African Sexual Minorities & Gender Variant Resources
Homosexuality - Gay - Lesbian - Bisexual - Transgender - Transsexual - Same-Sex Sex
To: Map of Africa
NAMIBIA - OUTRIGHT Namibia to amplify voices of Namibian LGBTI people (2011). - Documenting LGBT Discrimination in Namibia (2011). - Namibia city hosts first gay rights march (2010): About 40 people are expected to march in Keetmanshoop’s first-ever march for gay and lesbian rights on Saturday. Keetmanshoop, in the southern part of Namibia, near the gay-friendly South Africa, is marking the inauguration of Ada Ma/Hao (We stand together), a new project advocating for equal rights for gender minorities in southern Namibia.- Response To 'Gay Excess' Criticism (2010). - Transgender Inclusion in the Namibian and South African LGBT Movements (2007): I examine the implications for few activists claiming transgender as a personal identity and the Namibian and South African movement’s embrace of transgender as an inclusive political strategy as activists participate in creating an African LGBT movement.
Gay week set to attract 'straight' community (2007):
The Namibian lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI)
organisation – trp – endevours to raise awareness and educate the
public about diversity. “We want to increase tolerance and acceptance
of all people who are different in society”, Carol Millward, the
project coordinator of the LGBTI Week celebrations said. - Namibia Law Banning Male-to-Male Sex Is Hindering Condom Distribution, HIV Prevention in Prisons, Advocates Say (Alternate Link) (2006). - Jail condoms draw fire in U.S., Namibia (2006). - Namibia's prisons sit on AIDS 'time bomb' (2006, Alternate Link). - Dispelling “heterosexual African AIDS” in Namibia: Same‐sex sexuality in the township of Katutura (2006). - Constructing Namibian queer selfhood in the era of HIV/AIDS (2003, Word Download).
Homosexuality Not An Import
(2006): The question at hand is, did white people teach innocent black
Namibians how to practise homosexuality as has been alleged before? The
answer to this myth might be difficult to obtain, but the following
might give an overview of the situation at hand and whether this should
be blamed on the small number of whites of homosexual orientation.Take
the Wernhil Park public toilet in the Windhoek's city centre for
example.It is mainly frequented by blacks, with a few whites who make
use of it.Go to the Windhoek city centre on a Saturday morning or any
day of the week during lunch hour and you will see them, young black
male Namibians, most of them professionals, who appear to be macho.They
will show no outward sign of having anything to do with homosexual
activities, and most of them have girlfriends, perhaps as way of
covering up or just to fit in with others, but come night time they
will find excuses to get to their same-sex partners.Among adults there
are those who have taken advantage of their positions, enticing young boys for sex in exchange for job offers..
Being Gay In Namibia
(2005): But in Namibia, a growing national debate about homosexuality
has followed a period of harsh condemnation, and gay rights groups now
operate openly in the capital, Windhoek. One of them is the Rainbow
Project, where Gurirab works as a suicide prevention counselor. The
organization has interviewed gay Africans from across the continent,
and its leaders say they believe the time is right to challenge
prejudices and start a wider discussion on what being gay really means.
"The only answer is education," said Linda Baumann, 21, who grew up in
a tribal community and was expelled from it when she revealed she was a
lesbian. She now lives in Windhoek and hosts a radio program about gay
issues. "We have to have courage and stick up for ourselves."" ... In
Namibia, gays said there was a relatively relaxed climate in large
cities in the years before and after independence from South Africa in
1990, and gay couples in Windhoek could hold hands in the street. But
in the mid-'90s, they said, a chilling change occurred. "The first five
years after independence it was like a utopia," Swartz said. "People
were proud to be gay. But when Namibian leaders' promises fell through
and poverty did not improve, the government became increasingly
unpopular. . . . The leaders were looking for a smokescreen and someone
to blame."In 1996, the public campaign against homosexuals began...
Namibia Chips Away at African Taboos on Homosexuality (2005): (Alternate Link)
"She also apparently gossiped with colleagues. Other teachers started
teasing Gurirab, asking him why he didn't play soccer and why he spent
so much time around his mother. Then one morning, he said, the gym
teacher invited him into his office, locked the door and forced him
onto the desk for sex. Let's see how good you are at it," the teacher
said, according to Gurirab, now 25, who recounted the story through
tears. The ordeal left his legs and arms with red bruises. The next
day, distraught and confused, he had sex with a female classmate. "I
wanted to change so badly and not be gay . . . but I couldn't," he
said. "I knew I liked men. I decided I would kill myself. . . . I was
so desperate I called a lifeline in London. They saved my life... From
Uganda, where homosexuality is punishable by life imprisonment, to
Sierra Leone, where a lesbian activist was raped and stabbed to death
at her desk last year, homophobia has long trapped gays in a dangerous,
closeted life. With no places to meet openly, no groups to join, it
seems sometimes that gay men and lesbians in Africa don't exist at all.
But in Namibia, a growing national debate about homosexuality has
followed a period of harsh condemnation, and gay rights groups now
operate openly in the capital, Windhoek. One of them is the Rainbow
Project, where Gurirab works as a suicide prevention counselor..." (Related Blog) - Namibia's Rainbow Project votes for change (2003). - The Rainbow Project: a lesson in pride (2006). - African AIDS Awareness Campaign: The Rainbow Project (To 2007).
Currier, Ashley McAllister (2007). The Visibility of Sexual Minority Movement Organizations in Namibia and South Africa. PhD Dissertation, Sociology, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page. Abstract: The South African state has responded favorably to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movement organizations’ (SMOs) efforts to protect and extend sexual and gender minority rights, whereas Namibian state leaders have verbally attacked LGBT organizing and threatened to arrest sexual and gender minorities... I engaged in intensive, continuous ethnographic observation of four Namibian and South African LGBT social movement organizations for approximately 800 hours and analyzed my ethnographic fieldnotes. I also analyzed more than 2,100 newspaper articles and LGBT SMO documents and conducted 56 in-depth interviews with staff, members, and leaders of LGBT SMOs. In this dissertation, I explore the varied strategic dilemmas of visibility and invisibility that Namibian and South African LGBT SMOs faced...
Namibian leader in new attack on queers (2005):
“Gay and lesbian Namibians are being scapegoated for the country’s
problems and demonised as the enemies of the state,” according to Peter
Tatchell of the UK-based LGBT human rights group OutRage! ”The
homophobic slurs by Namibia’s Deputy Minister of Home Affairs and
Immigration, Ms Theopolina Mushelenga, are the latest in a long series
of attacks on Namibian lesbians and gay men by senior government
officials. “We echo the condemnation of this vilification made by Gays
& Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ). See their statement below. “The
Namibian President, Sam Nujoma, has for years echoed the anti-gay hate
speech of neighbouring leader, President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe. He
has denounced and threatened queers, encouraging a climate of
prejudice, discrimination and violence.
A Crisis Corps Assignment in Namibia (2003):
Gay Life in Namibia: Through the gaydar web site, I’d met a handful of
gay men in Windhoek, all colors, and the unanimity of opinion was
total: gay life in Namibia sucked. It’s not completely non-existent,
even though there’s no gay bar; it’s just weak, fearful, and
fragmented. Only a handful of gay men are “out” in any sense of the
word. Namibia’s semi-hidden gay organization is called The Rainbow
Project, known among gays as TRP. The name expresses the hopeless
desire to unite Namibia’s races under the banner of gay pride. There’s
precious little pride and even less racial tolerance. If the whites
ever participated, they pulled out long ago, retreating to private
parties and social cliques. The Rainbow Project is now a Black and
Coloured organization. I’m told that there are tribal differences in
the acceptance of homosexuality. Among the Ovambo and the Herero, it’s
absolutely verboten; the Coloured and Damara communities are much more
tolerant. One Saturday, The Rainbow Project sponsored an HIV/AIDS
fundraising dance in Khomasdal, the formerly Coloured township where I
lived. That I wasn’t going to miss! As it ended up, I was pretty
invisible, but it was an interesting anthropological experience: a
slice of pre-Stonewall gay life. About 40 young Black and Coloured men
and women pitched up at a plain room that was sparingly decorated with
red hearts and red balloons. There were a fair number of
cross-dressers, tall young men in spiked heels and bare midriffs, and
flapping wrists everywhere. Nobody was older than mid-30...
Nujoma attacks homosexuals (1998, Must Scroll). - A small Namibian gay group, the Rainbow Project, challenged Nujoma on the remarks. - Namibian Court Grants Partner Rights (1999). - Court rebukes government over gay rights (1999). - Court knocks down Namibia gay victory (1998). - Namibia: Prime Minister Blasts Plan for Gay Castrations (1998). - Namibia gay rights row (2000). - Nujoma's "gay purges" cause international outrage (2001). - Namibia, The Bermuda Triangle of African Homophobia (2001). - Homosexuality is all-african: (2000, Alternate Link) "September 1999: Thanks to the efforts of a group of Norwegian researchers homosexual behaviour amongst members of a tribe in the north of Namibia, a tribe that has not been influenced by Christianity, has been recorded."
president announces purges against gays (2001). - Namibia:
Gays and lesbians under attack (2001). - Namibia-homosexuals:
Arrest, deport and imprison gays and lesbians: Namibia's Nujoma (2001). -
homosexual detection teams (2001): "Following the banning not only of homosexuality
but homosexual persons in Namibia, the government there have decided on
a Deportation-on-entry policy at state borders. This has prompted the forming
of a special task team to spot homosexuals from ‘normal’ people in the
passport queue..." - ILGA's
Open Letter to President Sam Nujoma (2001). - Statement
by The Rainbow Project, April 2001. - Namibia
and EU in dispute over gay rights (2002, Alternate
Link) - Namibian
President backs down on gay attacks (2002). - Politicians
Accused Of Failing Gay Community (2003, Alternate
Link). - Sexual
Health and Rights in Namibia (2003).
Men, HIV & AIDS: (2003, Alternate Link) "The wall of silence is finally crumbling around the last taboo topics in Africa - male rape and male-to-male sex. Some political and religious leaders have denounced gay men and women as un-African although 19th century ethnographic research documents sex between men in Africa. Politically constructed homophobia has a negative impact on public health because it excludes homosexuals from prevention and awareness campaigns, making them vulnerable to HIV infection... Regional Conference 2003 Report: "With HIV prevalence of 27-30% in its crowded prisons, Namibia offers counselling to prisoners but not condoms because it could be seen as encouraging sodomy, which is a criminal offence. Male rape, possibly the last frontier in public debate, was brought into the conference by Men United, a South African group dedicated to breaking the silence about male rape, providing support and care for survivors and their families, and educating youth to speak out against all sexual abuse."
Nujoma's war on gays and lesbians is nothing new (2001): "The Republic of Namibia does not allow homosexuality or lesbianism here. Police are ordered to arrest you and deport you and imprison you," Nujoma told students during a speech at the University of Namibia on Monday, as reported by state television. Nujoma's comments follow similar statements made by Home Affairs Minister Jerry Ekandjo last year, when he told new Police recruits at Ondangwa to "eliminate" gays and lesbians - whose conduct he equated to "unnatural acts" such as murder - "from the face of Namibia"." - Homosexuals 'To Be Barred From Entering Namibia (2001, Alternate Link). - Gays 'fearful' in Namibia (2001). - Threatening Homosexuals in Namibia (2001): Violence and oppression of the others/of those who are different - a comment on the newly risen harassment against gays and lesbians. - Gay-Bashers Run Riot in Parliament (2000. Alternate Link). - Nujoma afirma que los extranjeros extienden la homosexualidad por Namibia (2002, Translation). - International confidence in Namibia damaged by anti-gay attacks (2001). - Nujoma's "gay purges" cause international outrage (2001).
Gay al bando in Namibia: Secondo il presidente Nujoma, i comportamenti omosessuali sono vietati dalla Costituzione. Ecco perché ha ordinato di arrestare e deportare dal Paese gay e lesbiche (2001, Translation). - Homosexuality: dimensions of the issue in church and society in Namibia - Homosexuality: Some Elements for an Ecumenical Discussion (1998). - Namibia: Gay rights (cont'd): II - Namibia (1997).
in Namibia's slums: Lesbian love. - The
lesbian men: "The ostracising of homosexuals leads to secret lives,
but in the Namibian township of Katatura, a lesbian football team - the
Rainbow Warriors - has been formed. Members wear men's clothes, openly
try to pick up women and visit gay-friendly shebeens. They call themselves
the "lesbian men", their partners are "the ladies". - Becoming
visible in Namibia (1999). - Being a public lesbian in Namibia. (2001, Alternate Link)
Challenging heteronormativity in the post-colonial nation building of Namibia
(2009): Abstract: Examined in this thesis is how heteronormativity is
challenged in a country recently independent from colonial power. By
making focus group studies with black LGBT-people in Namibia around
effects of heteronormativity as well as activities of change, the study
examines how social, legal and civil citizenship of LGBT people is
affected. The results show that LGBT-people in Namibia are limited in
their civil, political and social citizenship, as post colonial nation
building has excluded LGBT from the identity of Africans and Namibians.
However, using queer feminist and post colonial ideas, it is possible
to see that LGBT-people do have agency and actively do perform
resistance, which in one way give them a social citizenship. To
participate in societal change and demanding acceptance from the
community is a way of reaching social citizenship before a civil or
political one is there. Further on, the thesis shows how high
reflexivity in methodology has an impact of the results when using focus groups interviews.
Political Homophobia in Postcolonial Namibia
(2010): The South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO) delivered
Namibia from South African apartheid rule in 1990. Namibia’s democratic
future began with the promise of equality. In 1995, however, SWAPO
initiated a campaign of political homophobia. In this article, I make a
case for viewing SWAPO leaders’ deployment of political homophobia as a
gendered political strategy. I draw on a qualitative analysis of 194
articles from Namibian newspapers published between 1995 and 2006. My
analysis illustrates two features of political homophobia. First, I
demonstrate how political homophobia stifled political dissent and
enhanced SWAPO leaders’ masculinist position and legacy as liberators.
Second, I show how SWAPO leaders used political homophobia to expel
gender and sexual dissidents from official accounts of history..
Arnott J, Crago A-L (2009). Rights Not rescue: A Report on Female, Male, and Trans Sex Workers’ Human Rights in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa Sexual Health and Rights Project, Open Society Institute. PDF Download.
Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Namibia Information. Namibia Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Namibia. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Namibia Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Gayz: Africa: Namibia News Reports from 2000 to the Present.
- ILGA: Africa: Namibia. - LGBT rights in Namibia. - Sodomy Laws. - Sister Namibia. - Sister Namibia: Fighting for all human rights for all women.
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