and women.

Zanzibar outlaws homosexual acts (2004): Zanzibar's parliament has passed a bill that outlaws homosexuality and lesbianism. The bill imposes stiff penalties which include up to 25 years imprisonment for those in gay relationships. The overwhelmingly Muslim Indian Ocean island is a key tourist destination on the East African coast. The attorney-general said they were determined to prevent Zanzibari culture from being corrupted. The president is expected to approve the bill into law. - Zanzibar's gay community fears tough new law will force it into twilight. (2004, Alternate Link): "In Swahili a gay man is known as a msenge," one gay Zanzibari explained. "He is the passive one. The active one is called the basha. He gets respect and he will not call himself gay." The dishonesty around gay sex tends to encourage dubious relationships. Ahmed, a hairdresser, is openly gay, but prefers to conduct affairs with married men. "When someone is married they respect you, because they are afraid of being found out," Ahmed explained at a dimly lit salon decorated with posters of women's haircuts and a newspaper picture of his heart-throb, the actor and singer Will Smith. "And I like to play around. If someone is married, they will not have time to see anyone else, but I am free to get another man."

Gay men liable to jail for life in Zanzibar (2004, Alternate Link). - Zanzibar Gay Sex Ban Becomes Official (2005). - Secrecy, Stones and Insults: The Gay Life on Zanzibar (2004): But there may be hope for a reprieve for Zanzibar’s gay community. The main opposition party, the Civic United Front (CUF), say they would amend the law if they came to power in elections due in 2005. “In today’s world, human rights are given a very prominent place. I feel there is need to review such laws that violate some people’s basic human rights,” said Ismail Jussa Ladhu, CUF’s deputy director of foreign affairs. - Zanzibar imams halt gay wedding (2005): The discreet ceremony was stopped after reports reached members of the Zanzibar Imams' Propagation Association. Police have arrested four imams who allegedly assaulted the couple. They have also launched investigations with a view to prosecuting the partners.

Freddie Mercury event quashed after Muslim protests (2006, Alternate Link): A 60th birthday gala for the late gay rock star Freddie Mercury was canceled Thursday on the east African island of Zanzibar, where Mercury was born, after outraged Muslims threatened to disrupt it, Agence France Presse reported. - Islamic Clerics: Ban Freddie Mercury Birthday (2006): He may be Zanzibar's most famous son but religious leaders on the mostly Islamic island are demanding the government block an international party to mark what would have been Freddie Mercury's 60th birthday. The mullahs say that the openly gay Queen frontman who died of complications from AIDS in 1991 brought shame on the island because of "his lifestyle".

Horror of rape in East African prisons (2005): Homosexual rape is rife in prisons in Kenya and Zanzibar. For the first time, victims talk about their experiences in a shocking indictment of neglect and violence... One man told me he was raped within hours of the gates closing behind him at Kamiti Maximum Security Prison, where he was jailed for five years for robbery. "They were fighting over me, they were fighting over who should get me first," he said... Another young man, too ashamed to want his name revealed, was jailed for three years for the theft of a bicycle. It was his first offence and within hours he had been gang raped... Male rape happens in many prisons around the world. What makes it different in East Africa is that attitudes to homosexuality in society generally mean that this terrible problem is never acknowledged, never spoken about, even by the victims. It is denied by officials - and by society at large... "Prisoners are just human beings," said Emmanuel Wetangula, a lawyer in one of Kenya's leading law firms. "They do have sexual needs which they have to attend to. They do not get conjugal visits from their wives or girlfriends." ... So when a new prisoner arrives, he is actually seen to be different from the rest of the prisoners - and deemed "fresh." "It commonly happens among the newcomers, the new entrants into prison," he added...

HIV and related risk behavior among men who have sex with men in Zanzibar, Tanzania: results of a behavioral surveillance survey (2011): We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Unguja, Zanzibar. Men aged ≥ 15 years living in Unguja and reporting anal sex with another man in the past 3 months were asked to complete a questionnaire and provide specimens for biologic testing. HIV prevalence was 12.3% (95% confidence interval 8.7, 16.3). HIV infection was associated with injecting drugs in the past 3 months, Hepatitis C virus infection and being paid for sex in the past year. Interventions for MSM in Zanzibar are needed and should include linkages to prevention, care and treatment services. PDF Download.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Tanzania Tanzania Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Tanzania.   - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - news & Articles: Africa.

Global Gayz: Africa: Tanzania News Reports From 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Tanzania. - LGBT rights in Tanzania. - Sodomy Laws: Tanzania. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Tanzania Individual Documents since 2000 - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa - Tanzania.

BURUNDI - Burundi: Repeal Law Criminalizing Homosexual Conduct (2009). - Burundi: Gays and Lesbians Face Increasing Persecution (2009). - AIDS activists condemn new anti-gay law (2009). - EU "shocked" by Burundi's gay criminalisation. - Burundi: President furious as Senate rejects anti-gay law (2009). Au Burundi, le Sénat rejette la pénalisation de l'homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Burundi abolishes the death penalty but bans homosexuality (2009). - Burundian Homosexuals Suffer Under New Anti-Gay Law (2009). - Le Burundi criminalise l’homosexualité dans son nouveau code pénal (2009, Translation). - Rama Yade: la criminalisation de l'homosexualité au Burundi (2009, Video). - Action alert: save gay Burundian Alvin Gahimbaze (2011). - Burundi Gay Activist Dies: Georges Kanuma (2010, Memorial). French Interview with George Kanuma: Rencontre avec un homosexuel burundais à l'ICASA (2008, Translation). - Religions et Homophobie au Burundi (2010, Translation).

Pas facile d'être gay au Burundi (2010, Translation). - L'enfer d'être gay au pays de Paul Biya (2010, Translation). - L’église Burundaise se coalise contre l’homosexualité au Burundi : Une manifestation des fidèles est planifiée ce dimanche dans toutes les provinces (2009, Translation). - Burundi: un défilé contre l'homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Au Burundi, on manifeste contre l’homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Burundi: 10.000 manifestants pour une criminalisation de l'homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Berundi gay grapple with HIV (2008). - Forbidden: Gays and Lesbians in Burundi (2008).

Après le rapatriement, alexandra se sent enclaver (2006, Translation): Le climat hostile pousse Alex à retourner au Burundi où il lui reste quelques amis et famille.Mais Alex veut devenir une fille où il se sent bien dans sa peau et n'hésite pas à la montrer mais les Burundais lui jettent des pierres et il se réfugie en Ouganda où il fut jeter en prison de BASIMA. Alex fut successivement emprisonné à Zanzibar, à Dar es Salaam ou il fut  même violé. Ramené de force au Burundi il fut emprisonné... Alex décide d'aller vivre en Aventure au Kenya pour de bon. Très vite Alex découvre une vie nouvelle.Bien dans sa peaux de jeune fille il mène une vie très excitante car il rencontre des hommes qui l'aiment pour ce qu'il est, il dis: "J’avais plein d'amants, il étais impossible pour moi d'avoir un seul copain car beaucoup d'hommes me désiraient et pour moi le fait d'être désirée, aimée et cou risée était une chose très excitante et tellement nouveaux"... - 2 men flee muslim law enforcers (2004).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Burundi. Burundi Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Burundi. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - news & Articles: Africa. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Burundi- Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: Burundi News Reports from 2004 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Burundi. - LGBT rights in Burundi. - Sodomy Laws: Burundi.

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Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. many free full text articles and papers. -

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Search for Free Articles, Papers or - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available -

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.

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