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MALAWI - Donors seize aid because of antigay laws - Malawi (2011): Following the recent proposed criminalisation of same sex sexual practices amongst women in Malawi, some international donors have decided to withhold financial aid amounting close to 400 million dollars, a move which might see the country reaching an economic meltdown... Steven Monjeza and Tiwonge Chimbalanga the first openly gay couple in Malawi to get engaged were arrested, prosecuted and convicted of indecent practices in 2010 and sentenced to 14 years in prison but later received a presidential pardon, but activists suggest that this might have sparked the introduction of the new law. “At first the penal code only criminalised sex practices amongst men but after the 2009/10 case involving Steve and Tiwonge, the issues were widely being discussed and I think this is what brought about the whole change and the women being included. Even after the pardoning of the two, the government has maintained its stand on the same sex relationships in Malawi and I feel that the new law is just coming in from the government to show its people that it is not succumbing to the international pressure”, said Kamba. - Malawi refuses ‘homosexuality’ aid condition (2011): Malawi government on Wednesday took a strong stand against bilateral donors saying it cannot compromise its sovereignty to legalise homosexuality in order to get aid. - A Perverse Equality in Malawi and Other Gay Rights News (2011): Early last month, a bill was passed in Malawi’s parliament criminalizing homosexuality between women. Evidently there was concern the prior law could be construed to only apply to men, and since Malawi is clearly dedicated to making all things equal, decided it was necessary consenting adult women sharing their love also deserved the right to go to prison. As far as I know, the bill has yet to be signed into law by President Mutharika.

Malawi debates homosexuality after gay couple goes public (2010): The Blantyre Chief Resident Magistrates' Court Judge Nyakwawa Usiwausiwa Monday denied Malawi's first openly gay couple bail in the interest of the suspects' own safety considering the public interest the case has generated. "The accused have the right to bail but considering the public interest their case has generated it is the view of the court that they are safe in police custody than out there," said the judge reading out his 30-minute ruling on the couple's bail application. The couple, husband-to-be Steven Monjeza, 26, and his bride-to-be Tiwonge Chimbalanga, 20, were arrested on December the 27th at their co-habitation home in Blantyre, following their public traditional engagement ceremony Boxing Day. Homosexuality is illegal in Malawi and attracts a penalty of 14 years. The two are charged with three counts of puggery (practicing unnatural acts between males) gross indecency and living as husband and wife, contrary to Malawi's Penal Code.Thousands of people jammed Blantyre's business district as the two men appeared before the Court. The two, pleaded not guilty. - Malawi launches operation against high-profile gay and lesbian people: Fears of backlash across Africa as US evangelists accused of spreading religious zeal behind homophobic campaigns (2010). - Malawi gay rights activists under attack (2011).

Gay Couple Released After Presidential Pardon  (2010): Five months and a day after their arrest, the gay Malawian couple who dared to publicly declare their union with a traditional engagement party were pardoned by the president and released without conditions. Stephen Monjeza and Tiwonge Chimbalanga were found guilty and sentenced to the maximum sentence of 14 years with hard labour... But on May 29, Mutharika announced the pardon shortly after a meeting with U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon. The U.N. was one of many international organisations that had urged Malawi to reconsider the sentencing and Moon praised the "courage" of the decision of the President of Malawi.According to local media, the men were released several hours after the announcement and conducted to their respective homes. - Gay couple in Malawi pardoned by president after outcry (2010). - After prison pardon, Malawi's married gay couple split (2010). - Malawi court convicts gay couple (2010). - Gay Couple in Malawi Get Maximum Sentence of 14 Years in Prison (2010). - Malawi gay couple gets 14 years (2010, Video). - Malawi pardons gay couple (2010, Video).

A Malawian Davis Mpanda, 29, has been convicted and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for having sex with a 15-year-old boy (2010): Mpanda was arrested on January 25 at a trading centre near the commercial capital Blantyre, for having “carnal knowledge with a person against the order of nature,” reported The Nation newspaper of Malawi.Lunzu Magistrate, Diana Kamwangala, said that same-sex is “a serious offence” in the country which criminalizes homosexuality.

CEDEP unravels homosexuality in Malawi (2007): For the first time in Malawi, a human rights organisation was invited to present about gay issues at the national HIV and AIDS Research and Best Practices Conference organised by the Malawi National AIDS conference on 27-29 June 2007 at Malawi Institute of Management in Lilongwe... The study also showed that there is a lack of platform for men who have sex with men (MSM) to discuss HIV and AIDS related issues in relation to homosexuality and that MSM are highly vulnerable to stigma, discrimination and violence. - NGO advocates for homosexuality (2007). - Homosexuality exists in Mw prisons (2007). - Churches condemn condoms in Malawi prisons (2007). - Legalize homosexuality says human rights body (2005). - Petra against homosexuality (2007): Opposition Peoples’ Transformation Party (Petra) says it is against legalising homosexuality and has urged Malawians to reject any external pressure to embrace the practice.  - Malawi Officials to Challenge Appointment of Pro-Gay British High Commissioner (2007): Say pro-gay history "dangerous" to Malawi, where homosexuality still considered felony.

Malawi rejects 'pro-gay' bishop (2005): African Anglican bishops have blocked the appointment of a "pro-gay" bishop in Malawi. - Malawi in uproar over promotion of pro-gay churchman (2005).  - Back to the Warm Heart of Africa (1998): When I was a volunteer, most of my PCV friends knew I was gay. I had been warned by the Malawian trainers against coming out to the Malawian teachers at my school. Culturally, homosexuality is not accepted and is invisible. As a result I never came out to any Malawians. - Is She a Girl or is She a Woman? (2002) - Questioning Malawi (2002):  In fact, here in Malawi a teacher at an international school was recently convicted under the sodomy statues. In truth, the man was taking street children, tempting them with nice things like good food, clothes, and money, and then molesting them. It was really a case of a pedophile, but it was portrayed in the media as being mostly about homosexuality...  I was a little surprised by this exchange. There’s no recognizable gay community among Malawians, only a loose network of volunteers and aid workers. I have never heard homosexuality openly acknowledged among the people I regularly interact with. Yet homosexual activity definitely happens, even if it’s not labeled as “sex” even by those taking part. One of my expatriate friends acquaintances has more than a few stories of dalliances with Malawians from all over the country, and he reports it isn’t just mzungus (foreigners) with local men, but that the local people are enjoying each other, so to speak, as well. There are also instances of “beach boys” offering sex for money at certain beach resorts on Lake Malawi.

Bisexual concurrency, bisexual partnerships, and HIV among Southern African men who have sex with men (2010, Abstract): The sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men (MSM) in southern Africa has been little studied. We present here the first data on bisexual partnerships and bisexual concurrency among MSM in Malawi, Namibia and Botswana... 34.1% of MSM were married or had a stable female partner, and 53.7% reported both male and female sexual partners in the past 6 months. Bisexual concurrency was common, with 16.6% of MSM having concurrent relationships with both a man and a woman... The majority of MSM in this study report some bisexual partnerships in the previous 6 months. Concurrency with sexual partners of both genders is common. Encouragingly, men reporting any concurrent bisexual activity were more likely to report condom use with sexual partners, and these men were not more likely to have HIV infection than men reporting only male partners. HIV-prevention programmes focussing on decreasing concurrent sexual partners in the African context should also target bisexual concurrency among MSM. Decriminalisation of same-sex practices will potentiate evidence-based HIV-prevention programmes targeting MSM. A recent report emanating from the University of Pretoria reveals that the Malawi's National Policy on HIV/Aids (2002) holds much promise for LGBT legal reforms in relation to combating HIV/Aids (2004).

HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana (2009, Abstract): The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241); 20.0% (42/210) among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84) among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4-20.8). In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0), and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9) were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527) reporting at least one abuse. MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana.

Ntata PRT, Muula AS, Sisiya B (2008). Socio-demographic characteristics and sexual health related attitudes and practices of men having sex with men in central and southern Malawi. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 10(3): 124-130. PDF Download. Abstract.  An exploratory study of men having sex with men (MSM) was conducted in central and southern Malawi in order to understand their socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and perceptions about confidentiality and stigma. A total of 97 men participated in the study of whom 84 (86.6%) were in the age group 17-32 years. The majority, 73 (75.3%) of MSM had never married, 26 (32.5%) reported not always using condoms during sexual intercourse, and 23 (23.7%) had ever received money or gifts in exchange of sex. Only 17 (17.5%) of the participants reported being exposed to HIV prevention messages targeted at MSM...

Malawi MSM survey reveals very high HIV acquisition and transmission risks (2008). - Malawi: High-Risk Sex Among Those Who "Do Not Exist" (2009): A study on men having sex with men (MSM) in Malawi shows that, as elsewhere in the developing world, this vulnerable group is at greater risk of contracting HIV and AIDS than the general population. Moreover, their risk status is exacerbated as governments fail to target them for health services or information to stem HIV transmission. The study, conducted in 2007, points out that politicians and other leaders in Malawi "prefer to project the view that homosexuality is non-existent in the country". Because of this enforced in-the-closet existence, little information exists and data is hard to come by. MSM are fearful about being identified – to such an extent that the researchers found it difficult to conduct the study. "The men were reluctant to attend the workshops that we conducted as part of the study. Some did not want to be interviewed either," one of the authors of the study, Gift Trapence, told IPS in an interview. Even among those who were willing to participate in the study, extremely low levels of disclosure to their immediate family (seven percent) and extended family (13 percent) were recorded.

Perceptions about Men Having Sex with Men in Southern African Country: Case Study of Print Media in Malawi (PDF Download): The debate on homosexuality that in 2005 ensued in the Malawian print media mostly suggested that homosexuality was not an acceptable practice to the majority of those that contributed to the debate. Although homosexuality is classified as a crime in Malawi, general public is not aroused if it is done in privacy, among two consenting adults... However, the issue has at least been moved out from the closet to the public arena. How much change will be possible within the traditional society of Malawi remains to be seen...

Chibwezo, Wiseman  (2011). Blackmail Among Gay People in Malawi. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 74-88. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Queer Malawi: Untold Stories (Book): Review: The accounts in the book portray the joys of love and the heartache of rejection, the dangers posed by homophobia and hatred in communities, and the sublime comfort of close friends and relatives. According to the publishers, the twelve life stories are "intended to invoke compassion and support for the rights of African LGBTI people to live freely and harmoniously alongside their heterosexual counterparts in Malawi and beyond her borders". - 'Queer Malawi' opens lid on same sex relations. - Queer Malawi lifts the gay curtain. - Skadumense in Malawi kry stem.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Malawi. Malawi Archive. - African Veil: Countries CoveredMalawi. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Malawi News Reports From 2005 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Malawi. - LGBT rights in Malawi. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Malawi Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa - Malawi.

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Search for Free Articles, Papers or - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

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Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.

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