African Sexual Minorities & Gender Variant Resources
Homosexuality - Gay - Lesbian - Bisexual - Transgender - Transsexual - Same-Sex Sex
To: Map of Africa
KENYA: - Gay
Kenya publishes its first 2011’s newsletter: Security is one of the
issues of the first newsletter published by Gay Kenya this year. (2011). - Security initiative for Kenyan LGBTI Launched (2011). - Kenyan gays celebrate new constitution (2010). - Kenya gay activist criticises Odinga crackdown threat (2010): A gay rights activist has criticised Kenya's prime minister for threatening a crackdown on homosexual people.. - Coming out in Kenya (2009): Pauline Kimani is one of Kenya’s few openly lesbian women. - Being Gay in Africa (2010, Alternate Link):
As in much of Africa, sex between men is illegal in Kenya, a legacy of
British colonial rule. “I simply don’t understand what the problem is,”
says Steven, a peer educator from Mtwapa, near Mombasa. “Why can’t they
leave us alone to be what we want to be?” But this simple wish seems a
long way from coming true. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face
discrimination in employment, lack of freedom of association, hate
speech and arbitrary arrest... - Kenyan Gays Battle Prejudice (2011).
Kenya: Halt Anti-Gay Campaign: Protect Health Workers, Activists; Condemn Mob Violence, Incitements to Hate (2010). - Kenyan Gays in State of Panic (2010): A recent call for the arrest of all gay and lesbian people by Kenyan prime minister Raila Odinga has confused and worried the LGBT community of the African country. Odinga spoke Sunday at a rally in Kibera and told listeners that all gay men and lesbians would be subject to laws in the new constitution that criminalize homosexuality. The new bill of rights in Kenya prohibits discrimination on any grounds, according to Voice of America, and the remarks have vexed and worried activists like Nguru Karugu of the Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya. - Anti-transsexual discrimination in Kenyan medical services (2009). - Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya (2009).
Being gay in Kenya (2006): (Alternate Link)
Though rarely enforced, punishment in Kenya for gay sex is five to 14
years in jail. Sex between women is not mentioned in the law. The gay
Kenyan men interviewed by Reuters asked to have their names changed,
citing potential family and work problems. - Being gay, Christian and African (2006):
A 32-year-old Kenyan student, angered by a campaign in Cameroon
"outing" top personalities for their alleged homosexuality, speaks
anonymously to the BBC News website about his struggle to accept his
sexuality. - Homosexuality debate in Kenya un-muted as key figures start questioning homophobia
N/A (2005): During the first week of July, a lawyer in the western
Kenya town of Eldoret was reported in a national newspaper as calling
for a debate on homosexuality. The lawyer, Alfred Nyairo Momanyi,
issued a statement in which he urged the Anglican Church of Kenya to
lead the debate. - Homosexual Tourists Get Hostile Reception from African Muslims (2003).
Where the Gay Community Hangs Out (2005): In Nairobi, the homosexual community is a close-knit one that often operates in private homes and behind closed doors, unwilling to come out of the closet at least until recently when representatives of the gay community in Kenya have began appearing on radio shows and showing a more visible face of an invisible world. - Life slowly gets easier for gay people in Kenya. - Rants and raves of a Kenyan gay man: Homophobia and Racism. - Being gay, Christian and African: A 32-year-old Kenyan student, angered by a campaign in Cameroon "outing" top personalities for their alleged homosexuality, speaks anonymously to the BBC News website about his struggle to accept his sexuality. - Male sex worker in Kenya with ‘important’ clients.
Mumbi Machera, Mumbi (2003). Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. In: Signe Arnfred, ed., Re-Thinking Sexualities in Africa, 157-170. PDF Download.
In the course of writing this paper, the Daily Nation, a daily
newspaper published in Kenya, put out an article entitled: "Bi-curious:
An emerging trend." The article (published on November 17, 2001)
addressed an "emerging breed of young Kenyan women who are choosing a
different kind of sexual relationship - they love occasional dalliances
with other women, which is considered a bit of fun". What I found very
curious about the bi-curious girls is the difficulty they face in
self-defining their new sexual identities. The girls interviewed
reiterated that they are not lesbians; so what are they? They admitted
having sexual intimacies with their girlfriends "but they do not
consider these trysts as cheating on their boyfriends." The girls
interviewed also said that they are not bisexual.
Editorial: Men Who Have Sex With Men and Their HIV Epidemics in Africa (AIDS, Frits van Griensven, 2007. Access via Google Search): "In this issue of the Journal, Geibel et al. report a capture-recapture study to estimate the number of men who have sex with men (MSM) who sell sex in Mombasa, Kenya. The authors surveyed 77 venues and estimated the number of MSM selling sex at these venues to be 739... the investigators were able to identify and enroll hundreds of MSM selling sex in the African country of Kenya. This number also indicates that there must be a fairly large population of male clients willing to pay for the sexual services of these MSM, as well as a larger community of other MSM, since most MSM do not sell sex. Indeed, an earlier snowball-survey conducted in Nairobi in 2004 enrolled 500 MSM in a needs-assessment within 2 months. That the HIV prevalence among Kenyan MSM may be high can be derived from data from an ongoing cohort study among MSM in Kilifi, a town located on the northern coastline of Kenya between Mombasa and Malindi: 38% (23/60) of men were HIV-infected at baseline. Additional evidence for an elevated HIV prevalence among MSM in Kenya comes from HIV voluntary counseling and testing data from sites throughout the country, where of the 780 MSM tested between 2002 and 2005, 10.6% were HIV-infected.
Homosexuals come out in Kenya: (2007, Alternate Link)
Luzau Basambombo spent six months in a Kinshasa prison, abused over and
over again. The Congolese human rights activist suspects that he was
put behind bars because he openly admitted being homosexual. 'If you
are gay in Congo, you become an outlaw,' he says. After being released
from prison, he left Congo for Uganda where he was granted asylum.
'When the authorities found out that I was gay, I was asked to leave
the country,' he says. Today, the 38-year-old Congolese lives in
Nairobi and he feels comfortable there. 'Things are changing here in
Kenya - in favour of us.' Gays and Lesbians are prosecuted in most
African countries. In some Nigerian federal states, where the Muslim
sharia law is in force, homosexuals are stoned to death. - Kampala homo pubs:
The Ugandan Minister of Ethics and Integrity, Miria Matembe recently
outed a bar, according to a report in New Vision, a Ugandan
newspaper... There is too much immorality all around us. Homosexuality,
lesbianism, name it."
Anglicans defect to Kenya over gay priests:
On Thursday, two U.S. priests were consecrated as Anglican bishops in
Kenya, the latest in a string of priests who are defecting to African
congregations because of the American church’s liberal stance on gays.
- United Nations Human Rights Committee Pushes Kenya to Legalize Abortion and Homosexuality:
With regard to homosexuality, Roman Wieruszewski, the UN ‘expert’
from Poland, expressed concern that the country considered
homosexuality an unnatural act and had enacted laws to that
effect. He asked, “Does the country consider this to be
inconsistent with the Covenant’s non-discrimination clauses?”. - Pro-gay church community established in Kenya, Uganda: (Alternate Link)
The church community of St Sebastian, based in the Spanish Canary
Islands, has announced the establishment of its first fellowships in
Africa, being prepared in Uganda and Kenya. The all-inclusive church
community is especially known for its outreach to homosexuals. In Kenya
and Uganda, both the government and local church communities are
Statement from the LGBTI coalition in Kenya (2006):
The Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya is a recently formed umbrella
body consisting of eight Kenyan groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans
and intersex (LGBTI) people, representing the interests and concerns of
all LGBTI Kenyans... All members of the Kenyan family cannot be said to
have equal rights as long as paragraph 162 and 165 of the Kenyan Penal
code exist. Whilst these draconian laws remain on our statutes, LGBTI
people will continue to be the target of verbal and physical injury,
sexual violence and social marginalization. Further to this, these laws
inhibit the delivery of effective HIV prevention and treatment services
to LGBTI people in Kenya, recognised by our own National AIDS Control
Council in the Kenya Country Position Statement to UNGASS, 2006. Enough
is enough. It is time to scrap the laws that the British imposed upon
us and left us with, laws that the colonizers themselves scrapped long
ago. Let Kenya move out from the shadows of her colonial past and
recognise the rights of her gay and lesbian citizens. - Rich LGBT program at the World Social Forum 2007 in Nairobi, a milestone for the Kenyan LGBT movement (2007). - Cabinet to Discuss Homosexuality in Kenya (2006):
I am the type of person who totally ignores anything a politician says
but this article on Ngilu just goes to show how Kenyan politicians have
their heads buried in the sand.
Kenya: issue of homosexuality among Coastal youths (2006):
Speaking in Mombasa during a leaders meeting, Ngilu said she was
shocked by revelations that homosexuality among teenagers was rampant
in Coastal towns... “We cannot allow sex between man and man. Men
should have sexual relationships with women only,” she said. She urged
the provincial administration to crack down on tycoons who, she said,
lured youths into homosexuality. Coast General Hospital chief
administrator, Dr Khadija Shikelly, said schoolgirls engaged in anal
sex to avoid getting pregnant. “There is need for parents to educate
their children on the dangers of this vice,” she said. - Human Rights Commissioner Confronts Homophobic Statements by Council of Imams in Mombasa (2007):
Recently the Council of Imams and Preachers of Coastal Kenya, along
with Muslim youth groups, have launched a campaign to eradicate
homosexuality and prostitution from Kenya's second city, Mombasa. The
groups claim that homosexuality and immorality are on the rise in
Kenya. "The Kenya National Commission on Human Rights is always deeply
concerned when those in positions of authority and responsibility make
comments that might be understood as some in the community to be a call
to violence against another community or group of people - in his case
homosexual people. Whilst the law in Kenya criminalizes homosexual acts
between men, the law does not criminalize a community or an individual
because of his or her sexual or gender identity.
"Myth" of Homosexuality in Kenya Society N/A (1998, Alternate
Link). - Kenyan Bisexual Myths (2009). - Homosexuality
and HIV/AIDS in Kenyan Society - A series of articles from Kenya's Daily
Nation newspaper. - AIDS services for gay men slowly grows (2006). -
Understanding the HIV Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in
Nairobi. - Kenya’s
President Jumps on Anti-gay Bandwagon (1999). - Homoerotic,
Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors: Adolescents and Adults. - Gays,
lesbians fight conservative governments and an unkind society (2003). - Kenya
Gays See End To Repression (2003). - Kenyan
Gay Rights Activists Optimistic. (2004, Alternate Link)
Gay bashing the new national pasttime in Kenya (2003): When people use the term "gay bashing", they are often referring to gay people being physically attacked by bigots and the like. But as any counsellor will tell you, physical attack is not the only way to cause hurt. Well-aimed and badly intentioned words can be just as vicious as a fist or a kick in the ribs. - The gay underground (2004): In Kenya, a clause on sexual freedom in the draft constitution raised a storm when it came up for debate at Bomas of Kenya last year. That the clause was included is in itself telling as it suggested the existence of a gay ‘community’ in the country. Acting on this assumption, Society’s Tony Mochama went behind the veil of secrecy under which homosexual relations are conducted and discovered a vibrant world of same-sex romance.. - Amin Shamji: Kenya's George Michael (2000) - LGB Support in Peace Corps Kenya (2003).
Kenya: Where Are Kenya's Homosexuals?
(2000, Alternate Link) "Daniel Arap Moi, the current Kenyan president, agrees. ''Kenya has no
room or time for homosexuals and lesbians. Homosexuality is against African
norms and traditions, and even in religion it is considered a great sin,''
Arap Moi has been quoted saying i n Kenya's Daily Nation newspaper. But
networks of men who have sex with men can be found across the continent.
And in Kenya, where homosexuality is a criminal offence, their voices are
beginning to be heard. Statistics on the number of such men are hard to
come by." - Kenya:
Gay and positive (2003, Alternate
Some clients would infect your behind with sexually transmitted
diseases and you would suffer silently because how do you explain to
the doctor how you got the infection? - HIV
positive and gay in Kenya; double stigma. - Support
Survive AIDS Kenya (2001).
and Aids: A double-edged sword (1998). - HIV
and Kenya's homosexuals (1998). - ‘Yan
Daudu’ and Proud - Same-Sex Bonds Take Many Forms In Africa Today
(1999): Not only do there appear to be more gay couples in Mombasa, but
there is a tradition of "marriage" between men. As older women, known
as mkungus, educate young girls in the duties of marriage, young
homosexual men learn from male mkungus. Ahmed, 36, gives his pupils
cooking lessons, advises them on perfumes that will please the
"husband," and demonstrates how to wear a khanga(flowered cloth) in the
house. At the end of the month's training he receives cloth and kitchen
utensils as payment. Three
hundred miles away, in Nairobi, men come to a bar in a well-known
public building for their "sun-downer"— the drink at the end of the
day. Some are flamboyant, wearing makeup and jewelry. Jack, almost
seven feet tall, is a 23-year-old hairstylist who has been blackmailed
and arrested several times by the police. Others are more discreet,
such as Odongo, 42, a gas station attendant from near the Ugandan
border who left his wife in his hometown and regularly pays for the
company of young men...
Neocolonialism and Sexual Practice in Kenya
(2002): Most men who have homosexual intercourse still tend to lead
traditional Kenyan lives with a wife and children. Some men who prefer
sex with men claim that they are pressured into marriage. Several wives
know of their husband's sexual and emotional relationships with other
men, while others remain ignorant. . - Gay
men on the agenda (2003): "For many veterans of conferences on the HIV/Aids
scourge on the African continent, the recent ICASA conference in Nairobi
was remarkable for being the first such high-profile gathering in Africa
that made a space for gays and lesbians on the official programme..." - In Fight Against AIDS, Kenya Confronts Gay Taboo (2009). - In the life of a Kenyan gay sex worker (2010).
Challenges in addressing counselling needs of MSM in highly stigmatized contexts: results of a qualitative study from Kenya(2009): Participants expressed a range of attitudes to MSM from affirmation through tolerance to negative and stigmatizing, with some expressing that gayness was a disease that good counselling could change. All said that they lacked skills to conduct effective risk- reduction counselling. Most had learned all they knew about MSM from male sex workers and mentioned triggers such as poverty, alcohol and drugs. Few linked risk taking behaviour with life issues, self worth and stigma. As a result counsellors knew about the complex issues faced by high risk MSM but few described this impacting on their approaches to risk-reduction counselling. Similarly, counsellors said they were non-judgemental yet our data reveal many had strong social constructs and were unable to ‘put aside their values’..
Arap Moi joins the club (2000): Kenyan President Moi has echoed the anti-lesbigay sentiments of Uganda's Museveni, but is it a matter of conviction or a method of distraction? Planet Out news staff reported on 30 September 1999.... The staggering claims, that there are no homosexuals among Gikuyus, is shattered by Stephen O. Murray's interview with a young Gikuyu man called Kamau, who is a student in London. Kamau states that he had been aware of his attraction to other men from a very young age and that he met and knew of other young men who, just like himself, showed interest in men."
Lesbianism sweeps through female soccer in Kenya (1998): Leading Kenyan psychiatrist says closeness between people of the same gender results in homosexuality. - Chronology of Protest And Destruction in Schools: "Devil worship, homosexuality and drug abuse are rampant in schools in Central Province, a new report says... Homosexuality was particularly common in Kiambu and Thika districts, a fact attributed to their proximity to Nairobi, a city going through socio-cultural turbulence."
Kenya Rules Out Condoms For Prisoners (2000, Alternate Link): "He admitted that sodomy and homosexuality are rampant in Kenya's prisons. Dr. G.M. Baltazar, a Nairobi epidemiologist, also admitted that homosexuality is rampant in the prisons. "Prisoners, because they are confined together, will continue having abnormal sexual relations, whether we like it or not," he said." - Kenya: Homosexuality Major Cause of Aids Spread in Prisons (2008): So it came as a shock last week when the man in charge of health services in Kenya's jails admitted that homosexuality is rampant in the facilities and is fuelling the Aids spread, both inside and outside when inmates are freed to rejoin the society. - Une réponse trop lente face une séroprévalence très élevée en milieu carcéral.
Books: - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Table of Contents). Contains: "Awakenings: dreams and delusions of an incipient lesbian and gay movement in Kenya" (P. 179-92) "John Mburu writes from the embattled movements in southern Africa, where a spate of dictatorial presidents have made anti-homosexual pronouncements and embarked on campaigns of anti-gay and lesbian harassment. Mburu specifically deals with the movement in Kenya."
Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Kenya Information News. Kenya Archives. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Kenya. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa.
Gay Kenya. - The Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya. - Diary of a Gay Kenyan. - The Fight for LGBT Rights in Kenya (2010, Video). - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Kenya Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.
Searching for Free Papers & Abstracts / Reports / Presentations / Articles on the Internet
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Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.
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Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers). eScholarship Repository: University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries. - NTUR, National Taiwan University. - Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. - UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory.
Search for Free Articles, Papers or Reports: FindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. - NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere. The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.
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