The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) NASA mission consists of five satellites that come together every four days in a radial alignment over central Canada. When these alignments occur, the satellites will make in situ measurements of the particles and fields that will allow us to identify the region of space in which the substorm energy release starts and consequently the process.

In addition to the satellites in orbit, 16 ground based white-light auroral all-sky cameras and magnetometers are operated in the Canadian North (4 more in Alaska and Greenland combined). The Auroral Imaging Group deployed and continues to operate the Canadian Ground-Based Observatories (GBOs) since they were built in 2005. The GBOs span the entire Canadian North from coast to coast.

Image of a THEMIS camera