Distress pubs

Distress Screening Publications

Publications done on distress management in Psychosocial Oncology.



  1. Baydoun M*, Speca M, Taylor-Brown J, Stephen, J, Piedalue KA*, Turner J, Carlson LE. (2021) Comparing online support groups with and psychoeducation versus psychoeducation alone for distressed breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology Research and Practice. doi: 10.1097/OR9.0000000000000058 View.


  1. Carlson, L.E , Zelinski. E.L, Toivonen, K. Sundstrom, L., Jobin, C.T, Damaskos, P., & Zebrack, B. (2019) Prevalence of psychosocial distress in cancer patients across 55 North American cancer centers, Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 37:1, 5-21 View.


  1. Carlson LE, Toivonen K*, Flynn M*, Deleemans J*, Piedalue KA*, Tolsdorf E*, Subnis U*. (2018) The role of Hypnosis in Cancer Care. Current Oncology. 2018 Nov 13;20(12):93. Doi:10.1007/s11912-018-0739-1. View.
  2. Carlson, L.E. (2018). Distress Management through Mind-Body Therapies in Oncology. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. View
  3. Giese-Davis, J., McCormick, J. L.*, Chobanuk, J., Shirt, L., Railton, C., Taylor, A., Zhong, L., Lau, H., Hao, D., Walley, B., Kapusta, B., Joy, A.A., Carlson, L.E. (2018). Alberta Cancer Bridges care plan implementation for breast and head-and-neck cancers. Current Oncology. View.


  1. Schorr M, Carlson LE, Lau HY, Zhong L, Bultz BD, Waller A, Groff SL, Hao D.Distress levels in patients with oropharyngeal vs. non-oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck over 1 year after diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study. Support Care Cancer. 2017 Jun 10. doi: 10.1007/s00520-017-3733-5. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28600705 View 
  2. Carlson, L.E., Rouleau, C.R., Speca, M., Robinson, J., Bultz, B.D. (2017).Brief supportive-expressive group therapy for partners of men with early stage prostate cancer: lessons learned from a negative randomized controlled trial. Support Care Cancer (2017). doi:10.1007/s00520-016-3551-1 View


  1. Carlson, L.E. (2014). Reply to W. Hollingworth et al: Needs assessments in reducing distress among patients with cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. JCO March 20, 2014. 32(9): 969-970. http//jco.ascopubs.org/cgi/doi/10.1200/JCO.2013.54.4411).  View


  1. Bultz, B.D., Waller, A., Cullum, J., Jones, P., Halland, J., Groff, S.L., Leckie, C., Shirt, L., Blanchard, S., Lau, H., Easaw, J., Fassbender, K. and Carlson, L.E. (2013) . Implementing Routine Screening for Distress, the Sixth Vital Sign, for Patients With Head and Neck and Neurologic Cancers. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2013, 11:1249-1261. View
  2. Thomas, B.C., Waller, A., Malhi, R.L., Fung, T., Carlson, L.E. , Groff, S.L., Bultz, B.D. (2013) . A Longitudinal Analysis of Symptom Clusters in Cancer Patients and Their Sociodemographic Predictors. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2014 Mar;47(3):566-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.04.007. Epub 2013 Sep 12. View
  3. Enns, A., Waller, A., Groff, S.L., Bultz, B.D., Fung, T., Carlson, L.E. (2013) . Risk Factors for Continuous Distress Over a 12-Month Period in Newly Diagnosed Cancer Outpatients. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 2013;31(5):489-506. doi: 10.1080/07347332.2013.822052. View
  4. Carlson, L.E. (2013) . Screening Alone Is Not Enough: The Importance of Appropriate Triage, Referral, and Evidence-Based Treatment of Distress and Common Problems. JCO. October 10, 2013; 31(29): 3616-3617. doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.51.4315 View
  5. Carlson, L.E., Waller, A., Groff, S.L., Zhong,L., Bultz, B.D. (2013). Reply: benefits of screening cancer patients for distress still not demonstrated. BJC (2013);108, 738–739. doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.17 View
  6. Carlson, L.E., Waller, A., Groff, S.L., Giese-Davis, J., Bultz, B.D. (2013). What goes up does not always come down: patterns of distress, physical and psychosocial morbidity in people with cancer over a one year period. Psycho-Oncology 2013 Jan;22(1):168-76. doi: 10.1002/pon.2068. Epub 2011 Oct 4. View
  7. Bultz, B.D. & Carlson, L.E.(2013). Editorial on: Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer: A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. July 2013: 75(1), 18-19. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.04.002 
  8. Carlson, L.E., Waller, A., Groff, S.L., Bultz, B.D. (2013). Reply to Dekker et al: Comment on ‘Online screening for distress, the 6th vital sign, in newly diagnosed oncology outpatients: randomised controlled trial of computerised vs personalised triage’ – Psychological distress in patients with cancer: is screening the effective solution? British Journal of Cancer, 2013 Jun 25; 108(12): 2631–2632. Published online 2013 Jun 11. doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.287  View


  1. Carlson, L.E., Waller, A., Groff, S.L., Zhong, L., & Bultz, B.D. (2012). Online screening for distress in newly diagnosed oncology outpatients: Randomised controlled trial of computerised vs. personalized triage. British Journal of Cancer,  2012 Aug 7;107(4):617-25. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2012.309. Epub 2012 Jul 24. View 
  2. Mitchell, A.J., Meader, N., Davies, E., Clover, K., Carter, G.L., Loscalzo, M.J., Linden, W., Grassi, L., Johansen, C., Carlson, L.E., & Zabora, J. (2012). Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: Evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer care consensus group. Journal of Affective Disorders 2012 Oct;140(2):149-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.043. Epub 2012 May 24. View
  3. Carlson, L.E., Waller, A., Mitchell, A.J. (2012). Screening for distress and unmet needs in patients with cancer: Review and recommendations. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2012 Apr 10;30(11):1160-77. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.39.5509. Epub 2012 Mar 12. View
  4. Mitchell, A.L., Waller, A., Carlson, L.E. (2012). Implementing a screening programme for distress in cancer settings: Science and practice. Psicooncologia, 2012; 9(2-3): 259-275. View
  5. Waller, A., Groff, S.L., Hagen, N., Bultz, B.D. and Carlson, L.E. (2012). Characterizing distress,the 6th vital sign, in an oncology pain clinic. Current oncology.  2012 Apr; 19(2): e53–e59. doi: 10.3747/co.19.882 View
  6. Carlson, L.E., Waller, A., GRoff, S.L., Bultz, B.D. (2012). Screening for distress, the six vital sign, in lung cancer patients: effects on pain, fatigue, and common problems - secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Psycho-Oncology, 2013 Aug;22(8):1880-8. doi: 10.1002/pon.3223. Epub 2012 Nov 12. View 
  7. Giese-Davis, J., Waller, A., Carlson, L.E., Groff, S., Zhong, L., Neri, E., Bachor, S., Adamyk-Simpson, J., Rancourt, K.MS., Dunlop, B., Bultz, B.D. (2012). Screening for distress, the 6th vital sign: common problems in cancer outpatients over one year in usual care: associations with marital status, sex, and age. BMC Cancer, 2012 Oct 2;12:441. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-441. View


  1. Waller, A., Williams, A., Groff, S.L., Bultz, B.D., Carlson, L.E. (2011). Screening for distress, the sixth vital sign: Examining self-referral in people with cancer over a one-year period. Psycho-oncology 2013 Feb;22(2):388-95. doi: 10.1002/pon.2102. Epub 2011 Dec 2. View
  2. Carlson, L.E., Groff, S., Waller, A., Bultz, B.D. (2011). Reply to S. Palmer et al. clinical trial did demonstrate benefits for screening cancer patients for distress. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29(10), e279-e80. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2010.34.1727 View


  1. Carlson, L.E., Groff, S., Maciejewski, O., Bultz, B.D. (2010). Screening for distress in lung and breast cancer outpatients: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4884-91. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.3698. Epub 2010 Oct 12. View
  2. Carlson, L.E., Clifford, S.S., Groff, S.L., Maciejewski, O., & Bultz, B.D. (2010). Screening for Depression in Cancer Care. In Mitchell, A.J. & Coyne, J.C. (Eds.), Screening for depression in clinical practice: An Evidence-Based guide. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. pp. 265-295 ISBN: 978-0-19-538019-4   


  1. Thomas, B.C., Carlson, L.E., & Bultz, B.D. (2009). Cancer patient ethnic identity: associations with distress - the 6h vital sign: A new look at defining patient ethnicity in a multicultural context. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2009 Aug;11(4):237-48. doi: 10.1007/s10903-008-9180-0. Epub 2008 Sep 5. View
  2. Thomas, B.C., Groff, S., Tsang, K., & Carlson, L.E. Patient ethnicity: A key predictor of cancer care satisfaction. Ethnicity & Health 2009 Aug;14(4):351-8. doi: 10.1080/13557850802638203. View


  1. Hagen, N., Stiles, C., Nekolaichuk, C., Biondo, P., Carlson, L.E., Fisher, K., Rainsinger, R. (2008). The Alberta Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool (BPAT-R) for Cancer Patients: A validation study using a Delphi process and patient think aloud interviews. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2008 Feb;35(2):136-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.03.016. Epub 2008 Jan 7. View
  2. Thomas, B., Carlson, L., & Bultz, B. (2008). Publicly funded health care: Reassessing new evidence and existing views on ethnic disparity in cancer care. Psycho-Oncology, 17(6), 2L-2.
  3. Thomas, B., Carlson, L., & Bultz, B. (2008). Role of ethnicity in psychosocial health and treatment outcomes among cancer patients: An interim analysis of a longitudinal study. Psycho-Oncology, 17(6), 11L-3.  


  1. Bultz, B.D., Thomas, B.C. Stewart, D.A., & Carlson, L.E. (2007). Distress - the sixth vital sign in cancer care: Implications for treating older adults undergoing chemotherapy. Geriatrics and Aging, 10(10), 647-653. View
  2. Carlson, L.E. & Thomas, B.C. (2007). Development of the Calgary Symptoms of Stress Inventory (C-SOSI). International Journal of Behavioral Medicine,  2007;14(4):249-56. View


  1. Bultz, B.D. & Carlson, L.E. (2006). Emotional distress: The 6th vital sign in cancer care. Psycho-Oncology, 15, 93-95. View
  2. Carlson, L.E., Bultz, B., Clifford, S., Hillard, F. & Groff, S. (2006). Positioning psychosocial screening in forefront of clinical oncology practice: Why hasn't it happened yet? Psycho-Oncology, 15(S2), S53.   
  3. Carlson, L.E., Bultz, B., Clifford, S., Hillard, F. & Welter, M. (2006). Online computerized screening for distress, pain, and fatigue in newly diagnosed cancer patients: Program description and preliminary results. Psycho-Oncology, 15(S2), S195. 
  4. Thomas, B.C., Carlson, L.E. & Bultz, B.D. (2006). Ethnic identity: Associations with the 6th vital sign in cancer care. Psycho-Oncology, 15(S2), S429.   


  1. Bultz, B.D. & Carlson, L.E. (2005). Emotional distress: The 6th vital sign in cancer care. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(26), 6440-6441. 
  2. Carlson, L.E., Bultz, B.D., & Morris, D. (2005). Individualized quality of life (QL), standardized QL, and distress in patients undergoing a phase I trial of the novel therapeutic reolysin (reovirus). Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 3: 7. 
  3. Carlson, L.E. & Garland, S. (2005). Quality of life (QL) as an endpoint in phase I oncology clinical trials of novel chemotherapy drugs. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 2005 Oct;5(5):633-44. doi: 10.1586/14737167.5.5.633. View


  1. Carlson, L.E., Angen, M., Cullum, J., Goodey, E., Koopmans, J., Lamont, L., MacRae, J.H., Martin, M., Pelletier, G., Robinson, J., Simpson, J.S., Speca, M., & Bultz, B.D. (2004). High levels of untreated distress and fatigue in cancer patients. Psycho-Oncology, 13(S1), S44. 
  2. Carlson, L.E., Angen, M., Cullum, J., Goodey, E., Koopmans, J., Lamon, L., MacRae, J.H., Martin, M., Pelletier, G., Robinson, J., Speca, M., Tillotson, L., & Bultz, B. (2004). High levels of untreated distress and fatigue in cancer patients. British Journal of Cancer, 2004 Jun 14;90(12):2297-304. View
  3. Carlson, L.E., Angen, M., Cullum, J., Goodey, E., Koopmans, J., Lamont, L., MacRae, J.H., Martin, M., Pelletier, G., Robinson, J., Simpson, J.S., Tillotson, L., Speca, M., & Bultz, B.D. (2004). High levels of untreated distress  and fatigue in cancer outpatients. Psycho-Oncology, 13(S2), S49. 
  4. Carlson, L.E. & Bultz, B.D. (2004). Efficacy and medical cost offset of psychosocial interventions in cancer care: Making the case for economic analyses. Psycho-Oncology, 2004 Dec;13(12):837-49; discussion 850-6.  View


  1. Carlson, L.E. & Bultz, B.D. (2003). Benefits of psychosocial oncology care: Improved quality of life and medical cost offset. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1(8). 
  2. Carlson, L.E. & Bultz, B.D. (2003). Cancer distress screening: Needs, models and methods. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55(5), 403-409. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00514-2 View


  1. Carlson, L.E. & Bultz, B.D. (2002). Efficacy vs. cost of psychosocial interventions: An evidence-based call for action. Oncology Exchange, 1(2), 34-39, 49-51. View


  1. Carlson, L.E., Speca, M., Hagen, N., & Taenzer, P. (2001). Computerized quality of life screening in a cancer pain clinic. Journal of Palliative Care, 2001 Spring;17(1):46-52. View
  2. Ellwood, A.L., Carlson, L.E. & Bultz, B.D. (2001). Empirically supported treatments: Will this movement in the field of psychology impact the practice of psychosocial oncology? Psycho-Oncology, 2001 May-Jun;10(3):199-205. View


  1. Taenzer, P., Bultz, B.D., Carlson, L.E., Speca, M., DeGagne, T., Olson, K., Doll, R., & Rosberger, Z. (2000). Impact of computerized quality of life screening on physician behavior and patient satisfaction in lung cancer outpatients. Psycho-Oncology,  2000 May-Jun;9(3):203-13. View


  1. Carlson, L.E., Taenzer, P., Bultz, B.D., Speca, M., DeGagne, T., Olson, K., Doll, R., & Rosberger, Z. (1999). Computerized quality of life screening in an outpatient lung cancer clinic. Psycho-Oncology, 8(3), S011.
  2. Bultz, B.D. & Carlson, L.E. (1999). Letters: Applied Cancer Care. APA Monitor, 30(8), 49, 51.