African Sexual Minorities & Gender Variant Resources
Homosexuality - Gay - Lesbian - Bisexual - Transgender - Transsexual - Same-Sex Sex
To: Map of Africa
Ntuli, Praisegod Mduduzi. (2009). IsiNgqumo : exploring origins, growth and sociolinguistics of an Nguni urban-township homosexual subculture. Master's Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF
Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Abstract.
The emergence of gay subcultures in Africa can be attributed to the
colonial entrenchment of homophobia and homophobic laws. This emergence
of gay subcultures alongside the merciless homophobia necessitated the
creation of secretive forms of linguistic communication amongst the sub
cultured gays. Among the Nguni people of South Africa, isiNgqumo
emerged as the lingua franca within the Nguni gay subculture. This
study focuses on the Nguni gay subculture in Durban and the employment
of isiNgqumo by township and city/urban Nguni gay men termed skesanas.
36 young Nguni homosexual men and one older Nguni man were the
participants who were interviewed. The methodology that was used in
this study was ethnography. The study also relied on a snowballing
technique to access numerous of the 36 young Nguni homosexual men. The
study found that the Nguni gay subculture of Durban is stratified
throughout several places within Durban, it is not one geographical
location. Two gay clubs and two gay salons were visited as they are
some of the locations where the Nguni gay subculture is located.
Not all SA's gays enjoy greater freedom (2004): "South Africa's gays are enjoying a new era of freedom in cities 10 years after the end of apartheid, but black and coloured homosexuals in townships and villages are still victims of discrimination and hate attacks." - "Gay Apartheid" in South Africa N/A (2003): "She also said that many bars ask blacks for their "membership cards." When they can't produce these non-existent ID's, they are denied entrance. "There is still a lot of racism against blacks from whites," she says. "Black and white gays live in two different worlds. It's almost as if there is gay apartheid." Even white gay and lesbian activists acknowledge the divide. Evert Knoesen of the Gay and Lesbian Equality Project concedes that integrating whites and blacks in the community "remains a big issue."" - Gay community still facing many challenges (2004, Alternate Link): "Gays are enjoying a new era of freedom in cities 10 years after the end of apartheid, but black and coloured homosexuals in townships and villages are still victims of discrimination and hate attacks..." - 'Gay hate' website sparks fury (2004, Alternate Link): "South Africa's oldest lesbian and gay service organisation, the Triangle Project, on Friday reacted with outrage at a website that called for the "reclaiming of Cape Town from the homosexual plague"..."
highest court in South Africa has overturned apartheid-era laws criminalizing
homosexuality (Oct. 1998). - Adult
gay sex is not a crime, court rules (1997). - A short history of South African
Pride (1997). - South
African Court Grants Same Sex Spousal Rights (2002). - Court
Hears Challenge To South Africa Gay Marriage Ban (2004). - South
Africa Anti-Gay Adoption Law Unconstitutional (2002). - South
African Gays Gain Adoption Rights (Alternate Link). - L'adoption
permise pour les homosexuels en Afrique du Sud (2002, Translation). - South Africa: Apartheid Military Forced Gay Troops Into Sex-Change Operations (2000). - Gays tell of mutilation by South African Military (2010). - South
Africa OKs gays in its military N/A (Related Information: The Effect of Sodomy Laws on Lifting the Ban of Homosexual Personnel: 3 Case Studies) - A Gay Woman's Experience During her Career in the Department of Defence: Fleet of Hope: A Social Science Commentary - Part 2. (2003).
Gay and Lesbian Youth Experiences of Homophobia in South African Secondary Education (2003). - South African LGBT youth (2005). - South Africa: LGBT issues (2005). - South African Gay and Lesbian Youth Coming Out to Their Families: Analysing Various Decision-Making Pathways and Outcomes (2005). - The use of defence mechanisms as precursors to coming out in post-apartheid South Africa: a gay and lesbian youth perspective (2008). - IsiNgqumo - Introducing a gay Black South African linguistic variety (2008).
South African gays take centre stage (1999): "Conservative Christians have threatened to disrupt the Miss Gay South Africa beauty pageant which is scheduled to take place on Saturday." - Gays Reap Rewards Slowly in Post-Apartheid South Africa. - Gays neglected in HIV/AIDS campaigns (2004, Alternate Link). - Engendering gay and lesbian rights: the equality cluase in the South African Constitution (2003, PDF Download). - Lesbians targets of rape war: Lesbians are being raped, assaulted and victimised "every day" in the townships, in an attempt to force a change in their sexual orientation. Since January this year, 33 black lesbians have come forward with their stories of rape, assault, sexual assault and verbal abuse to organisations fighting hate crimes in Johannesburg townships.
Behind closed Doors: Gay and Married (2001). - School boys: the player queen. (2001, Links to 7 other stories at the end of story) - Moffies, Artists, and Queens: Race and the Production of South African Gay Male Drag (2002 Draft; 2004, Published: Abstract). - South African lesbians fear rise of crime against them (2004). - Le mal de vivre des lesbiennes noires (2003, Translation): Les homosexuelles noires habitant dans les townships subissent de graves traumatismes, liés aux agressions verbales et physiques dont elles sont victimes quotidiennement. C’est ce qui ressort d’une étude de deux chercheuses sud-africaines. La première du genre à donner la parole à cette communauté humiliée. - Rape New Weapon Against South African Lesbians (2004).
The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2004): A Religious Opinion on Same Sex Marriage. - For Same-sex Marriage. - Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective Violence Against Women: "No woman can determine the direction of her own life without the ability to determine her sexuality. Sexuality is an integral, deeply ingrained part of every human being’s life and should not be subject to debate or coercion. Anyone who is truly committed to human rights must recognise that every woman has the right to determine her sexuality free of discrimination." - Unmasking our struggle: "When black lesbians and gay men turn to the lesbian and gay community, they are often met with racism from their white counterparts. They may be met with white lesbians and gay men who do not understand their cultural background, find them sexually "exotic", cannot be bothered to spell their names properly and have no understanding of how racism has affected their lives. In extreme cases, they are not made to feel welcome at cultural or political gatherings..."
Stop prison rape in South Africa
(2007): Abstract: South Africa has some of the highest rates of rape in
the world. Activists have drawn attention to the devastating effect
this has on women and children. However, insufficient attention has
been paid to rape - predominantly of men - in prisons. This article
aims to educate gender activists about the phenomenon of prison rape in
the context of South Africa. It hopes to make the case that prison rape
reflects and reinforces rape culture in South Africa (and elsewhere).
In so doing, it aims to galvanise action to prevent prison rape and all
forms of rape. - Prisons
slammed over male rapes (2004): "Prison psychological services director
Dr Lorinda Bergh testified she found it startling that no policy had been
developed to protect homo- and transsexual men in jail... She was testifying
on claims by former inmate Louis Karp, who claims to have been raped and
abused while awaiting trial for car theft in the Pretoria local prison
in 2001 and 2002... Earlier on Tuesday, prison doctor Kobeli Khomari admitted
that measures to deal with rape among inmates were inadequate, even though
the phenomenon was "very common".Khomari also conceded that rape claims
very rarely reached court and said rape victims were not referred for psychological
help as a matter of course... She agreed with Barlow that "trauma upon
trauma" was heaped on Karp, and that this was largely a result of a lack
of understanding of male rape..." - Rape in Prison: An intervention by Rape Crisis at Pollsmoor Prison (2002).
Boy, 15, 'sold' for jail rape (2008). - South Africa: Rape Incidents At Correctional Disturbing, Says Commissioner (2008). - Sexual Violence Plagues South African Prisons (2009). - Jail rape: The sordid facts (2005). - Behind the bars of South African prisons: Gendered roles and vulnerability of male inmates to forced sex (2005, Alternate Link). - Inquiry
documents ill-treatment of SA gays in prison (2004). - MPs Demand Action on Prison Rapes, 'Marriages'
(2010): Shocked MPs have demanded a plan of action on prison rapes and
"marriages" following a report from a civil society organisation that
nothing had been done in recent years to address the sexual violation
of inmates. Members of Parliament's correctional services committee
were reacting to a report from the Centre for the Study of Violence and
Reconciliation. The centre's Sasha Gear told them yesterday that it had
been difficult to get the Department of Correctional Services to give
the matter the attention it deserved.
Police-jail rapes of white SA men is a war crime pattern
(2010): It’s a pattern: often white South African men are arrested on
frivolous charges, dumped in holding cells with black criminals and
raped – and then released without charges the next day… The writer of
the following article, known only as Sybille*, says these
race-targetted rapes are ‘war-crimes’ – ‘acts of aggression to
humiliate and degrade members of the white conquered tribe’.. - Jail rape of white South African men a war crime (2010). - ‘Rape in jail’ ad too shocking for some
(2010): The Civil Society Prison Reform Initiative has slammed an
advertising campaign seeking to deter drunken-driving by warning male
drivers they face the prospect of being raped in prison if arrested. - South African Lesbians Targeted for Rape and Violence (2011). - South African victory on lesbian rape
(2011): Free Gender is a Black lesbian group from Khayelitsha in Cape
Town. The group organised a rally in protest against the
lack of government and political response to ” corrective rape”.
- South Africans decry rapes of lesbians (2011): Rights activists are speaking out against rapes targeting lesbians in South Africa.
South African man charged with ‘correctional rape’ of lesbian (2010). - South Africa corrective rape (2009, Video). - Raped and killed for being a lesbian: South Africa ignores 'corrective' attacks (2009). - South Africa: 'Corrective Rape' Spreads To 'Fix' Lesbians (2009). - Lesbians subjected to "corrective rape" in South Africa (2009): Lesbians
living in South Africa are being subjected to "corrective rape" and
severe violence by men trying to "cure" them of their sexual
orientation, human rights groups have said.. - Female athletes often targets for rape (2010). - Tackling South Africa's rape epidemic
(2009): The trial of three of the men accused of the rape and murder of
one of South Africa's leading sportswomen, the openly gay football star
Eudy Simelane, starts in South Africa on Wednesday. - Viols et meurtres de lesbiennes en Afrique du Sud : l’épidémie (2011, Translation). - Girl, 13, latest victim of ’corrective rape’ in South Africa (2011).
Perpetrators of corrective rape: Uncertainty and gender in the 21st century
(2011): South Africa is “witnessing a backlash of crimes targeted
specifically at lesbian women, who are perceived as representing a
direct threat to a male dominated society” according to ActionAid, an
international non-governmental organisation (NGO) backed by the South
African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC). The most notable of these
crimes against lesbian women is corrective rape. Perpetrators of
corrective rape desire to show lesbians “how to be real women.” They
manifestly believe that forcing heterosexual intercourse onto lesbians
will somehow reinstate a ‘traditional’ hetero-normative sexual identity
in their victims. Using violence to attain their ‘goal’ indicates an
attitude of hatred towards lesbian women. Unfortunately, support groups
report that corrective rape is on the rise in South African townships...
Mieses A (2009). Gender Inequality and Corrective Rape of Women Who Have Sex With Women. GMHC Treatment Issues. PDF
women face a new epidemic, one that threatens their lives and
creates additional barriers to HIV prevention. South African
lesbians and other women who have sex with women (WSW) challenge
dominant South African ideas about gender identity. Some WSW are
sexually and brutally punished by local men for being gay and violating
traditional gender presentation. This punishment is referred to as
“corrective rape.” Reported incidents of corrective rape have been
growing, and many unreported cases remain uncounted. South African
officials rarely declare these crimes as hate crimes, despite the fact
that the victims are targeted for being WSW. In July 2007, two women
were found in a Johannesburg township after being gang-raped, tortured,
tied with their underwear and shot execution-style in the head... - 'These Women, They Force Us to Rape Them': Rape as Narrative of Social Control in Post-Apartheid South Africa (2006). - « Corrective rape » or how to set lesbians straight (2010). - Hate crimes: The rise of ‘corrective’ rape in South Africa (2009).
Krause, Kristina (2006). Being a Lesbian in South Africa. Word Download.
“In a country numbered by violence against women, lesbians are a target
not just because they’re women, but because they love women”, (Gail
Smith of Women Behind the Mask, 2003). Black women are the most
underprivileged group in South Africa and when the title of lesbian is
added, their status drops even further. For outsiders, a black lesbian
woman has become something deeply offensive. Her homosexuality all at
once, puts her against South African culture, religion, blackness,
womanhood and her family. However, according to South Africa’s
constitution this should not be the case...
van Dyk, Delene (2011). “Lesbian Lives Unlimited”; The psycho-social-sexual experiences of lesbian women in Tshwana (Pretoria): A qualitative analysis. In: Saskia E. Wieringa (ed), Women-Loving-Women in Africa and Asia, pp. 428-463. Amsterdam: TRANS/SIGN Report of Research Findings. PDF Download. This report illustrates that, to really understand the lives of lesbian women, you should change the way you look at them and throw your heteronormative stereotyped lenses away, with no limiting beliefs. Not two women in this study presented with the exact same life experiences (like women in general), although there might be areas that resemble each other. This report highlights the need to find out more about lesbian women’s lives, not only to understand their lives and experiences better, but because it gives a voice to a very marginalized group of women. It gives a voice to both the women who are comfortably out and proud and then to those that, due to unfortunate circumstances, cannot be out and be who they really are and love who they really want, too afraid of the consequences, the discrimination, and rejection.
Klein, Thamar (2009). Intersex and transgender activism in South Africa. Liminalis: Journal for sex/gender emancipation and resistance, 3. PDF Download. Download Page.
Africa has come a long way concerning the legal treatment of
trans* (in medical literature often categorised as transgenderism,
transsexuality, gender dysphoria, or gender identity disorder) and
intersexuality (also known as hermaphroditism or disorder of sex
development). LGBTTIQ-activists consider the country to be, from a
legal point of view, among the most progressive worldwide... South
Africa is despite its progressive laws far from being a ‘dreamland’ for
trans* and intersexed people. Instead they still face a vast array of
obstacles, phobias, discrimination, and hate crimes. However the
constitution and the progressive laws provide a legal basis from which
they can fight for their rights.
MSM left out of media, prevention programmes
(2010): Men who have sex with men (MSM) do not make headlines in South
African media and HIV experts have warned that a lack of accurate
coverage prevents targeted HIV prevention and care for these men...
"MSM doesn't mean that you're gay – it just [means] a man who sleeps
with other men ... but as soon as you say that a man sleeps with
another man, people think that's 'gay'," Radebe told IRIN/PlusNews. "We
have to get away from boxing people and come to an understanding."
Reinforcing stereotypes that all MSM are gay – or that they have the
same HIV prevention needs as gay men – may alienate this vulnerable
group, which does not usually self-identify as being gay. It may also
deter them from accessing target HIV services for fear of being
labelled “gay”, he added... But same-sex relationships remain difficult
terrain for media in South Africa. One of the most popular television
soap operas, Generations, recently broke new ground with a gay kiss –
and lost a substantial number of viewers in the process, according to
Melissa Meyer, a project coordinator with the HIV/AIDS and the Media
Project at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand...
HIV Prevalence and Risk Practices Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Two South African Cities (2011): MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided finger-prick blood specimens for anonymous HIV testing in a laboratory. From July to December 2008, 285 MSM were recruited in Johannesburg (n=204) and Durban (n=81). Participants had a median age of 22 years and were predominantly black Africans (88.3%). The HIV prevalence was 49.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.5%-56.5% in Johannesburg and 27.5% (95% CI 17.0%-38.1%) in Durban. HIV infection was associated with gay identification (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.4; 95% CI, 3.7-19). Factors in the previous year that were associated with HIV infection included receptive unprotected anal intercourse (aOR 4.3; 95% CI 2.4-7.6); sex with a person known to be HIV positive (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.9); and a sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.2)..,
HIV and Sexual Risk in African MSM in South African Township
(Study From 2008 to 2012): South African men who have sex with men
(MSM) are an understudied population in HIV/AIDS epidemiological and
social science research... The aims of the proposed study are (1) to
assess the prevalence of HIV among African MSM living in South African
townships and identify which behavioral, psychosocial, and network
characteristics distinguish infected MSM from non-infected MSM; (2) to
identify the structural and psychosocial correlates of sexual risk
behavior in these men, with a particular focus on the role of alcohol
use; and (3) to describe the social organization of same-sex sexual
practices of these men and identify structural and psychosocial factors
that affect how these practices are experienced. To accomplish these
aims, the proposed study combines HIV testing, a survey, and
ethnography. - HIV prevention and men who have sex with men: A South African experience (2010).
Boyce P. et al (2011). An Exploratory Study of the Social Contexts, Practices and Risks of Men Who Sell Sex in Southern and Eastern Africa. PDF Download. This report presents research conducted on behalf of Oxfam GB with funding from UNDP - an exploratory study of the social contexts, practices and risks of men who sell sex in Southern and Eastern Africa. The research was undertaken by the African Sex Worker Alliance in collaboration with Dr. Paul Boyce (UNDP) and Dr. Gordon Isaacs (SWEAT) as principle investigators... Conclusion: The data presented in this report combine to build-up a complex and nuanced account of the lives and life-worlds of male sex workers in the Southern and Eastern Africa region. A strength of the methodology adopted in the study (both in the formative workshop and in the follow-up activities) was a focus on sex workers' narratives amidst the creation of discursive spaces wherein intimate and personal views of male sex work could be shared. This added analytical depth to explorations of social vulnerability, sexual subjectivity, 'belonging', risk and so forth. The research consciously countered approaches to the study of sex work that focus on the classification of 'types' of sex worker or sex work, or which focus on the categorization and quantification of sexual risk practices. Whilst such research can certainly engender useful information, we were also concerned that in terms of analysis of sexualities and sex work as lived day-to-day practices such studies typically offer only a partial or limited perspective. In basing our research and analysis within first-order accounts of sex workers' lives we have sought to ground the research with a strong, experiential epistemology, which is also personally and emotionally sensitive. Personal developmental milestones [family background], language, vernacular, cultural and tribal affiliations, including inner city and peri-urban influences - and migrant sex work populations -have created mini-sub-cultures that often contain specific mores, codes of behaviour, class divisions and gender rivalry . This anthropological diversity must be addressed -sensitive to the needs, aspirations and participation of all concerned. This in turn can offer important insights into sex workers life experiences in a manner that can offer new and significant pathways for addressing social vulnerability, rights, risks, HIV prevention and health.
Disclosure decisions of HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cape Town, South Africa (PPT Presentation as PDF):
Sixty eight of the 92 MSM living with HIV reported anal sex with more
than onepartner who were unaware of their HIV positive status. Almost
60% of the respondents indicated that it was difficult for them to tell
other people about their HIV positive status. MSM did report
experiencing discrimination (64%) resulting from being HIV positive,
including loss of housing or employment (45%). Of interest is that 11%
of the MSM reported that they were currently married. Whilst 36 of the
92 MSM indicated that they had unprotected vaginal sex more than once
in the previous 3 months with partners who were unaware of their HIV positive status.
Researching MSM in South Africa: Some Preliminary Notes from the Frontlines of a Hidden Epidemic (2009, PDF
In South Africa, almost all medical and civil society-based research on
HIV and AIDS has been focused on heterosexual transmission (or on
mother-to-child transmission) (Abdool Karim & Abdool Karim, 2005).
The near-erasure of homosexuals from the HIV/AIDS epidemiological
picture in South Africa could be attributed to political exclusion
(Fourie, 2006). It may also be due to a historical reluctance by
policymakers to address HIV/ AIDS in same-sex practicing populations
because such an engagement would require engaging with sexual practices
and identities that are already steeped in prejudice and
pathologization (Johnson, 2007). We would argue that the prevailing
culture of denial vis á vis homosexuality in the South African
context is in and of itself a hostile response towards homosexuality,
and is something which warrants analysis in terms which include South
Africa in other continental cultures of denial around homosexuality.
These cultures tend to categorize homosexuality as a Euro-American
perversion that has contaminated African “tradition”; despite
increasing evidence of the existence of homosexuality in pre-colonial
Africa2. The assumption that homosexuality is a sign of European and
Western decadence is underpinned by homogenising discourses that view
“tradition” as static, unchanging and fixed. Central to this discourse
is the common and totalising argument that homosexuality is “unAfrican”
with the argument often focused on homosexuality’s absence in pre-colonial Africa (Antonio, 1997)...
Call for MSM to Be on Aids Agenda
(2010): As World AIDS Day approaches, activists and service providers
in the non-governmental health sector have warned government that it
will never turn the tide of AIDS if high risk groups such as men who
have sex with other men are not brought into focus in efforts to
prevent HIV spreading further. An online survey conducted by the OUT
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Inter-sex network in 2007 shows
that 15 - 20% of men in South Africa, which translates to about 1.8
million men, have sex with other men. Non-governmental organizations
and activists have cautioned that this is a high-risk group and its
continued marginalization in national AIDS programmes poses a threat to
making real progress in addressing AIDS. So far, programmes in South
Africa, largely driven by the National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS,
have been designed to respond to what has been described as a "general
heterosexual epidemic". This is of concern to Dr Oscar Radebe, a
medical officer with Health for Men, an NGO that offers health services
Lane T, Raymond HF, Dladla S, Rasethe J, Struthers H, McFarland W, McIntyre J (2011). High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: results from the Soweto Men's Study. AIDS and Behavior, 15(3): 626-34. PDF
The Soweto Men’s Study assessed HIV prevalence and associated risk
factors among MSM in Soweto, South Africa. Using respondent driven
sampling (RDS) recruitment methods, we recruited 378 MSM (including 15
seeds) over 30 weeks in 2008. All results were adjusted for RDS
sampling design. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 13.2% (95%
confidence interval 12.4–13.9%), with 33.9% among gay-identified men,
6.4% among bisexual-identified men, and 10.1% among straight-identified
MSM... The results of the Soweto Men’s Study confirm that MSM are at
high risk for HIV infection, with gay men at highest risk. HIV
prevention and treatment for MSM are urgently needed..
Lane T, et al (2006). High-Risk Sex among Black MSM in Gauteng, South Africa. PDF
Despite high levels of HIV awareness, high-risk sexual behavior among
the most sexually active suggest that Black South African MSM are
highly vulnerable to HIV infection. • A concentrated HIV epidemic
among Black MSM may be linked to the generalized epidemic in South
Africa through the
sexual behavior of men who have sex with both men and women. • Researchers, CBOs, and provincial and national departments of health can work together to address the HIV prevention needs of MSM.
• The feasibility of community-based strategies for HIV prevention should be systematically explored. This must include the development of specific strategies to encourage HIV prevention among bisexual and straight-identified men as well as among gay-identified men. • The association of alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among Black South African MSM will be an important area of focus for HIV prevention efforts. • Barriers to availability of and access to latex-compatible lubrication, particularly cost barriers, must be addressed.
Livingston L, et al. (2008). Prism Project: Needs Assessment Report: Resourced Gay Men in Tshwane aged 18-40, 2007/8. Pretoria: OUT Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender (LGBT) Well-Being. PDF
NA was a first step in exploring determinants of casual sexual
risk-taking among White resourced gay men in Tshwane. Three broad areas
were explored, i.e. biographical data, views of health problems and
solutions and lastly, sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof. It
became clear that HIV and STIs are seen as serious health problems
confronting gay men. Without a strong sense of community, they appear
apathetic and disinterested in taking responsibility for their own
sexual health and well-being. Casual sex seems to be occurring in a
context where anal sex is a preference, where motivating and
de-motivating factors are mediated by the type of venue, the time of
day, the codes given and the substance used, where there is no regular
testing and no one knows their recent status, where there is no condom
use in steady relationships and inconsistent condom use in casual
encounters, where there is no negotiated safety in steady relationships
and casual encounters, and where monogamy is claimed but not carried
out and secrecy surrounds the most recent casual encounter. It is clear
that this situates these men as being at a high risk of contracting and
transmitting an STI or HIV. An intervention is needed to deal with the
Tucker, Andrew (2009). Framing exclusion in Cape Town's gay village: the discursive and material perpetration of inequitable queer subjects. Area, 41(2): 186-197. Abstract:
Within and beyond geography, there has been a growing concern in
understanding how and why exclusion can occur within ‘gay spaces’, with
a specific focus on Western Europe and North America. Heidi Nast's
(2002 Queer patriarchies, queer racisms, international Antipode 34
874–909) work on the ‘white queer patriarch’ has taken this work
further by exploring the multiple, interrelated, historical and
contemporary factors that can lead to exclusion and exploitation.
Despite growing interest surrounding South Africa's new liberal queer
agenda, issues of contemporary exclusion among queer groups as a direct
result of race and racism have remained relatively unexplored. By
incorporating elements of Nast's schema, this article will examine the
power that exists in the creation and framing of essentialistic ‘white’
and ‘coloured’ queer male subjects in Cape Town's gay village. These
subjects will be shown to simultaneously draw on historical
inequalities while also re-imagining them in contemporary settings to
re-inscribe perceptions of classed and gendered difference. The
creation of such inequitable subjects helps us understand how exclusion
can become real and normalised within a space such as Cape Town's gay
village in a way that draws on a history of material inequalities and
discursive perceptions of race.
Black like me? Gay hairstyling and the paradox of modernity in South Africa
(2007 Dissertation): The starting point for this research project is
hairstyling and "hair saloons". Hairstyles are an important marker of
cultural identity and hair saloons frequently provide safe social
spaces for gay men as well as a significant point of interaction with
broader communities. Hair saloons are thus sites where same-sex
identities can be developed and expressed as well as negotiated with
the outside world. In the South African public imaginary, gay
lifestyles are associated with "modernity", a term which has both
negative and positive connotations. This is particularly apparent in
the ambiguous response to hairstylists, as a source of what is both
desirable and regrettable about "modernity". This research will explore
the articulation between "modernity" and contemporary same-sex
identities in South Africa. The nature of rural and urban, traditional
and modern, will be explored through a network of stylists and their
associates who live and work outside of the metropole, in the urban
peripheries, small towns and rural areas of South Africa's Mpumalanga
Currier, Ashley McAllister (2007). The Visibility of Sexual Minority Movement Organizations in Namibia and South Africa. PhD Dissertation, Sociology, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page. Abstract: The South African state has responded favorably to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movement organizations’ (SMOs) efforts to protect and extend sexual and gender minority rights, whereas Namibian state leaders have verbally attacked LGBT organizing and threatened to arrest sexual and gender minorities... I engaged in intensive, continuous ethnographic observation of four Namibian and South African LGBT social movement organizations for approximately 800 hours and analyzed my ethnographic fieldnotes. I also analyzed more than 2,100 newspaper articles and LGBT SMO documents and conducted 56 in-depth interviews with staff, members, and leaders of LGBT SMOs. In this dissertation, I explore the varied strategic dilemmas of visibility and invisibility that Namibian and South African LGBT SMOs faced...
Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2003):
of Johannesburg pride (Alternate Link):
"One can almost write a report on Pride before it takes place. South African
Gay and Lesbian Pride (formerly Lesbian and Gay Pride - a more inclusive
and less marginalizing title) is now firmly following the model set by
Prides worldwide... so what are they partying after, you may ask? It is
a far cry from the foundation of the Pride phenomenon in South Africa,
now in its 14th year. There was a time - and Yusoof Abdullah, co-organiser
of the Pride event this year is keen to remind people of his connection
to those initial Pride marches - when Pride meant something... Well there
is a good reason why some political sentiments need to be injected back
into the Pride event - our most public expression of pride in ourselves
and our community. Just because it says so in the constitution doesn't
mean that people don't discriminate against lesbian and gay people and
that homophobia is not still rife in South Africa... Few lesbian or gay
people in the world have not heard of Matthew Shepard; a victim of a violent
and brutal homophobic attack that led to his death hanging from a fence
in the USA. But we have our own Matthew Shepards - we are just less willing
to learn their names and honour their suffering with action... I have been
marching in Pride marches in UK and South Africa since 1985. I have never
missed a year. I even helped to organise one in South Africa in 2001. My
commitment to the need for Pride and its meaning is total - so why was
this the first year of my adult life that I couldn't march? Am I getting
old? And why should that be such a sin in the gay world? No, none of this,
I just could not find anything there to be proud of.
got two men and one woman': ancestors, sexuality and identity among
same-sex identified women traditional healers in South Africa (2003):
This paper presents preliminary insights into the complex nature of the
same-sex orientation of seven women who are sangomas (traditional
healers) in Soweto. Data was derived from an ethnographic study, used
as the appropriate methodology because of the veiled and secret nature
of same-sexuality amongst traditional healers... the belief system of
the sangomas provides a window into different categories of sexuality
in an African framework through which the interaction and intersection
of their personal same-sex desire, and that of their male ancestors,
can be viewed. Sangomas construction of identity and desire shifted
between that of personal agency and that of a dominant male ancestor.
This required constant negotiation and encompassed elements of both the
'modern' and 'traditional'. In the case of these sangomas,
same-sexuality the basis of marginality assumes a social status and
becomes a source of power.
(Un)Imagined Bodies and Identities
(2008): I come from South Africa, a country that suffers in its
postcolonial phase, like all other African countries do, from the past
and present afflictions of European colonization and American
imperialism that has including a white minority regime until 1990. Like
all imperialist and other formerly colonized countries, South Africa is
also still embedded within European heteropatriarchal values and
queerphobia. However, I did not expect to be one of the unimagined and
unvoiced bodies and identities in Canada, a country globally recognized
for its advanced human rights and protections that includes the legal
recognition of a person’s multi-layered identities... I would also like
to preface this paper with the argument that theorizing about the lack
of queer content in the MA Documentary Media program is about more than
a silence about queer sexuality. It is about a racialized
heteronormativity as it is reproduced within Canadian academia and the
larger Canadian mainstream society...
Cloete A, Rispel L, Reddy V, Metcalf C (2010). Constructs of identity and HIV risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two South African cities. PPT Presentaton at the
Third Annual International Colloquium "Gender, Sexuality, History and Culture in Africa", University of Lagos, Nigeria. PDF Download. Comclusion: MSM identities are not only widespread but also
diverse in South Africa. - Understanding the social context of risk for MSM is important when designing HIV prevention programmes and services, in order to meet the needs of individuals with diverse sexual behaviours in a non-discriminatory and nonjudgmental manner. - More in-depth ethnographic type of research is needed to understand risk taking behaviour of MSM.
Arnott J, Crago A-L (2009). Rights Not rescue: A Report on Female, Male, and Trans Sex Workers’ Human Rights in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa Sexual Health and Rights Project, Open Society Institute. PDF Download.
Sonnekus, Theo (2009).
Invisible Queers: Investigating the 'other' Other in gay visual
cultures. Master or Arts Dissertation, University of Pretoria. PDF
Download. Download Page. The apparent ‘invisibility’, or lack of representation of black men in
contemporary mainstream gay visual cultures is the primary critical
issue that the study engages with. The study presupposes that the
frequency with which white men appear in popular representations of
‘gayness’ prevails over that of black men. In order to substantiate
this assumption, this study analyses selected issues of the South
African queer men’s lifestyle magazine Gay Pages. Gay visual
cultures appear to simultaneously conflate ‘whiteness’ and normative
homosexuality, while marginalising black gay men by means of
positioning ‘blackness’ and ‘gayness’ as irreconcilable identity
constructs. Images of the gay male ‘community’ disseminated by queer
and mainstream media constantly offer stereotypical, distorted and
race-biased notions of gay men, which ingrain the exclusive cultural
equation of white men and ideal homomasculinity. The disclosure of
racist and selectively homophobic ideologies, which seem to inform gay
visual representation, is therefore the chief concern of the
Freeing South Africa: The "Modernization" of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto
(1998): Although engaged in another research project, in my free time
with friends like Paul, I thus stumbled onto a series of questions that
began to perplex me: Who was Linda? In the letter quoted above, I had
unproblematically identified Linda as "gay." But in his context, was
he? And if so, how did he come to see himself as so? And I quickly
confronted questions of gender as well. Did Linda consider himself as
male? And if so, had he always done so? As issues like these began to
pose themselves, I soon realized that for black men in townships around
Johannesburg, identifying as gay was both recent and tied up, in
unexpectedly complex ways, with a much larger historical
transformation: the end of apartheid and the creation of a modem
nation; in a phrase, the "freeing" of South Africa... Certainly, in
Soweto in the 1960s, hostels populated by rural men had become
notorious sites for same-sex sexual relations. Township parents warned
young sons not to go anywhere nearby, that they would be swept inside
and smeared with Vaseline and raped (see also Mathabane 1986:68-74). To
urbanraised skesanas like Linda, however, these stories apparently only
aroused phantasy and desire. Linda described a "marriage ceremony" in
which she took part in one of the hostels, as follows:...
Coetzee, Catherine Anne (2009). The development and evaluation of a programme to promote sensitive pscyhotherapeutic practice with gay men and lesbians. PhD Dissertation, Rhodes University. Abstract and Download Page. Clinical psychology’s relevance and future viability depend on its ability to render services that are relevant and sensitive to multicultural and minority issues. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people are one such group that professional psychology – both in South Africa and abroad - has identified as having unique treatment needs for which psychologists require specialised knowledge and skills in order to render appropriate treatment. Competence to treat non-heterosexual patients has been framed in terms of a gay affirmative paradigm which has as its basic tenet the recognition that same-gender orientation is not pathological but rather a healthy alternative to heterosexuality. From this perspective being “gay friendly” or “gay accepting” is not enough. To implement a gay affirmative approach in practice, practitioners must have resolved their possible prejudice and heterosexist bias and have the requisite knowledge of concerns unique to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals to be able to apply their skills in a culturally sensitive manner. Although more American post-graduate psychology programmes are addressing sexual diversity, their failure to produce psychologists who feel competent to treat lesbian/gay or bisexual individuals has highlighted the need to develop effective training strategies based on empirical nvestigation. The dearth of comparable data about local South African psychology training prompted this inquiry which had four broad aims namely, (i) to establish to what extent trainees’ prior training had equipped them with the knowledge, awareness, and skills to approach their work with non-heterosexual patients in a gay affirmative manner, and (ii) to implement and (iii) to evaluate to what extent a brief structured training programme is effective in engaging the trainees; in increasing knowledge, in raising awareness, and in changing specific attitudes and imparting specific skills required for treating lesbian and gay patients.; and (iv) what, if any, recommendations should be made for the future with respect to training of sychologists in this area?...
Uit in die kuberruim: enkele waardetoevoegings en uitdagings ten opsigte van Gay@Litnet binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks (2006): This
article investigates the nature, role and contribution of Gay@Litnet as
an electronic alternative for the publication of gay literature in
South Africa. Attention will be given to the manner in which Gay@Litnet
acts as a public forum for nurturing gay identity within the current
socio-political context of South Africa. A brief summary of the current
socio-political situation of South African gays will be given in order
to place the discussion into the necessary context. Secondly, an
evaluative description of the dynamics of Gay@Litnet will be given,
where after a few value-adding properties and challenges concerning
Gay@Litnet will be discussed.
The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2001-04): Charity begins at… uhm… - Meds, Drugs and HIV. - How Sexuality is used to disempower women. - Homophobia and the Rights of Lesbians and Gays. - Recognise Same Sex Marriages. - Queer State funeral in Sebokeng.
Africa: Apartheid Military Forced Gay Troops Into Sex-Change Operations.
tell of mutilation by apartheid army. - Men
who suffer in silence: South African law does not recognise the
existence of male rape..." - A
leading light of gay and AIDS activism in SA (1998). - The
official treatment of white, South African, homosexual men and the
consequent reaction of gay liberation from the 1960s to 2000. PhD Dissertation. University of Jahannesburg. Download Page.- 'I've Got Two Men and One Woman': Ancestors, Sexuality and Identity among Same-Sex
Identified Women Traditional Healers in South Africa (2003). - State of Emergency: An exploration of attitudes towards homosexuality in the SADF, 1969-1994. Master's Dissertation, History Department, Stellenbosch University. Abstract and Download Page.
Mbali, Mandisa (2005). The Treatment Action Campaign and the History of Rights-Based, Patient-Driven HIV/AIDS Activism in South Africa: Research Report No. 29. University of Kwazulu-Natal Centre for Civil Society. PDF
Download. Download Page. In
these continuities, it is not this Report’s aim to underplay
the discontinuities between anti-apartheid, gay rights activism in the
1980s and early 1990s and TAC’s militant AIDS activism in
post-apartheid South Africa. Conservative gay AIDS activists affiliated
to Gay Activists of South Africa (GASA) tried and failed to gain access
to the apartheid government’s AIDS committees during the 1980s. In the
early 1990s, anti-apartheid gay AIDS activists used transition-era
negotiating spaces such as the National Aids Convention of South Africa
(NACOSA) to further their aims. However, the post-apartheid era brought
much greater scope for AIDS activism as it brought with it a free press
and the Constitutional Court, which were used to maximum potential by
TAC activists, especially in advocating HIV treatment access for all,
as the second and third sections of this Report argue. In using these
democratic institutions, TAC defended and extended ‘first generation’
Reddy, Vasu (2005). Moffies, stabanis and lesbos: the political construction of queer identities in southern Africa. PHD Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF
Download (Very large: 159 Megs). Download Page. This dissertation focuses on discursive constructions of sexuality (in
particular homosexuality). This study is not a social history, nor does it
explain and motivate the existence of homosexuality. Rather, the project
explores the regulatory public discourses of homosexuality in Southern Africa
in relation to historical events and archived texts. (Southern embraces
primarily South Africa although one chapter foregrounds neighbouring
African countries in the Southern region). Applying recent studies in queer
theory to a number of events, issues and sources, I formulate a critical
methodology that demonstrates the political construction of homosexuality. I
argue that the emergence of political queer identity has its roots in the
apartheid State, and show how these identities are politically grounded (and
indeed) reinforced In the post-apartheid project. The study conceives
homosexuality as a 'queer identity' that resists and subverts
Rees, Jennifer (2010). Masculinity and sexuality in South African border war literature. Master's Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch. PDF Download. Download Page. This thesis explores masculinity and sexuality, hegemonic and “deviant” in the nation state of the old apartheid South Africa, by addressing aspects of fatherhood, boyhood and motherhood in white, predominantly Afrikaans family narratives... I explore what happens when this white-centred patriarchal hegemony is broken down, threatened or resisted when “deviance” in the form of homosexuality occurs. A second focus of this thesis is that of “deviance” in the army. I analyse “deviance” in three novels, moffie (2006) by André Carl van der Merwe, The Beautiful Screaming of Pigs (1991) by Damon Galgut and Kings of the Water (2009) by Mark Behr. These novels foreground “deviance” and I make use of them in exploring the punishment, or “consequences” of being homosexual or “deviant” in the highly masculine environs of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) army.
van Zyl M, et al. (1999). Human rights abuses of gays and lesbians in the South African Defence Force by health workers during the apartheid era. Cape Town, Sotuh Africa: Simply Said and Done
on behalf of Gay and Lesbian Archives, Health and Human Rights Project, Medical Research Council, and the National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality. PDF Download. - Gays tell of mutilation by apartheid army (2000).
Forman, Ross G (2002). Randy on the Rand: Portuguese African Labor and the Discourse on "Unnatural Vice" in the Transvaal in the Early Twentieth Century. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 11(4): 570-609. PDF Download. Reference. Because the economic center of South Africa had shifted from the Cape Province to the Transvaal as a result of the development of the mines, the country was heavily indebted to these workers from Mozambique, who in 1907 comprised about 70 percent of the labor force officially hired by the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA)and numbered more than seventy thousand... Their inquiry was prompted by and followed on the heels of an explosive 1906 investigation of "immorality" among the indentured Chinese laborers brought to the Transvaal after the conclusion of the Anglo- Boer War, for the earlier investigators had heard repeated testimony that the "Mozambique Natives" could teach the Chinese inore vice than the Chinese could teach them... For instance, although a number of "boys" - interviewed were named by other witnesses as being party to mine marriages, nearly all claimed linowledge of the practice but categorically denied their ou7n involvement in it...
Gender: Homosexuality in an African Society: "The aim of our study
is to analyse the interrelationship between the stereotypes and my myths
surrounding same-sex relationships/sexuality, sexual ransgression and gender-based
violence.We will document the findings and place them in the context of
the existing, but marginal research. What kind of myths and stereotypes
are prevalent around homosexuality in African societies and especially
in South Africa? Are there any intersections between these myths and gender-based
violence and/or violence against lesbians – and if so,what are these myths?
To understand these myths we will documen the history of same-sex relationships
in differen African societies..." (Paper presented at the Sex & Secrecy
Conference 2003, the 4th Conference of the International Association for
the Study of Sexuality,Culture and Society (IASSCS) by Wendy Isaack and
Henriette Gunkel: PDF
Ratele, Kopano (2006). Ruling masculinity and sexuality. Feminist Africa, 6: 48-64. PDF
Download. Full Text. Download Page.
In a recent study on masculinity focusing on boys from several high
schools around the Western Cape, similar thinking was evident. Firstly,
in response to the question “What is a man?”, some of the boys answered
that a man is “always considered … the head of the household while
women are subordinate to men. Therefore a woman is not allowed to [be
equal to] her husband when it comes to household decision-making.” In
regard to the question of sexuality, a boy said “the problem with
abstinence is that you might go crazy, if you are a man” (Ratele et al,
in press). From discussion on gay and lesbian identities in that study,
it was also clear that “a real man” does not behave in ways that are
“unmanly” and does not have sex with another man. As a boy in one group
said, “like some gays you can’t even tell that they’re gay ... among
themselves they don’t parade around with it. I don’t mind if they’re
like that, but I mean if they walk around going like ‘hello doll’ and
that little kiss thingy…” [he doesn’t need to finish his idea]. Another
boy at a different school, in reference to men looking after children,
said “when you look after a child, you also have to put on an apron
which makes you look like a moffie” (Ratele et al, in press).
Theuninck AC (2000). The Traumatic Impact of Minority Stressors on Males Self-Identified as Homosexual or Bisexual. Master's Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Full Text & Summary N/A. (Archive Link) - Highlights: "In the
present S.A.community sample of gay/bisexual men, 16.5% have made suicide
attempts because of their sexuality... Of the South African gay/bi adolescents,
38.7% have attempted to commit suicide because of their sexuality." "The sample consists of 329
males from across South Africa... The majority of the sample were from
15 to 34 years of age (87.5%)... The majority were white (73.8%), with
16.7% being black and the rest (9.5%) either Indian, Coloured, or unspecified." "When considering the influence
of stressors and trauma on suicidal tendencies in gay/bi men, it was found
that internalised homonegativity had the strongest influence. This is perhaps
not surprising since loathing oneself because of one's sexuality, and seeing
that sexuality as perverse, would be expected to be closely related to
a severe self-hate that could lead to suicide. Having witnessed people being
victimised for being gay was the next strongest factor related to suicidal
tendencies. Witnessing others being harassed or bashed for being gay, places
the gay/bi person in a catch 22 position..."
Wells H, Polders l (2004). Levels of Empowerment among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender [LGBT] People in Gauteng, South Africa.
Research initiative of the Joint Working Group conducted by OUT LGBT
Well-being in collaboration with the UNISA Centre for Applied
Psychology. PDF Download. PDF Download. "Suicide attempts:
17% of the sample (n=347) had made a past suicide attempt or attempts.
Of those who had attempted suicide 24% had made multiple attempts. The
youngest age at which suicide was attempted was 13 years. No
significant differences were found between age groups for attempted
suicide. Suicide attempts showed similar rates for men and women.
Interestingly, although black individuals reported the highest
frequency of “always” or “often” thinking about suicide, white
respondents had a higher rate ofattempts (22%) than black (16%) or Indian (12%) respondents."
Can we Talk about Suicide in Africa? (2011): This morning, while reading an article from Behind the Mask about the suicide of a young South African LGBTI activist, Sabelo Zondo, I wondered how many lost lives were due to suicide in the queer communities in Africa. The practice of autopsies after a sudden death is not a systematic medical practice in Africa, except for some legal reasons. People do take their own life and we need to talk about depression and suicide in the society in general and in the LGBTQI communities in particular. In addition to dealing with the stressful transition from childhood to adulthood, LGBTQI youth face many other challenges in Africa. Among other issues, the lack of supportive, positive social structures that allow different gender expression contribute to make LGBTQI youth very vulnerable to depression and suicide attempts. But it does not have to be this way. Can we start by talking about suicide. We should not be ashamed to admit that we are going through depression. We should train and enable queer youth to assist their peers who are dealing with traumatic experiences...
Belkin A, Canaday M (2010). Assessing the integration of gays and lesbians: Into the South African National Defence Force. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, 38(2): 1-21. PDF
The evidence suggests that the integration of gay and lesbian personnel
has not had a negative impact on recruitment and retention, morale,
unit cohesion or operational effectiveness in the SANDF.
Achmat, Zackie (2010). LGBTI Freedom and Equality in Africa: a Different South African Perspective. Newsletter: International AIDS Society (PDF,
Must Scroll). In theory, we are equal as gay men. We can have sex
without any fear of prosecution. The constitution and a myriad of laws
guarantee us equal access to social services, employment benefits,
fostering, adoption, marriage, divorce and inheritance. We can also
serve in the South African National Defence Force and enjoy gay culture
and freedom of expression. However, that young, Black gay man’s only
rights include sex with a partner of his choice and to openly associate
with LGBTI people. These rights are vital, but real equality is a
chimera. Equality, privacy and freedom are privileges enjoyed by
middle- and upper-class people, including gay men of all races. LGBTI
people both consciously and unconsciously lay claim to their rights as
human beings and they locate these rights as global citizens. These
rights to freedom and equality correctly inspire and activate people
everywhere. However, the uncritical adoption of the American,
Australian and European rights–based strategies focused on the lobbying
of parliaments, litigation and visibility through the media has led to
an impasse. A rightsbased movement that looks only to parliaments and
the courts must fail, since they are largely captured by corporations and the urban, middle- and upper-class elites...
Kraak, Gerald (2002). Homosexuality and the South African left: the amibiguities of exile. On The Subject of Sex & The Body Seminar Series (in
collaboration with the Graduate School for the Humanities and the
School of Arts). Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research
(WISER), The University of Witwatersrand. PDF Download. Download Page.
This article is a contribution to a slim, but emerging body of work in
gay South African historiography – the hidden, largely unacknowledged
role played by gay menand lesbians in opposition politics and in the anti-apartheid and liberation movements..
Stobie C (2009). Postcolonial Pomosexuality: Queer/ Alternative Fiction after "Disgrace". Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa, 21(1/2). Full Text. The development of South African queer/alternative writing is illustrated by the shift from William Plomer's oblique re-working of homosexual desire into cross-racial erotics in Turbott Wolfe (1925), through occasional explorations of homosexuality under high apartheid by authors such as Stephen Gray (1988)--although such texts were vulnerable to banning by the censors to increasingly explicit material towards the end of the century, by such authors as Damon Galgut (1995), Ashraf Jamal (1996) and Tatamkhulu Afrika (1996). In addition to authors who are personally invested in queer issues, Nobel laureates Nadine Gordimer and J M Coetzee refer to these issues in works from their later periods such as Gordimer's The House Gun (1998) and Coetzee's Disgrace (1999). In view of the apartheid-era legislation declaring homosexuality illegal it is understandable that after the shift to democracy and the passing of legal safeguards for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people a number of authors have explored the painful self-acceptance of gay identities--mainly also white and male--during apartheid. This exploration forms part of the retrospective cartography of the previously occluded queer nation. An interesting turn in the post-apartheid era is the handling of the trope of bisexuality, which opens up a potentially useful domain for considering sexuality and national identifications beyond the constraints of binary models (see Stobie 2007). Since the publication of Disgrace a significant development in queer writing has been the shift to representing a more varied spectrum of sexuality--not necessarily viewed as a prime marker of identity; more awareness of gender issues; a consciousness of postcolonialism; and an exciting experimentation with form in the fictional narration which also visualises a future that can countenance new forms of gender performance and sexuality. This collective shift, more evident in the writing of women authors focusing on queer/ alternative themes, might be called postcolonial pomosexuality. The term "pomosexuality" refers to expressions of queer beyond separatist or essentialist notions of sexual orientation (Queen and Schimel 1997), and my addition of the adjective "postcolonial" sites this intimate domain within wider political power structures.
In his new essay in the latest edition of Granta, Mark looks back at
the lives of two older men from Soweto, and how they negotiated the
double-jeopardy of being black and being gay in apartheid South Africa,
from the perspective of his own same-sex marriage in February 2009. Extract. See: Recent Writings. - Gevisser, Mark (2000). Mandela's stepchildren: homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa. In: Different
Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World
- 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker.
Simon and I: A
film by Beverley Palesa Ditsie and Nicky Newman. A challenging,
provocative, and unconventional film about life in Southern Africa in
the presenceof HIV/AIDS. - Simon and I: Simon and I
recounts the lives of two giants in the South African gay and lesbian
liberation movement, Simon Nkoli and the film maker herself, Bev
Ditsie. The story is narrated by Bev, both as a personal statement and
a political history. Through good times and bad, their relationship is
viewed against a backdrop of intense political activism and the
HIV/AIDS crisis. Their converging and diverging lives, culminating in
Simon s death, are revealed in this heartfelt testament using a mixed
format of interviews and archive footage.
- GALA: Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action: GALA was established under the name The Gay and Lesbian Archives in 1997. - Gay
and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (To 2009). (Old Site, to 2007) (Archive Link). GALA 2003 Report:
in 1997, GALA is an independent project of the South
African History Archives Trust (SAHA) which forms part of the
Historical Papers collection based at the William Cullen Library at the
University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. For SAHA this was a
valuable extension of its existing collections that echoed SAHA’s
historic commitment to documenting human rights struggles in South
Africa. GALA represents a unique resource of material relating to
lesbian and gay experience in Southern Africa. It is appropriate that
the only lesbian and gay archive on the continent should be located in
South Africa, considering that this is the first country in the world
to enshrine equality on the basis of sexual orientation in its
constitution. In the light of the constitution making process and the
ensuing legal reforms, South Africa has become a focus for
international and local research attention.. - Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action (GALA): Strategic plan 2007-2011.
Durban Lesbian & Gay Community & Health Centre. - GMax: gay and lesbian South Africa. - Gay South Africa. - The
South African Gay Information Guide. - South
African Lesbian and Gay Equality Project. - Grey
Gay Guide. - Feminist
Internet Resource Guide: Africa (To 2006). - Gay South Africa Lifestyle. - Gender DynamiX: African based organisation for the transgender community. The aim is to create awareness and visualize transgenderism. - Lesbians in South Africa: A forum for South Africa's Lesbian community (To 2006): - Jewish OutLook: the new South African Jewish Organisation catering for the Lesbian, Gay, Bi-Sexual, Transgendered and Intersex Community. - Cape Town GLBT Links. - Exit online - stories from South Africa's LGBT newspaper.
- South Africa Gay & Lesbian Issues News: Service for global professionals. Constantly updated news and information about South Africa..
Joburg Pride. - Cape Town Pride. - Videos, Gay Pride: Cape Town Pride Parade, 2011. - Cape Town Pride Parade After Party at Cape Town Stadium, 2011. - Cape Town Gay Pride 2010 - Bronx Boyz. - South Africa Gay Pride at Zoo Lake, 2009. - Gay Pride in Cape Town, 2008. - Cape Town Pride GoPink, 2008. - Homophobic Harassment During Gay Pride, 2009.
Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: South Africa Information News. - African Veil: Countries Covered: South Africa. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Mamba Online: Gay South Africa Lifestyle, News, Dating. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. South Africa Individual Documents since 1999. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Passion and pride at the gay film festival (2010). - Out in Africa, 2010. - Out in Africa Gay & Lesbian Film Festival Johannesburg (2011). April 2011 Out in Africa Film Fest (2011). - Out
In Africa: South African Gay and Lesbian Film Festival. - SA Gay & Lesbian Film Festival
(2008, Must Scroll): The Out In Africa SA Gay & Lesbian Film
Festival (OIA) celebrated its 15th birthday this spring with over 100
screenings held at Nu Metro in Johannesburg and Cape Town, for 11 days
in each city. - South Africa: Out in Africa: Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (2007). - Homosexuality and South African Cinema (Bibliography to 1991). - The Power of Culture Special: Cinema in Africa - South African Queer Cinema Exposes Double Standards: Ten years after the first democratic elections, black South African queer film has come out of the closet. - Queer cinema as a fifth cinema in South Africa and Australia
(2005): In South Africa, the first major Queer film festival, The Out
In Africa Gay and Lesbian Film Festival in 1994, was instrumental in
developing and maintaining a post-Apartheid Queer public sphere which
fostered further legal change. Given the significant histories of
activism through Queer Cinematic Cultures in both Australia and South
Africa, I propose in this thesis the existence of a new genus of
cinema, which I term Fifth Cinema. Fifth Cinema includes Feminist
Cinema, Queer Cinema and Immigrant/Multicultural Cinema and deals with
the oppressions which cultures engage with within their own cultural
boundaries. It can be informed by First Cinema (classical, Hollywood),
Second Cinema (Art House or dual national cinemas), Third and Fourth
Cinema (cinemas dealing with the decolonisation of Third World and
Fourth World people), but it develops its unique characteristics by
countering internal cultural colonisation. Fifth Cinema functions as a
heterognosis, where multi-dimensional representations around sexuality,
race and gender are used to assist in broader cultural liberation.
Branton, Heather (2002). Feminist Visions: Lesbian and Gay in Southern Africa: Activists, Lovers. and Healers. Feminist Collections, 24(1): 6-9. PDF Download. Download Page. Films Reviewed: Forbidden Fruit. Tina Mchida in Zimbabwe (Rainmakers, Series 2). Everything Must Com to Light.
Review (2010): Reading Zanele Muholi’s Faces and Phases (Book) and Difficult Love
(Film). Zanele Muholi is very clear about the objectives of her work as
a black lesbian South African visual activist. In the introduction to
her 2010 book, Faces and Phases, she states: In the face of all the
challenges our community encounters daily, I embarked on a journey of
visual activism to ensure that there is black queer visibility. It is
important to mark, map and preserve our mo(ve)ments through visual
histories for reference and posterity so that future generations will
note that we were here" (2010: 6). - Difficult Love wins an award at Bilbao (2011). - World renowned lesbian photographer and visual activist Zanele Muholi
has once again been recognised for her work as her award winning film Difficult Love
is being screened in local and international film festivals.The film
was commissioned by the SABC and is co-directed by Peter Goldsmid and
Books: - Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa - 1995 - edited by Mark Gevisser, Edwin Cameron (Google Books) (Review). - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Review by Gary Kinsmans: "Third World 'Queer' Liberation "A revolution within the revolution." Contains: "Mandela's stepchildren: homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa" (P. 111-36, Alternate Link for Review) "Mark Gevisser, co-editor of the South African anthology Defiant desire (1994), discusses the development of homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa." Plus: "Awakenings: dreams and delusions of an incipient lesbian and gay movement in Kenya" (P. 179-92) "John Mburu writes from the embattled movements in southern Africa, where a spate of dictatorial presidents have made anti-homosexual pronouncements and embarked on campaigns of anti-gay and lesbian harassment. Mburu specifically deals with the movement in Kenya." - Moffies: gay life in Southern Africa - 2000 - by Bart Luirink (Review) (Abstract) (Amazon). - Sex and politics in South Africa - 2005 - by Neville Wallace Hoad, Karen Martin, Graeme Reid (Abstract & Author Information) (Google Books). - Queer visibilities: space, identity and interaction in Cape Town - 2009 - by Andrew Tucker (Google Books) (Review & Author Interview).
Books: - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Among Lesbians and Gay Men (Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Issues, Volume 3) - 1997 - edited by Beverly Greene (Abstract). Contains: "From Apartheid to Mandela's Constitution" by Cheryl Potgieter. - The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Black Communities - 2001 - by Delroy Constantine-Simms (Excerpt) (Interview with author) (Review: Black Gay / Gay Black) (We are soliciting essays on Black homosexuality for the "The Greatest Taboo: Volume 2) Contains: "Institutionalizing Sexuality: Theorizing Queer in Post-Apartheid South Africa" by Vasu Reddy. - The Invisible Ghetto: Lesbian & Gay Writing from South Africa - 1995 - edited by Matthew Krouse. - Gayle: The Language of Kinks and Queens, A History and Dictionary of Gay Language in South Africa - 2005 - by Ken Cage. - Hungochani: the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa - 2004 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Related Article: homosexuality taboo in africa. - The Cultural Politics of Female Sexuality in South Africa - 2010 - by Henriette Gunkel (Contents & Introduction) (New NAI Book on Homophobia in Africa). - Black Bull, Ancestors and Me: My life as a Lesbian Sangoma - 2009 - by Nkunzi Zandile Nkabinde (Review) (Blessing ceremony for book launch) (Video: Nkunzi Zandile Nkabinde prays/performs at the launch).
From Social Silence to Social Science: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa - 2009 - edited by Vasu Reddy, Theo Sandfort & Laetitia Rispel (Amazon) (Review) (Podcast Package: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa) (Free Download. Download Page). Contents: Foreword. - Introduction. - - Theory, methodology, context:
1 Researching same-sex sexuality and HIV. 2 Sexuality research in
South Africa: The policy context. 3 Same-sex sexuality and health:
Current psychosocial scientific research in South Africa. 4 Homosexual
and bisexual labels: The need for clear conceptualisations,
operationalisations and appropriate methodological designs. 5 Gender,
same-sex sexuality and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: Practical research
challenges and solutions. 6 From social silence to social science: HIV
research among township MSM in South Africa. -- History, memory, archive:
7 Gay AIDS activism in South Africa prior to 1994. 8 Sexing women:
Young black lesbian women’s reflections on sex and responses to safe(r)
sex in Johannesburg. 9 Creating memory: Documenting and disseminating
life stories of LGBTI people living with HIV
Ruth Morgan, Busi Kheswa, John Meletse. 10. Perspectives from sub-Saharan and southern Africa 10 What we know about same-sex practicing people and HIV in Africa. 11 Same-sex sexuality and HIV/AIDS: A perspective from Malawi. 12 A bird’s eye view of HIV and gay and lesbian issues in Zimbabwe. 13 Epidemiological disjunctures: A review of same-sex sexuality and HIV research in sub-Saharan Africa. -- Needs, programming, policy and direction for future research: 14 Mobilising gay and lesbian organisations to respond to the political challenges of the South African HIV epidemic. 15 Are South African HIV policies and programmes meeting the needs of samesex practising individuals? 16 Lessons learned from current South African HIV/AIDS research among lesbian/gay/bisexual populations. 17 Observations on HIV and AIDS in Cape Town’s LGBT population. 18 Some personal and political perspectives on HIV/AIDS in Ethekwini. 19 Health for all? Women who have sex with women (WSW) health needs and issues. -- Conclusions: 20 Taking research-based prevention forward.
The Prize and the Price: Shaping sexualities in South Africa (Free Download) - 2009 - edited by Melissa Steyn, Mikki van Zyl (Amazon). - Some Sections with Homosexuality Related Issues: Foreword. - 1. The Prize And The Price. - 5. Renegotiating masculinity in the Lowveld: narratives of male-male sex in compounds, prisons and at home. - 7. Are blind people better lovers? - 8. Sexuality in later life. - 13. Heterosex among young South Africans: Research reflections. - 17. Queer marriage: Sexualising citizenship and the development of freedoms in South Africa. - 18. Beyond the Constitution: from sexual rights to belonging. - Conclusion: Shaping sexualities. See also the Index.
The country we want to live in Hate crimes and homophobia in the lives of black lesbian South Africans (Free Download) - 2010 - by Nonhlanhla Mkhize, Jane Bennett, Vasu Reddy, Relebohile Moletsane (Full Text) (HSRC Seminar: The Country We Want to Live In - Hate Crimes and Homophobia in the Lives of Black Lesbian South Africans). Contents: Foreword. - Preface. - - Part I: Context and History: Context and socio-political background. - Language and vocabulary. - The delimitations of this report. - - Part II: Perspective and Profile: Roundtable Seminar on Gender-Based Violence, Black Lesbians, Hate Speech and Homophobia. - - Part III: Current and Future Prospects: Legally-focused campaigning. - Conclusions and Recommendations: a way forward?
LESOTHO - Lesotho reviewed by the UPR: refusal to decriminalise homosexuality (2010). - Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Lesotho face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Male same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Lesotho, but female same-sex sexual activity is legal.
LGBTI Sopport Group Registered (2010): In what has been described by activists as a significant milestone for the Lesotho Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, transgender and Inter-gender (LGBTI) communities, November 2010 saw the registration of MATRIX support group as a Non-Profit Organisation by the Lesotho Law Office. - ‘Implications of the many facets towards the LGBTI community in Lesotho’ by Motebo Ntabe. Independent (but will be there on behalf of Matrix support Group as well) (2010): Because of all these, all the services are geared towards heterosexuality hence the books, clinics and every other thing deal only with heterosexuality. The health care does not cater for MSM/ WSW population. Because these people are forced to hide, it is rather difficult if not impossible to deal with people who are unknown hence they remain vulnerable to a number of health risks. However, the reality of the HIV pandemic has prompted the National Aids Commission to call upon other stakeholders to engage with MSM and WSW population decisively. Our legal system barely addresses MSM/ WSW activity and when it does it only criminalises MSM activity. What pertains from all these are a string of grave human rights violations. It is in the face of these that the Matrix Support Group was formed. This is the only LGBTI support group in the country. Conclusion. The situation is not hazardous in Lesotho but a lot of improvement is certainly needed.
MATRIX Support Group: An association for LGBTI community in Lesotho: Mission:
The mission of the association is to help build a society in Lesotho
that is free from stigma, abuse, discrimination and oppression against
LBGTI. To create a strong and proud LGBTI community whereby Gay and
Lesbian community can be FREE to express their IDENTITY and to love
each other in the relationship of their own choosing... Matrix Support
Group is about to kick start a study survey in Lesotho which will be
carried out mostly my the LGBTI community in Lesotho. The study is
going to be by means of questionnaires . The results of this study will
further be used in advocacy for the LGBTI Lesotho... It is not only
homophobia that we are faced with in Lesotho. There is also a very
strong but hidden transphobia that exists from the gays and lesbians.
To challenge this we need to provide adequate information to the
different sexual orientation groups...In families - In most cases we
are confronted with homophobia in families whereby the so called
STRAIGHT MEMBERS reduce their Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgendered and
Intersex members to nothing but sexual perverts, sexually ill,
sexually immoral, sexually confused, sexually cursed/or demonised... In
churches - Lesotho has been seen as the Christian Country Yet in
churches a great number of the LGBTI community experience homophobia at
its best. In most churches this issue is not talked about except when
it is to bash, crash and break the LGBTI community. If or when an LGBTI
member is won by a ‘straight and holy’ believer into church ... It is
often to impose change from homosexual to heterosexual...
MATRIX Support Group (2010):
Nothing About Us Without Us: Community-led HIV research for men who
have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) in
Lesotho. Conference Poster.
Homosexuals: a matter or morality that legality (2010). - Gay Priest Says Homophobia Kept Him From AIDS Mission Relief Group Says Concern Was About Africans' Feelings
(2011): Roman Catholic priest Father Fred Daley, 59, was scheduled to
be on an AIDS mission to Africa last Sunday. He had undergone
months of training and was preparing to spend more than a year in
Lesotho, where one-third of the population suffers from AIDS. "The
airline tickets had been sent," Father Daley tells ABC News.
"There was no condition to that." But it turns out there was a
condition, and now Daley won't be going anywhere. On July 18, Daley was
suddenly withdrawn from his mission to Lesotho, Africa by its
organizers, Catholic Relief Services (CRS). He says the reason is
homophobia, because he is gay."This whole situation is surrounding homophobia," Daley told ABC News...
Human Rights Violations in Lesotho
(2010): Sexual orientation and gender identity are neither protected
nor overtly criminalised in Lesotho’s Constitution. Sodomy laws are in
place that could be used to prosecute homosexual behaviour but reported
sodomy offences are due to rape between men. Though there are no
specific protections for sexual orientation or gender identity, there
are general clauses talking to freedom from discrimination of any sort
and the overall rights of equal treatment, fairness before the law and
respect. These clauses could be gateways into explicit freedoms and
protections for the LGBTI community in Lesotho. - Lesotho: Clash over gays
(2010): Delegates attending the Lesotho Council of Non-Governmental
Organisations (LCN) annual general conference last Friday clashed over
the association’s decision to help an organisation advocating for the
rights of homosexuals. Matters came to a head after the annual report
which was tabled before the delegates revealed that the council had
given technical assistance to Matrix Support Group, an organisation for
lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transsexuals and intersexual people.
Rain on Tin (2010): Hi folks! Today I am in Maseru for a GAD meeting...
We are focused on raising issues about gender discrimination in
Lesotho. Domestic violence (or as it is more progressively known,
intimate partner violence)is rampant in this country. It is considered
normal for men to beat their wives, girlfriends, etc. We want to change
that! Also we want to bring awareness to issues of homosexuality as
well. Many of you may know that public displays of homosexuality are
considered criminal acts in various countries in Afria. While that is
not the case in Lesotho homosexuality is not discussed or looked upon
favorably. We want to change that too!
‘African Homosexuality’ Imagined: Doing Sexuality in Contested Spaces:
During her time in the northern region of Mozambique, one Danish
anthropologist observed that unlike her own experiences learning about
women’s sexuality in a European, Christian context, sexualities were
openly discussed and expressed in Mozambique society. A woman’s
sexuality was something of her own, part of her personality and
identity as a woman, not defined in relation to, or ‘opened up’ by men.
Although these women were bound by the heterosexual norms and cultural
expectations of having a husband and children and playing the roles of
wife and mother, she discovered that there was a space for women to
have same-sex relationships where the lines between friendship and
lover were blurred... The women in northern Mozambique and Lesotho are
examples of same-sex relationships and sexualities located outside of
the “heterosexual norms in Africa.” These relationships were socially
and culturally accepted in Mozambique, and were celebrated by women and
their husbands in the Lesotho context, maybe because they existed
alongside women’s heterosexual relationships and were not disruptive to
the gender power system. However, we must hesitate to label these
relationships as homosexual relationships, especially in the Lesotho
context where the women themselves did not identify themselves as
lesbians or homosexual because “homosexuality is not a conceptual
category everywhere… and the kinds of sexual acts it is thought
possible to perform, and the social identities that come to be attached
to those who perform them, vary from one society to another”...
Lesoto: HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis
(2009): The importance of male-male transmission within Lesotho’s
epidemic has not been systematically researched, and incidence
modelling results are based on assumptions and regional default
Sodomy spreading Aids in prison
(2005): At least one prisoner dies weekly and 52 die yearly due to
HIV/Aids related diseases at Lesotho's largest prison, the Maseru
divisional commander of correctional services said on Monday. Matete
Mahao disclosed that the main contributing factor to the deaths and the
spread of HIV/Aids at the Maseru Central Prison was sodomy, which, he
said, was not a new phenomenon in Lesotho's male prisons. - Male-Male Sexuality in Lesotho: Two Conversations (2002). - "Mummies and babies" and friends and lovers in Lesotho (1985).
Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Lesotho. Lesotho Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Lesotho. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa.Global Gayz: Africa: Lesotho News Reports From 2009 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Lesotho. - LGBT rights in Lesotho. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Lesotho Documents. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Gay teacher: I sodomised pupil (2005): A gay teacher has admitted to sodomising a pupil in his house after sending him on a fake errand... Thando Gamedze* is a former primary school teacher in the Lubombo region who proclaims that he is a male in the gay world... "After having sex with him, he told the authorities about the deed and the authorities reported the matter to the Ministry of Education," he said. When talking about what prompted his visit to our newsroom, he said, "I was inspired by the guys who were bold enough to come out." "I feel so bad now, for had I come out then about my sexuality, I would have had a partner a longtime ago and I would not have fallen into the mess I am in now," he said.
Swazi gays get first same-sex club in kingdom. How many gays are there in Swaziland?
The attorney sees the club engendering "limitless" opportunities for
blackmail, financial and political. He plans to visit the club when it
opens and hand out his business cards to potential clients. "The
British colonial law against sodomy is still on the books. It's
inviolate. The traditional leaders who run the country despise
homosexuality. They are Mugabesque in that way," he said... Speaking
about the gay bar, Gama said: "This is done by evil people. This is
something that not even the Bible allows and our culture does not
allow. This is not acceptable even by nature." ... The announcement of
a gay club in Mbabane was treated as an alien onslaught in the local
press. "Gays invasion!" said one headline. - The
formation of Swaziland's first gay group has causedan uproar (1997). - Limping
into the African Renaissance: "Stop what you are doing! In Swaziland
we are afraid of this" Steven Cohen is told during his Queer Performance
Art in Swaziland.
No condoms in prison (2003):
In Swaziland, the government acknowledged the fact that homosexuality
in prisons enhances the spread of HIV/AIDS, but has not provided
condoms to inmates, concentrating instead of efforts to curb prison
sex. "Correctional service authorities will be encouraged to take all
necessary measures, including adequate staffing, surveillance and
appropriate disciplinary measures, to protect prison inmates from rape,
sexual violence and coercion," the ministry of health says in its
'Policy Document on HIV/AIDS and STD Prevention and Control'. Recently,
the Family Life Association of Swaziland, an NGO that leads a campaign
for safe sex practices, offered to provide prisoners with free condoms.
However, the prisons department said last week it would not allow it
because "it is against the country's policy on the use of condoms". -
HIV/AIDS in the Umbufto Swaziland Defence Force (2006, PDF Download. PDF Download):
What remains unrecorded, and therefore falling outside the body of
major research initiatives, is the unspoken homosexual dimension of the
problem among the population. Strong cultural inhibitions continue to
make homosexuality a taboo discussion in Swaziland.
Amantanyula (2002): I was reading the Swaziland 'What's On' and there was a revue of the
book called (Emajaha Ekuluseni) meaning, 'boys in the field looking
after the cattle'. And the subject of sexuality came up. It was the
"amantanyula" or, boy's doing each other while looking after the cattle
that grabbed me the most. The question is, as amantanyula is an African
word and sodomy a western one, are they different things? My
understanding is that amantanyula means sodomy. I may be wrong but many
Africans do not have a problem with amantanyula but would have a
problem with sodomy... Talking about freedom of sexuality, we are not
talking constitutionally, but culturally. Is it African to be gay or
not? The book takes a very African point of view. Most of the young
Swazi boys in the book grew up in the late 1980s and slept with other
boys, and yet would still regard themselves as African. African boys
who happen to take it up the ass as a boy. But we all grow up in a
different way, in a different Africa. Isn't that so? In some African
countries, culture includes same sex behaviour but not gay identity or
a gay community as like in western culture. Back in 1986-1987, until
late1990 in a small village in South Africa called KwaNgwane, which is
very nearby to Swaziland, you could find the same amantanyula practise.
And inside Swaziland boys who looked after the cattle in the forest
would have sexual intercourse with each other. This was only for boys
over the age of 16 to prove their "man-hood" before they slept with any
woman. It was okay that both parents and the community would know about
it and they would be happy that their boy is becoming a man. Though
they never understood, what they were promoting was homosexuality, they
respected it as traditional behaviour and they praised it and loved it
- so much that some never stopped. "Some boys passed into manhood and
got married but now and then they still need some man's wood to remain
pure men," say's Mr Bhokondvo Nkosi, a Maths teacher of Emagogeni high
school. "The difference before the western influence is that it was ok
to practice this type's of sexuality and now most African parents are
considering it as "homosexuality" as it is labelled and therefore it is
regarded as a silly influence from the civilised countries and as a
western disease." ...
Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Swaziland. Swaziland Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Swaziland. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa.Global Gayz: Africa: Swaziland News Reports From 2009 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Swaziland. - LGBT rights in Swaziland. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Sudan Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Searching for Free Papers & Abstracts / Reports / Presentations / Articles on the Internet
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Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers). eScholarship Repository: University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries. - NTUR, National Taiwan University. - Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. - UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory.
Search for Free Articles, Papers or Reports: FindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. - NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere. The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.
Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project
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