Introduction to Probability, Statistics, and Estimation
Presentation and description of data, introduction to probability theory, Bayes' theorem, discrete and continuous probability distributions. Theory of errors and adjustment of observations. Familiarization with geomatics engineering methodology and estimation. The least squares method for linear parametric and conditional models. Course Hours:3 units; (3-1.5T-2) Prerequisite(s):Mathematics 211 and 277. Antirequisite(s):Credit for Geomatics Engineering 319 and Engineering 319 will not be allowed.
Continuous signals and systems and their properties. Frequency analysis and Fourier series. The continuous Fourier transform (CFT) and its properties. Convolution, correlation and power spectral density functions. Discrete signals and systems and their properties. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Sampling theory, aliasing and truncation effects. Linear and circular convolution and correlation. The fast Fourier transform (FFT). The two-dimensional CFT and DFT. Applications of spectral analysis in geodesy, remote sensing, digital imaging, positioning and navigation. Course Hours:3 units; (3-1.5T) Prerequisite(s):Mathematics 375 or Applied Mathematics 307. Antirequisite(s):Electrical Engineering 327.
Review of procedural programming and introduction to object-based programming using high level compiled and interpreted languages. Binary and ASCII File I/O, use of function libraries and class libraries. Construction of simple classes. Inheritance and polymorphism. Programming for Geomatics Engineering applications. Visualization and data representation. Course Hours:3 units; (3-2) Prerequisite(s):Engineering 233.
Levelling: differential and trigonometric levelling. Angular. Distance measurements by taping and EDM. Precision and accuracy of survey observations. Computations: traversing and area, the first and second geodetic problem on the plane, trig sections, intersections, three-point resection and co-ordinate transformations. Route surveying: horizontal and vertical curves, earthwork computations. Routine procedures: setting out straight lines and right angles; measurement with obstructions. Setting out surveys. Topographic surveys. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Engineering 319 or Geomatics Engineering 319.
Introduction to Geospatial Information Systems and Geographic Information Science, Georelational vector data model, object-based vector data model, raster data model, map projections, geodetic datums, co-ordinate systems, georeferencing, database design and management, query language, geometric transformations, vector data analysis, raster data analysis, spatial interpolation, terrain modelling and analysis, triangulated irregular network data model, path and network analysis. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Engineering 233.
Least squares method: parametric, condition and combined cases. Linearization. Problem formulation and solution: error propagation, analysis of trend, problems with a priori knowledge of the parameters, step-by-step methods, combination of models, sequential solution methods, summation of normals. Introduction to univariate and multivariate statistical testing applied to geomatics engineering problems. Sampling distributions, tests of hypotheses on means, variances, proportions, and residuals. Course Hours:3 units; (3-1.5T-2) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 319 and 333. Antirequisite(s):Credit for Geomatics Engineering 363 and 361 will not be allowed.
Design and implementation of topographic surveys: survey specifications, equipment calibration, reconnaissance, design of survey control points, resection, traversing, differential levelling, and mapping. Error analysis, error figures and error visualization using a graphical approach. Principles of cartography: design, constraints and planning, generation and production of maps including scale, contours, and co-ordinate grids. UTM and 3TM co-ordinates. Digital cartography: computer-aided survey mapping and digital data generation. Communication of geomatics engineering information: technical reports, field notes, and graphical data representation. Course Hours:3 units; (1-2T-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 343 and one of Geomatics Engineering 361 or 363. Notes:Field work prior to the start of classes will be required.
A systematic approach to "Geomatics Network Analysis and Optimal Design", which are two of the most important processes in establishing a Geodetic Network. Network observation reductions and pre-analysis. Network co-ordinate systems, observation models and least-squares adjustment. Network precision, reliability measures and analysis. Network design concepts, classification and methods. Network design for deformation monitoring and analysis. Other geodetic network applications. New network concepts. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s): Geomatics Engineering 361 or 363.
Fundamental concepts, definitions and basic aims of geodesy. Representation of the Earth's surface: physical and mathematical figures of the Earth, geodetic reference systems, frames and co-ordinates, reference ellipsoids and geodetic datums, maps. Time systems, basic motions of the Earth, dynamic behaviour of the Earth. Basic types of geodetic reference systems, computational procedures and co-ordinate transformation methods. Celestial co-ordinate systems and astronomic positioning. Elements of map projections, examples and applications. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 333 and 351.
Introduction to geodesy, its principles, tasks and applications. Measurements and methods for geodetic positioning. The gravity field and the geoid in science and engineering. Elements from potential theory, vector calculus, Gauss divergence, Green's theorems, boundary value problems. The normal field. Gravimetry and gravimetric measurements. Gravity reductions, isostasy. Geoid determination, Stokes's formula, combination methods, least-squares collocation. Vertical positioning and height datums and systems. Fundamentals of Earth's figure and gravity field estimation using perturbations of orbits of satellites and planets. Principles and applications of satellite gravimetry and satellite altimetry. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 421. Corequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 327 or Electrical Engineering 327.
The role of photogrammetry in mapping applications (image acquisition and image measurement). Mathematical relationships between image space and object space. Two- and three-dimensional co-ordinate transformations. Conditions of collinearity and coplanarity; orientation procedures (interior, exterior, relative, absolute orientation and direct georeferencing); measurement and correction of image co-ordinates; stereomodel formation and error analysis; mathematical models for strip and block adjustments; project planning; principles of laser scanning. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 419.
A survey of modern quantitative remote sensing using optical, infrared and microwave radiation. Topics include: physical principles, including governing equations; imaging system geometries; radiometric corrections, including calibration and atmospheric correction; geometric corrections, including registration and land cover classification algorithms, including accuracy assessment and geospatial data integration. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 333 and 351.
Design and Implementation of Geospatial Information Systems
Overview of Geographical Information Systems from a computing perspective. Topics include: Fundamental Database Concepts: relational algebra, UML modelling, and SQL; Fundamental Spatial Concepts: Geometry, Euclidean space, topological space, set notations, point set topology, and base graph theory; Models for Geospatial Information: object models and field models; Representations and Algorithms for GIS: computational complexity, discretization algorithms, topological data models and algorithms, TIN model, and computational geometry algorithms for GIS; Spatial Access Methods: B-Tree, Quadtree, and R-Tree; and Architectures; centralized and decentralized architectures. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 351. Corequisite(s):One of Engineering 213, Communications Studies 363 or Strategy and Global Management 217.
Land tenure, cadastral systems, real property law, methods of acquiring rights in land, boundary concepts, cadastral survey computations, land registration systems, entity relationship models of land tenure systems, case law of boundary systems. History of cadastral systems, land administration, fiscal and juridical cadastres, dominion land systems, land registration in Alberta, special types of surveys relating to Canada Lands, structure of professional surveying bodies in Canada. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 421 and one of Geomatics Engineering 103 or 401; and one of Engineering 213, Communications Studies 363 or Strategy and Global Management 217.
Satellite orbit motion and Kepler's laws. Description of GPS signal structure and derivation of observables. Characteristics of instrumentation. Analysis of atmospheric, orbital and other random and non-random effects. Derivation of mathematical models used for absolute and differential static and kinematic positioning. Pre-analysis methods and applications. Concept of Kalman filtering applied to kinematic positioning. Ambiguity resolution procedures Overview of other GNSS, GNSS augmentation and high-sensitivity receivers Introduction to inertial navigation. Course Hours:3 units; (3-3) Prerequisite(s): Geomatics Engineering 361 or 363; and 421; and one of 103 or 401.
Field exercises include: instrument calibration, cadastral retracement, determination of astronomic azimuth, conventional control survey for deformation analysis, real time kinematic surveying, geodetic control using static GPS, precise levelling, hydrographic surveying, and geographic information systems and data management. This course adopts a team-based learning approach and emphasis is placed on practical professional experience, planning, and logistic for field survey operations. Each team is required to produce a field work report for each field activity, and each student is responsible for a chapter, detailing one of the exercises, of the primary team report describing all of the work accomplished by the team during the course. The course concludes with a half-day seminar that focuses on the practice and profession of Land Surveying. Course Hours:3 units; (152 hours) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 419, 455, 465; and 103 or 401; and one of 451 or 443. Notes:A two-week field camp will be held at the Biogeoscience Institute at Barrier Lake prior to the start of the Fall Term lectures. Students will be assessed a supplementary fee to cover the costs of the field camp.
Geometry and orientation of multi-image networks, self-calibrating bundle adjustment, direct versus indirect geo-referencing, 3D point cloud generation via structure-from-motion approaches, geometry of line cameras, principles of active imaging systems, mathematics of LiDAR mapping (registration and calibration), 3D point-cloud manipulation (feature extraction, segmentation and classification), photogrammetry and LiDAR data integration and fusion. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 421, 431 and 435.
Water levels and flow. Underwater acoustics including velocity and system parameters. Sonar and echosounder systems. Acoustic positioning concepts. Vertical positioning and datums. Types of surveys and specifications. Practical examples and survey data processing. Course Hours:3 units; (2-3) Prerequisite(s):Fourth-year standing or higher.
Progress in research, development and applications in the field of geospatial technologies; importance of geospatial knowledge and evolution of geospatial technologies in the last decades; focus on six major geospatial technologies that characterize the so-called Geospatial Revolution; Geoweb, Virtual Globes, Volunteered Geographic Information, Location-Based Services, Big data and geospatial cyber-infrastructure; data/product quality, privacy and confidentiality, and societal implication of these technologies will be discussed. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s): Fourth-year standing.
An introduction to digital image processing (IP) and computer vision (CV) concepts, methods and algorithms which will enable the students to implement IP/CV systems or use IP/CV software with emphasis on remote-sensing and photogrammetry applications and problem solving. Course components include: image formation and intensity transformation, filtering in the spatial and frequency domain, colour image processing, feature detection and matching, image restoration, image segmentation, mathematical morphology and multi-source image/data fusion. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 435 and one of Geomatics Engineering 327 or Electrical Engineering 327.
Fundamental of matrix theory, linear systems, probability and statistics. Data classification, analysis and bias identification. Random data acquisition, qualification and analysis. Least squares estimation and data analysis. Random process, stationarity test and kinematic modelling. Kalman filtering and real-time data analysis. Introduction to signal processing and time series analysis. Practical applications of data analysis and processing in geomatics engineering. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s): Geomatics Engineering 361 or 363.
Instrument systems and procedures for high-precision surveys: precise levels, high-precision theodolites, electronic distance measurement instruments. High-precision industrial surveys: computation of three-dimensional orientations and rotations by autoreflection and autocollimation; computation of three-dimensional co-ordinates and co-ordinate changes by theodolite intersection methods, total station methods, scale bar on target methods, digital camera methods, laser scanner methods; systematic errors and their control; geometric form fitting. Case studies in high precision surveys. Course Hours:3 units; (2-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 419 and 443.
Digital Terrain Modelling (DTM, DEM, DHM, DTEM) concepts and their implementation and applications in geomatics engineering and other disciplines. Emphasis will be on mathematical techniques used in the acquisition processing, storage, manipulation, and applications of DTM. Models of DTM (Grids, Contours, and TINS), data structures (Delaunay trianagulation, Voronoi diagram, Octree, k-D tree) processing (filtering, random sample concensus, surface normal computation), surface representation from point data using moving averages, linear projection, and Kriging techniques. Grid resampling methods and search algorithms used in gridding and interpolation. DTM derivatives (slope maps, aspect maps, viewsheds, and watershed). Applications of DTM in volume computation, and drainage networks. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s):Engineering 407 and Geomatics Engineering 431.
Review of legislation, standards of practice and case law affecting property interests, property boundaries and boundary surveys. Evidence and boundary survey principles, riparian rights, title to land; Canada lands; Aboriginal rights; inter-jurisdictional boundaries; law of the sea. Reforms in the surveying profession. Field exercises may take place off campus over week-ends. Course Hours:3 units; (2-3) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 455 and 443. Corequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 501.
Theoretical and historical bases of planning. Urban reform and development of planning in Canada. Sustainable development. Subdivision planning process. Provincial and municipal planning approval requirements. Public participation. Site assessments. Field exercises may take place off campus over week-ends. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 579.
Nature and purpose of environmental modelling; the top-down and the bottom-up approaches; typology of environmental models; definition of fundamental concepts; steps involved in designing and building a model; calibration, verification and validation of models; scale dependency; sensitivity analysis; characteristics, architecture and functioning of selected environmental models. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s):Fourth-year standing. Also known as:(Environmental Engineering 635)
Fundamentals of radio-frequency propagation, principles of radio-frequency positioning, observations and their associated error sources. Introduction to self-contained inertial sensors including odometers, gyros, accelerometers, and augmentation of RF methods with self-contained sensors and other data sources. Current systems: Assisted GPS, cellular telephone location techniques, pseudolites, location with wireless computer networks, ultra-wideband. Applications: outdoor and indoor personal location, asset tracking. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2) Prerequisite(s):Geomatics Engineering 465 and one of Geomatics Engineering 327 or Electrical Engineering 327.
Following are the graduate courses normally offered in the Department. Additional courses are also offered by visiting international lecturers. Please refer to the Department website (geomatics.ucalgary.ca) for current course listings.
Geomatics Engineering 601
Individual project in the student's area of specialization under the guidance of the student's supervisor. A written proposal, one or more written progress reports, and a final written report are required. An oral presentation is required upon completion of the course. Course Hours:3 units; (0-4) Notes: Open only to students in the course-based route MEng.
Covers relevant computer vision methods for solving mapping problems. Topics include 2D/3D interest points and feature descriptors, stereo and multi-view stereo, image alignment, 3D reconstruction, range data processing (pre-processing, segmentation and alignment), 3D modelling from point clouds, deep learning for mapping, map inference and map matching. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Potential theory and geodetic boundary value problems (GBVPs). Solution approaches to the Molodensky problem. Least-squares collocation (LSC). Hilbert spaces with kernel functions. Variational principles, improperly posed problems and regularization. The altimetry-gravimetry and overdetermined GBVPs. Solution of GBVPs by integral techniques, fast Fourier transforms and LSC. Use of heterogeneous data sets and noise propagation. Applications to gravity prediction, geoid determination, deflection estimation, satellite altimetry and airborne gravimetry and gradiometry. Current research activities. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS)
Introduction of methods to engage in effective dialogue and advocacy through the adoption of Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS). Approaches learned to safeguard culturally sensitive information from external misuse and exploitation; methods to ensure traditional custodians maintain control of their spatial information; methods for producing, georeferencing and visualizing (indigenous) spatial knowledge that promote peer-to-peer dialogue, and their aspirations and concerns with higher-level authorities. The course will be a workshop forward that incorporates readings and various group exercises to provide students with a road make to undertaking PGIS. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Overview of estimation fundamentals including stochastic processes, covariance matrices, auto-correlation functions, power spectral densities, and error propagation. Review of least-squares estimation, summation of normals and sequential least-squares formulations, and role of measurement geometry in least-squares position estimation. Constraints and implementations. Concept of Kalman filtering; relationship between Kalman filtering and least-squares; linear, linearized and extended Kalman filter formulations; system model formulation; process noise model determination; measurement models, and effect of time-correlated measurements and possible remedies. Numerical stability issues in estimation and possible solutions. Statistical reliability in least-squares and Kalman filtering and related RAIM concepts. Introduction to other estimation techniques including unscented Kalman filters and particle filters. Application of above topics to relevant navigation estimation problems. Course Hours:3 units; (2-2)
Inertial sensors and their application in inertial navigation, existing inertial systems, new developments in strapdown technology. Practical aspects of inertial positioning definition of an operational inertial frame, inertial error models. Effect of inertial sensor errors on the derived navigation parameters, performance characteristics of inertial sensors, calibration of inertial sensors. Mechanization equations in different co-ordinate frames, step by step computation of the navigation parameters from the inertial sensor data introduction to Kalman filtering for optimal error estimation, modelling INS errors by linear state equations, practical issues for the implementation of update measurements (ZUPT, CUPT, Integrated systems), current research activities. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Overview of space positioning and navigation systems; concepts and general description. Global Navigation Satellite System signal description. Receiver and antenna characteristics and capabilities; signal measurements indoor; GNSS error sources and biases; atmospheric delays, signal reflection and countermeasures. Mathematical models for static point and relative positioning. Kinematic single point and differential post mission and real time positioning, navigation and location. Augmentation methods. Land, marine, airborne and indoor applications. Case studies. Course Hours:3 units; (3-2)
Introduction of different estimation criteria, error sources in estimation, modelling and testing requirements. Advanced least squares method, estimation equations and analysis. Random processes, dynamic models, Kalman filter equations and analysis. Implementation aspects. Concept of signal, least squares collocation equations and applications. Robust estimation principle and robustified least squares and Kalman filter. Data modelling issue in estimation, functional and stochastic model development for least squares and Kalman filter. Error analysis, conventional and robust statistical testing methods and analysis. Applications to geomatics engineering problems in geodesy, positioning and navigation, photogrammetry, etc. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Atmospheric Effects on Satellite Navigation Systems
Theoretical and observed aspects of radio wave propagation in the ionosphere and troposphere, with an emphasis on L-band (GPS) signals. Fundamentals of absorption, attenuation, depolarization, and defraction will be covered, in addition to characteristics and physical properties of the propagation medium and atmospheric constituents. The impact of such effects, and methods of mitigation, will be interpreted with respect to satellite navigation applications. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
An introduction to environmental earth observation systems in particular to satellite platforms. Topics include: discussion of physical principles, including governing equations; imaging system geometries; radiometric corrections, including calibration and atmospheric correction; spatial filtering for noise removal and information extraction; geometric corrections, including rectification and registration; fusion of multi-dimensional datasets (i.e., multispectral, multi-temporal, multi-resolution, and point-source ground data); and application of satellite images in addressing selected environmental issues.
Global Navigation Satellite System signal structure, overview of receiver architecture, measurements, antenna design, receiver front-end, reference oscillator, sampling and quantization, phase lock loops, frequency lock loops and delay lock loops, tracking loop design and errors, signal acquisition and detection, interference effects. Course Hours:3 units; (2.5-1)
Review of basic digital imaging; advanced topics in multispectral or hyperspectral analysis, multiresolution analysis, image segmentation, image transform, data fusion, pattern recognition or feature matching; current research applications especially in geomatics. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Optical imaging methods for precise close-range measurement. Photogrammetric techniques with emphasis on the bundle adjustment. Photogrammetric datum definition, network design and quality measures. Principles of laser rangefinding and laser scanning. Imaging distortions, sensor modelling and system self-calibration for a variety of imaging sensors including digital cameras, panoramic cameras, 3D laser scanners and 3D range cameras. Automated point cloud processing methods; registration, modelling and segmentation. Selected case studies. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Comprehensive overview of spatial database management systems and issues related to spatial data mining. Topics include: overview of spatial databases, spatial concepts and data models, spatial query languages, spatial storage and indexing, spatial networks, spatial data mining, and trends in spatial databases.
Course Hours:3 units; (3-0) Also known as:(Environmental Engineering 630)
Overview of the fundamental concepts, approaches, techniques, and applications in the field of Geocomputation. Topics being discussed include Geocomputation, Computational intelligence, Complex Systems theory, Cellular automata modelling, Multi-agent system modelling, Calibration and validation of dynamic models, Scale, Artificial neural network, Data mining and knowledge discovery, Geovisualization, and Post-normal science. Individual projects involving the application of Geocomputational techniques and models are conducted.
Overview of aerial triangulation procedures (strip triangulation, block adjustment of independent models, bundle block adjustment, automatic aerial triangulation, direct versus indirect orientation). Mapping from space (modelling the perspective geometry of line cameras, epipolar geometry for line cameras). Multi-sensor aerial triangulation (integrating aerial and satellite imagery with navigation data). Photogrammetric products (Digital Elevation Models, ortho-photos). The role of features in photogrammetric operations (utilizing road network captured by terrestrial navigation systems in various orientation procedures). Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Spatial phenomena and spatial processes. Spatial data analysis and the importance of spatial data in scientific research. Methods will range from exploratory spatial data analysis through to recent developments such as nonparametric semivariogram modelling, generalized linear mixed models, estimation and modelling of nonstationary covariances, and spatio-temporal processes. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Elasticity, figure of the Earth, Earth structure and seismology, gravity and its temporal variations, isostasy, tides, Earth rotation and orientation, time, plate flexure, glacial rebound, continental drift, geodetic observation methods for geodynamics. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0) Also known as:(Geophysics 681)
Introduction to image formation with polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR), theory of polarized electromagnetic waves, polarimetric scattering from targets, POLSAR data models, speckle filtering, data decomposition, classification, and segmentation. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Cadastral Systems, cadastral data, land registration, data structures and schemas for land administration information, ISO standards, evolutionary models, land tools, effectiveness metrics. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0)
Advanced Topics in Sensor Web and Internet of Things
Overview of the sensor web architecture and algorithms, with a focus on Internet of Things. Topics include: sensor web data management, sensor web search and discovery, sensor web server design and implementation, interoperability issues, sensor-based analytics and visualization, introduction to sensor networks, and trends in sensor web and Internet of Things. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0) Also known as:(Environmental Engineering 639)
Individual project study conducted under the guidance of a faculty member and intended to familiarize the student with the literature and techniques that are required for their research program, but are not available in regular courses. Course Hours:3 units; (3-0) Prerequisite(s):Consent of the Department Head or Associate Head Graduate Studies. MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT
This professional development seminar aims at providing relevant skills to be a successful graduate student and to make a smooth transition to a rewarding professional career. In addition to efficient communication skills, this course will place an emphasis on research methodologies such as formulating research problems, preparing a scholarship application, writing a paper for publication, and defending a thesis. How to prepare for a successful interview in industry or academia and the required process for becoming a professional engineer will also be discussed. Course Hours:3 units; (3S-0) NOT INCLUDED IN GPA