African Sexual Minorities & Gender Variant Resources
Homosexuality - Gay - Lesbian - Bisexual - Transgender - Transsexual - Same-Sex Sex
To: Map of Africa
UN panel rebukes Egypt's anti-gay trials (2002). - Jailed homosexuals have little sympathy in Egypt (2001). - Egyptian "gays" found not guilty (2002). - 4 Egyptians Suspected as Gay are Acquitted - Arrests Continue (2002). - Egyptian rights group 'cannot protect gays' (2002). - Egypt Uses Web to Bust Gays (2002). - Explaining Egypt's Targeting of Gays (2001). - Egyptian Gays Go Deeper Underground (2002). - Homosexual Prosecutions Overturned: Internet Arrests, Harassments Continue (2003). - Acquittal of eleven men is not enough (2003). - Torture of Egyptian gays turns systematic (2004).
Egypt cracks down on homosexuals (2002): "Homosexuality itself is not technically illegal in Egypt but it is a serious taboo - culturally, socially and now politically. Gay men are vilified by the press and the public... Until last year, the government denied that homosexuality even existed. No one knows why it changed policy and decided to begin its crackdown... The chief government spokesman, Nabil Osman, is not willing to explain or apologise. "What we did was not a breach of human rights," he says. "But actually an interpretation of the norms of our society, the family values of our society. And no one should judge us by their own values. And some of these values in the West are actually in decay." - The Hunt Against Homosexuals Continues (2002). - A Gay activist in Egypt describes the nightmare of the government's crackdown on homosexuality (2002). - The Perils of Postmodernism (1995). - Egyptian Intellectuals: Vicious Killers of Same-Sex Love (2002).
Egypt entraps, tortures gay men (2004): Rights group says hundreds have
been affected (2004): "Egyptian authorities have entrapped, arrested and
tortured hundreds of men thought to be gay, a New York-based human rights
group said in a report Monday. - A
new report accuses the Egyptian authorities of systematically entrapping,
arresting and torturing homosexual men (2004). - Not
just the Queen Boat: HRW is asking the Egyptian government to stop persecuting
homosexuals and commit to reform. - 2004 Report (Full Text): In
a Time of Torture: The Assault on Justice In Egypt’s Crackdown on Homosexual
Hiding themselves in the crowd (1999):
"Many girls at Alexandria University have fallen for the charms of
22-year-old Michael, an Egyptian art student with delicate features and
green almond-shaped eyes. But he has lost count of the number of times
he has refused to go out on dates - and not because he likes playing
hard to get. He is just more interested in spending time with his
French boyfriend. "I tell the girls straight away that it's not
personal and that I am gay," he explains with a shy smile. "They are
shocked in the beginning, but then we become friends." Michael started
having homosexual intercourse when he was 12 but his first steady
relationship happened when he was 16. After it was over, he got
depressed and had to be medicated for a year - which was when he told
his family about his sexual orientation. "Homosexuality is becoming
more apparent in the Egyptian society," says Dr.Josette Abdalla,
assistant professor of Psychology at the AmericanUniversity in Cairo
(AUC). "This is in part the result of more exposure tomass media,
western influences and more access to papers, satellite dishesand
Women Who Love Women Who Love Men
(1998): Some Egyptian "lesbians" say they're just practising for the
real thing... In North America we like our sex the way we like our
clothes with labels. Perhaps reducing sexuality to categories
makes us feel safe. Maybe we hope that by naming something we can
understand it. But can we? What if the picture blurs? Those are the
kind of questions which interest education professor Didi Khayatt. She
is conducting a six-year study of how "lesbian" desire is expressed in
Egypt. "In the West, we've come to believe in the existence of discrete
sexual categories, and use them to describe our identities as if they
were immutable, and understood and accepted by everyone," says Khayatt.
Curiously, Arabic has no words for homosexuality or heterosexuality,
although there are words in the language for acts considered to be
perversions (such as sodomy or bestiality). "Arabic recognizes
same-gender sex for men, but there is no equivalent recognition for
Narratives of Lesbian Existence in Egypt: Coming to Terms with Identities
(2009): This Bachelor thesis deals with the sexual identity of Egyptian
women who love and have relationships with other women. I theoretically
study the state of existing literature on homosexuality in the Middle
East, and I do this from a gender perspective. By looking closer at
four recent books on this topic I derive two main, and contradictory,
theories. The first is put forth by Joseph A Massad in his book
Desiring Arabs, where he rejects the existence of homosexuality in the
Middle East, declaring that same sex acts in this region don’t
constitute identities, as in the West. The second theory, best
represented in Samar Habib’s work Female homosexuality in the Middle
East, sees past and present histories of same sex love as
representations of homosexuality. The empirical basis for my analysis
is five in-depth interviews with Egyptian women having sexual
relationships with women. Examining my material I find a negation of
Massad’s theory and a confirmation of Habib’s, the women indeed
describe sexual identities.
Gay cultures in Cairo, Egypt. - Gay Egypt - A guide to Egypt's gay scene. - In search of gay Egypt (2002). - Newspaper Report on "Gay Undeground" in Egypt in 1990s. - Activist Fights for Gay Rights in Egypt (2002). - Gay Oppresion in Egypt. - Fear and loathing keep Egypt's gays in the closet (2002). - Officially, homosexuality does not exist in Egypt (2001). - Egypte et homosexualité (Translation). - European Parliament Calls on Egypt to Stop Persecutions (2002).
History: - The Tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khanumhotep. - Same Sex Desire, Conjugal Constructs and the Tomb of Ni-ankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep. - History of Sex: Ancient Egypt. - Third Genders in Egypt. - Gay History Articles. - Queer Chronology. - "Born Eunuchs": Homosexual Identity in the Ancient World. - Homosexuality in Ancient Egypt. - A Mystery, Locked in Timeless Embrace.
Pratt N (2007). The Queen Boat case in Egypt: sexuality, national security and state sovereignty. Review of International Studies, 33: 129–144. PDF Download - Abstract.
"The government’s targeting of homosexuality in May 2001, following
years of ‘turning a blind eye’ to Cairo’s gay scene, is studied here in
terms of the links between the sphere of interpersonal relations and
notions of national security within international relations. The
persecution of men for alleged same-sex relations not only filled
newspaper columns and created a spectacle to divert people’s attention
away from the government’s failings. More importantly, the event
represented an opportunity for government officials, the media and
other civil society activists – both within Egypt and abroad – to
‘perform’ a discourse of national security through which national
sovereignty was (re)produced and political order was maintained.
However, this national security threat was not only posed by the
external threat of Western governments, international NGOs and other
transnational actors concerned with respect for human rights within
Egypt. More importantly, this threat was constructed as originating
with those people failing to conform to the ‘norm’ of heterosexual
El Menyawi H (2006). Activism from the closet: gay rights strategising in Egypt. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 7. PDF Download. PDF Download.
Abstract: "Recently the Egyptian Government has been systematically
attacking gays by putting them on trial, detaining and torturing them.
The author suspects that there are two reasons behind the Government’s
attacks of gay men: firstly, as a strategy to divert attention from its
failure to address the declining economic situation in Egypt, and
secondly, to increase the perception that it takes the Islamic faith
seriously. The latter is particularly important to the Egyptian
Government as it owes its increasing popularity largely to the Muslim
Brotherhood. By attacking gays, the Egyptian State successfully
distracted the public’s attention from its woes, while also shoring up
the State’s Islamic credentials. The author also considers mistakes
made when engaging in gay rights activism before his ultimate exile
from Egypt. The author, who used the language of gay identity and of
‘coming out of the closet’ as part of his activism, examines the
problems associated with such language. In particular, the author
points out that by deploying the language of gay identity, he played
into the hands of the Egyptian State, which then successfully
appropriated the same language to distract the Egyptian public from its
own problems. The author considers the problems with his activism to be
his engaging in a ‘Stonewall’ model of gay rights in which one openly
comes out of the closet and declares one is gay. The author concludes
by considering a new form of activism that is not open, but hidden,
which he calls ‘activism from the closet’. The hope behind the article
is to allow LBGTQ groups to express their sexuality, as well as engage
in activism, while reducing potential threats directed at them..."
Egyptian 'lesbian' film courts controversy (2009, Video)
Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Egypt. Egypt Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Egypt. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - LGBT rights in Arab countries: Links.
Global Gayz: Africa: Egypt News Reports from 2000 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Egypt. - LGBT rights in Egypt. - Sodomy Laws: Egypt. - GayEgypt.com - GME: Egypt. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Egypt Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Searching for Free Papers & Abstracts / Reports / Presentations / Articles on the Internet
Search Engines & Directories: - Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN
Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer
Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.
Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal. - Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. - findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com.
Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers). eScholarship Repository: University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries. - NTUR, National Taiwan University. - Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. - UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory.
Search for Free Articles, Papers or Reports: FindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. - NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere. The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.
Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project
Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.
Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses, Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.