African Sexual Minorities & Gender Variant Resources
Homosexuality - Gay - Lesbian - Bisexual - Transgender - Transsexual - Same-Sex Sex
To: Map of Africa
- Donors seize aid because of antigay laws - Malawi
(2011): Following the recent proposed criminalisation of same sex
sexual practices amongst women in Malawi, some international donors
have decided to withhold financial aid amounting close to 400 million
dollars, a move which might see the country reaching an economic
meltdown... Steven Monjeza and Tiwonge Chimbalanga the first openly gay
couple in Malawi to get engaged were arrested, prosecuted and convicted
of indecent practices in 2010 and sentenced to 14 years in prison but
later received a presidential pardon, but activists suggest that this
might have sparked the introduction of the new law. “At first the penal
code only criminalised sex practices amongst men but after the 2009/10
case involving Steve and Tiwonge, the issues were widely being
discussed and I think this is what brought about the whole change and
the women being included. Even after the pardoning of the two, the
government has maintained its stand on the same sex relationships in
Malawi and I feel that the new law is just coming in from the
government to show its people that it is not succumbing to the
international pressure”, said Kamba. - Malawi refuses ‘homosexuality’ aid condition
(2011): Malawi government on Wednesday took a strong stand against
bilateral donors saying it cannot compromise its sovereignty to
legalise homosexuality in order to get aid. - A Perverse Equality in Malawi and Other Gay Rights News
(2011): Early last month, a bill was passed in Malawi’s parliament
criminalizing homosexuality between women. Evidently there was concern
the prior law could be construed to only apply to men, and since Malawi
is clearly dedicated to making all things equal, decided it was
necessary consenting adult women sharing their love also deserved the
right to go to prison. As far as I know, the bill has yet to be signed
into law by President Mutharika.
Malawi debates homosexuality after gay couple goes public
(2010): The Blantyre Chief Resident Magistrates' Court Judge Nyakwawa
Usiwausiwa Monday denied Malawi's first openly gay couple bail in the
interest of the suspects' own safety considering the public interest
the case has generated. "The accused have the right to bail but
considering the public interest their case has generated it is the view
of the court that they are safe in police custody than out there," said
the judge reading out his 30-minute ruling on the couple's bail
application. The couple, husband-to-be Steven Monjeza, 26, and his
bride-to-be Tiwonge Chimbalanga, 20, were arrested on December the 27th
at their co-habitation home in Blantyre, following their public
traditional engagement ceremony Boxing Day. Homosexuality is illegal in
Malawi and attracts a penalty of 14 years. The two are charged with
three counts of puggery (practicing unnatural acts between males) gross
indecency and living as husband and wife, contrary to Malawi's Penal
Code.Thousands of people jammed Blantyre's business district as the two
men appeared before the Court. The two, pleaded not guilty. - Malawi
launches operation against high-profile gay and lesbian people: Fears
of backlash across Africa as US evangelists accused of spreading
religious zeal behind homophobic campaigns (2010). - Malawi gay rights activists under attack (2011).
Gay Couple Released After Presidential Pardon (2010):
Five months and a day after their arrest, the gay Malawian
couple who dared to publicly declare their union with a traditional
engagement party were pardoned by the president and released without
conditions. Stephen Monjeza and Tiwonge Chimbalanga were found guilty
and sentenced to the maximum sentence of 14 years with hard labour...
But on May 29, Mutharika announced the pardon shortly after a meeting
with U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon. The U.N. was one of many
international organisations that had urged Malawi to reconsider the
sentencing and Moon praised the "courage" of the decision of the
President of Malawi.According to local media, the men were released
several hours after the announcement and conducted to their respective
homes. - Gay couple in Malawi pardoned by president after outcry (2010). - After prison pardon, Malawi's married gay couple split (2010). - Malawi court convicts gay couple (2010). - Gay Couple in Malawi Get Maximum Sentence of 14 Years in Prison (2010). - Malawi gay couple gets 14 years (2010, Video). - Malawi pardons gay couple (2010, Video).
A Malawian Davis Mpanda, 29, has been convicted and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for having sex with a 15-year-old boy (2010): Mpanda was arrested on January 25 at a trading centre near the commercial capital Blantyre, for having “carnal knowledge with a person against the order of nature,” reported The Nation newspaper of Malawi.Lunzu Magistrate, Diana Kamwangala, said that same-sex is “a serious offence” in the country which criminalizes homosexuality.
CEDEP unravels homosexuality in Malawi (2007):
For the first time in Malawi, a human rights organisation was invited
to present about gay issues at the national HIV and AIDS Research and
Best Practices Conference organised by the Malawi National AIDS
conference on 27-29 June 2007 at Malawi Institute of Management in
Lilongwe... The study also showed that there is a lack of platform for
men who have sex with men (MSM) to discuss HIV and AIDS related issues
in relation to homosexuality and that MSM are highly vulnerable to
stigma, discrimination and violence. - NGO advocates for homosexuality (2007). - Homosexuality exists in Mw prisons (2007). - Churches condemn condoms in Malawi prisons (2007). - Legalize homosexuality says human rights body (2005). - Petra against homosexuality (2007):
Opposition Peoples’ Transformation Party (Petra) says it is against
legalising homosexuality and has urged Malawians to reject any external
pressure to embrace the practice. - Malawi Officials to Challenge Appointment of Pro-Gay British High Commissioner (2007): Say pro-gay history "dangerous" to Malawi, where homosexuality still considered felony.
Malawi rejects 'pro-gay' bishop (2005): African Anglican bishops have blocked the appointment of a "pro-gay" bishop in Malawi. - Malawi in uproar over promotion of pro-gay churchman (2005). - Back
to the Warm Heart of Africa
(1998): When I was a volunteer, most of my PCV friends knew I was gay.
I had been warned by the Malawian trainers against coming out to the
Malawian teachers at my school. Culturally, homosexuality is not
accepted and is invisible. As a result I never came out to any
Malawians. - Is
She a Girl or is She a Woman? (2002) - Questioning Malawi (2002):
In fact, here in Malawi a teacher at an international school was
recently convicted under the sodomy statues. In truth, the man was
taking street children, tempting them with nice things like good food,
clothes, and money, and then molesting them. It was really a case of a
pedophile, but it was portrayed in the media as being mostly about
homosexuality... I was a little surprised by this exchange.
There’s no recognizable gay community among Malawians, only a loose
network of volunteers and aid workers. I have never heard homosexuality
openly acknowledged among the people I regularly interact with. Yet
homosexual activity definitely happens, even if it’s not labeled as
“sex” even by those taking part. One of my expatriate friends
acquaintances has more than a few stories of dalliances with Malawians
from all over the country, and he reports it isn’t just mzungus
(foreigners) with local men, but that the local people are enjoying
each other, so to speak, as well. There are also instances of “beach
boys” offering sex for money at certain beach resorts on Lake
Bisexual concurrency, bisexual partnerships, and HIV among Southern African men who have sex with men (2010, Abstract): The sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men (MSM) in southern Africa has been little studied. We present here the first data on bisexual partnerships and bisexual concurrency among MSM in Malawi, Namibia and Botswana... 34.1% of MSM were married or had a stable female partner, and 53.7% reported both male and female sexual partners in the past 6 months. Bisexual concurrency was common, with 16.6% of MSM having concurrent relationships with both a man and a woman... The majority of MSM in this study report some bisexual partnerships in the previous 6 months. Concurrency with sexual partners of both genders is common. Encouragingly, men reporting any concurrent bisexual activity were more likely to report condom use with sexual partners, and these men were not more likely to have HIV infection than men reporting only male partners. HIV-prevention programmes focussing on decreasing concurrent sexual partners in the African context should also target bisexual concurrency among MSM. Decriminalisation of same-sex practices will potentiate evidence-based HIV-prevention programmes targeting MSM. - A recent report emanating from the University of Pretoria reveals that the Malawi's National Policy on HIV/Aids (2002) holds much promise for LGBT legal reforms in relation to combating HIV/Aids (2004).
HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana (2009, Abstract):
The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3%
(20/241); 20.0% (42/210) among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84) among
those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI
14.4-20.8). In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25
(aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0), and not always wearing condoms during sex
(aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9) were significantly associated with being
HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing
concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had
both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months.
Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based
lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses,
including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent
with 42.1% (222/527) reporting at least one abuse. MSM are a high-risk
group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and
Ntata PRT, Muula AS, Sisiya B (2008). Socio-demographic
characteristics and sexual health related attitudes and practices of
men having sex with men in central and southern Malawi. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 10(3): 124-130. PDF
An exploratory study of men having sex with men (MSM) was conducted in
central and southern Malawi in order to understand their
socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and perceptions
about confidentiality and stigma. A total of 97 men participated in the
study of whom 84 (86.6%) were in the age group 17-32 years. The
majority, 73 (75.3%) of MSM had never married, 26 (32.5%) reported not
always using condoms during sexual intercourse, and 23 (23.7%) had ever
received money or gifts in exchange of sex. Only 17 (17.5%) of the
participants reported being exposed to HIV prevention messages targeted
Malawi MSM survey reveals very high HIV acquisition and transmission risks (2008). - Malawi: High-Risk Sex Among Those Who "Do Not Exist"
(2009): A study on men having sex with men (MSM) in Malawi shows that,
as elsewhere in the developing world, this vulnerable group is at
greater risk of contracting HIV and AIDS than the general population.
Moreover, their risk status is exacerbated as governments fail to
target them for health services or information to stem HIV transmission. The study, conducted in 2007, points out that
politicians and other leaders in Malawi "prefer to project the view
that homosexuality is non-existent in the country". Because of this
enforced in-the-closet existence, little information exists and data is
hard to come by. MSM are fearful about being identified – to such an extent that the
researchers found it difficult to conduct the study. "The men were
reluctant to attend the workshops that we conducted as part of the
study. Some did not want to be interviewed either," one of the authors
of the study, Gift Trapence, told IPS in an interview.
Even among those who were willing to participate in the study,
extremely low levels of disclosure to their immediate family (seven
percent) and extended family (13 percent) were recorded.
Perceptions about Men Having Sex with Men in Southern African Country: Case Study of Print Media in Malawi (PDF Download): The debate on homosexuality that
in 2005 ensued in the Malawian print media mostly suggested that
homosexuality was not an acceptable practice to the majority of those
that contributed to the debate. Although homosexuality is classified as
a crime in Malawi, general public is not aroused if it is done in
privacy, among two consenting adults... However, the issue has at least
been moved out from the closet to the public arena. How much change
will be possible within the traditional society of Malawi remains to be
Chibwezo, Wiseman (2011). Blackmail Among Gay People in Malawi. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 74-88. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.
Queer Malawi: Untold Stories (Book): Review: The
accounts in the book portray the joys of love and the heartache
of rejection, the dangers posed by homophobia and hatred in
communities, and the sublime comfort of close friends and relatives.
According to the publishers, the twelve life stories are "intended
to invoke compassion and support for the rights of African LGBTI people
to live freely and harmoniously alongside their heterosexual
counterparts in Malawi and beyond her borders". - 'Queer Malawi' opens lid on same sex relations. - Queer Malawi lifts the gay curtain. - Skadumense in Malawi kry stem.
Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Malawi. Malawi Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Malawi. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa.Global Gayz: Africa: Malawi News Reports From 2005 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Malawi. - LGBT rights in Malawi. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Malawi Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Searching for Free Papers & Abstracts / Reports / Presentations / Articles on the Internet
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Search for Free Articles, Papers or Reports: FindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. - NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere. The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.
Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project
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