
Instruction offered by members of the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the Faculty of Science.
Department Head  R.I. Thompson
Note: For listings of related courses, see Astronomy, Astrophysics, Medical Physics and Space Physics.
Students intending to register in any Physics course should read the relevant Faculty of Science Program section of this Calendar.

Modules for First Year and First Term Second Year Physics Courses

Physics
106

Module M6 Thermal Physics


Thermal Physics. Gas laws; kinetic theory of gases; temperature; internal energy; specific heat; energy transfer; laws of thermodynamics; PVT diagrams.
Course Hours:
E(12 hours)
Prerequisite(s):
Consent of the Department.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 106 and 006 will not be allowed.

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Physics
107

Module M7 Basic Optics


Basic Optics. Reflection, refraction; real and virtual images; images as objects; mirrors; lenses; optical instruments; wave nature of light; interference.
Course Hours:
E(12 hours)
Prerequisite(s):
Consent of the Department.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 107 and 007 will not be allowed.

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Physics
120

Physics Skills I


Orientation Course for Physics, Astrophysics, and Chemical Physics majors and for students doing minors or concentrations in Physics or Astrophysics. Content includes introductions to the professions of physics and astrophysics and to the programs of the Department of Physics and Astronomy. Use of laboratory tools such as electronic devices, oscilloscopes, and vacuum systems. Introduction to research in physics and astrophysics.
Course Hours:
Q(16 hours)
Prerequisite(s):
One of Physics 211 or 221 or 227.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 120 and 020 will not be allowed.
NOT INCLUDED IN GPA

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Introductory Newtonian particle mechanics and rigid bodies in rotational equilibrium: Kinematics, Newton's laws, conservation of momentum and mechanical energy.
Course Hours:
H(42)
Prerequisite(s):
Pure Mathematics 30 or Mathematics II (offered by Continuing Education). Note: Physics 30 is recommended as preparation for Physics 211.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 211 and either 221 or 231 will not be allowed. Not open to students with 70% or higher in Physics 30 and Pure Mathematics 30 and 60% or higher in Mathematics 31, except with special Departmental permission.
Notes:
Physics 211 and 221 differ in their prerequisites, but cover the same material and have the same examinations and tutorial quizzes. Physics 211 has an extra lecture hour per week to deal with certain topics from High School Physics and Mathematics 31.

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Introductory Newtonian particle mechanics and rigid bodies in rotational equilibrium: Kinematics, Newton's laws, conservation of momentum and mechanical energy.
Course Hours:
H(32)
Prerequisite(s):
A grade of 70% or higher in Physics 30; 50% or higher in Mathematics 31; and 70% or higher in Pure Mathematics 30 or a grade of "B" or above in Mathematics II (offered by Continuing Education).
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 221 and any of 205, 211, 217 or 231 will not be allowed.

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Physics
223

Introductory Electromagnetism, and Thermal Physics


Electrical forces and energy. Static electric fields due to point charges. Parallelplate capacitor. Simple DC circuits. Lorenz force. Static magnetic fields generated by electric currents. Electromagnetic induction. Gas Laws; kinetic theory of gases; temperature, thermal energy, specific heat; energy transfer; laws of thermodynamics; PVT diagrams.
Course Hours:
H(33)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 211 or 221 or 227.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 223 and 213 will not be allowed. For students intending to major in Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Geology, or Geophysics.

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Physics
227

Classical Physics


Kinematics and statics of rigid bodies; conservation laws; rotational mechanics; simple harmonic motion; waves; fluids.
Course Hours:
H(32)
Prerequisite(s):
A grade of 75% or higher in Physics 30; 60% or higher in Mathematics 31; and 75% or higher in Pure Mathematics 30 or a grade of "B" or above in Mathematics II (offered by Continuing Education).
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for Physics 227 and either 225 or 321 will not be allowed.
Notes:
Open only to declared Physics or Astrophysics majors, or by permission of the Department.

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Physics
255

Electromagnetic Theory I


Electrostatics, DC circuits, calculation of magnetic intensity from currents, motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, transient effects in capacitors and inductors, electric and magnetic properties of materials.
Course Hours:
H(3  3)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 211 or 221 or 227; Applied Mathematics 217 or Mathematics 249 or 251.
Corequisite(s):
Applied Mathematics 219 or Mathematics 253 or 283.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 255 and 259 or 355 will not be allowed.
Notes:
Open only to declared Physics or Astrophysics majors, or by permission of the Department.

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Physics
259

Electricity and Magnetism (for students in Engineering)


Electric charges and electric current; Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Laws, application to simple circuits; potential and capacitance. An introduction to electromagnetic induction; inductance; electromotive force; electrical properties of materials.
Course Hours:
H(42)
Prerequisite(s):
Applied Mathematics 217 and Mathematics 211
Corequisite(s):
Prerequisite or Corequisite: Applied Mathematics 219.

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Physics
271

How Things Work


Physics behind many common devices will be discussed. Topics will be chosen from among the following: the use of simple and compound machines; waves, sound, acoustics; light and optics; household electric circuitry; magnetism.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for Physics 271 and any 200level Physics course will not be allowed.
Notes:
Some previous exposure to physics, e.g., Science 10, is strongly recommended. Not intended for Physics majors.

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Physics
301

Modern Physics I


Relativistic kinematics; spacetime diagrams; relativistic energy and momentum conservation with applications to particle physics. Nuclear radiation and exponential decay. Probabilistic aspects of nuclear processes. Planck's blackbody radiation law. Elementary particle physics.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 211 or 221 or 227; Physics 213 or 223 or 255; Mathematics 211 or 213 or 221.

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Physics
303

Quantum Mysteries and Paradoxes


Aims to explain basic quantum phenomena for students outside the physical sciences. Topics covered may include waveparticle duality, quantum interference, as well as the paradoxes of entanglement and quantum nonlocality. Applications such as quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation are discussed, as are the philosophical interpretations of the quantum picture of the world.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
The course makes limited use of highschool algebra. Not intended for Physics majors and will not count in the major field of Physics.

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Physics
321

Harmonic Motion, Waves, and Rotation


Simple harmonic oscillations. Progressive waves in 1 dimension. Energy of a wave. Superposition. Standing waves. Newtonian mechanics of rigid body rotation.
Course Hours:
H(32T)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 211 or 217 or 221; Mathematics 211 or 213 or 221; and 253 or 263 or Applied Mathematics 219.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for Physics 321 and 225 or 227 will not be allowed.

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Physics
325

Modern Physics II


Origins of quantum mechanics, a historical perspective. Concepts of wave mechanics and applications: atoms, molecules, and solids. Kinetic theory of gases; distribution functions; statistics of quantum gases with applications.
Course Hours:
H(33)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 211 or 221 or 227; Physics 213 or 223 or 255 or 259 or 355; Mathematics 211 or 213 or 221.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 325 and 209 will not be allowed.

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Physics
341

Classical Mechanics I


Forced and damped harmonic oscillations with real and complex numbers; anharmonic oscillators; central force motion and scattering; noninertial frames; 2 and 3body problems; applications of linear differential equations and complex numbers.
Course Hours:
H(33/2)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 225 or 227 or 321; Mathematics 211 or 213 or 221.
Corequisite(s):
Prerequisite or Corequisite: Applied Mathematics 307 or Mathematics 253 or 263.

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Physics
343

Classical Mechanics II


Rotating frames of reference; general rotations of rigid bodies; moment of inertia tensor; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics; potential theory and tides; perturbation theory.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 341.

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Physics
369

Acoustics, Optics and Radiation (for students in Engineering)


Wave motion as applied to acoustics, geometric and physical optics, and radiant energy transfer. Traditional and modern applications.
Course Hours:
H(33/2)
Prerequisite(s):
Applied Mathematics 217, 219, Physics 259.

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Physics
371

Introduction to Energy


Energy and power will be discussed. Sources of energy such as wind power, solar power, nuclear power, geothermal energy and fossil fuels and related limitations will be considered. Generation and distribution of electricity will be discussed.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Antirequisite(s):
Credit both for Physics 371 and Energy and Environment, Engineering 355 will not be allowed.
Notes:
Some previous exposure to physics, e.g., Science 10, is strongly recommended. Not intended for Physics majors and will not count in the major field of Physics.

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Physics
381

Computational Physics I


Solution of problems associated with the analysis of physical systems, using digital computers, high level programming languages, and mathematical computation systems.
Course Hours:
H(1  3)
Prerequisite(s):
Computer Science 217 or 231.
Corequisite(s):
Prerequisite or Corequisite: Physics 343.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 381 and 499 will not be allowed.

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Physics
397

Applied Physics Laboratory I


Basic laboratory electronics, vacuum systems, and optical devices. Introduction to experimental control, data collection, and analysis. Fundamentals of error analysis and error propagation.
Course Hours:
H(21T3)
Corequisite(s):
Prerequisite or Corequisite: Physics 223 or 255 or 259 or 355.

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Physics
427

Fundamentals of Radiation Detection


Radiation techniques such as employed in geophysical prospecting, nondestructive testing, agriculture, etc. The basic physical principles involved in the design, construction, and operation of detectors of alpha, beta, gamma rays, and neutrons are investigated. Elements of nuclear spectroscopy using NaI and semiconductor devices are included. Other topics include C14 dating and neutron activation. Practical work will replace some lecture periods.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 325; Applied Mathematics 217 or Mathematics 249 or 251.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 427 and Applied Physics 427 will not be allowed.

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Physics
443

Quantum Mechanics I


Basic postulates of quantum mechanics. Mathematical formalism of the theory and its physical interpretation. Schrödinger's timedependent and timeindependent equations. Single particle in a potential field (square well, potential barrier, harmonic oscillator, KronigPenney, Coulomb) and rigid rotator. The applicability of these potentials to atomic, molecular, nuclear, and solid state physics will be indicated.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 325 and 343.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 443 and Chemistry 373 will not be allowed.

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Physics
449

Statistical Mechanics I


Statecounting; classical distributions; origins and role of entropy; equilibrium; microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles; concepts of work, heat, and temperature; equations of state; heat capacity; equipartition theorem; engines; laws of thermodynamics; nonequilibrium systems; MaxwellBoltzmann distribution; enthalpy and free energies.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 325, Applied Mathematics 219 or Mathematics 253 or 263.

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Physics
451

Statistical Mechanics II


Gibbs' paradox; bosons and fermions; quantum counting; classicalquantum transition; blackbody radiation; phase transitions; fluctuations and critical phenomena; complex systems; selforganized criticality; cellular automata.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 449.

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Physics
457

Electromagnetic Theory III


Electromagnetic wave solutions to Maxwell's equations, in vacuum and in insulating and conducting media. Waveguides. Electromagnetic radiation from accelerated charges. Relativistic formulation of electrodynamics.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 455 and Applied Mathematics 413.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 457 and Physics 555 or Electrical Engineering 476 will not be allowed.

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Geometrical Optics: lenses, mirrors, and other basic optical components. Matrix Methods. Physical Optics: Interference, Diffraction, and Polarization. Fourier Optics. Modern Optics: Lasers and Fibre Optics.
Course Hours:
H(33)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 325, 455, Applied Mathematics 413.

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Physics
481

Computational Physics II


Solution of problems associated with the analysis of physical systems, using digital computers, high level programming languages, and mathematical computation systems.
Course Hours:
H(33)
Prerequisite(s):
One of Physics 325 or 381 or Chemistry 373.
Corequisite(s):
Prerequisite or Corequisite: Physics 443.

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Physics
497

Applied Physics Laboratory II


Intermediate laboratory electronics, vacuum systems, and optical devices. Computer automation of experimental control, data collection, and analysis, including error analysis and error propagation.
Course Hours:
H(26)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 397.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 497 and 407 will not be allowed.

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Physics
501

Special Relativity


Lorentz transformations in classical mechanics; relativistic kinematics; spacetime diagrams; relativistic energy and momentum conservation; Geometrical interpretation; applications of relativistic kinematics; fourvector formalism and tensors; applications, primarily to relativistic electrodynamics.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 325, 457; Mathematics 353 or Applied Mathematics 309.

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Physics
507

Solid State Physics


Crystal structure. Classification of solids and their bonding. Fermi surface. Elastic, electric and magnetic properties of solids.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 443 or Chemistry 373; Physics 449, 455.

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Physics
509

Plasma Physics


Occurrence of plasmas in nature, single particle motion, plasmas as fluids, waves in plasmas, diffusion, resistivity, equilibrium and stability, kinetic theory of plasmas, nonlinear effects.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 343 or 433; 455.

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Physics
521

Nonlinear Dynamics


Topics: Introduction to nonlinear dynamical systems: Phase space representation, nonlinear oscillators, bifurcations, normal forms, pattern formation, amplitude equations, deterministic chaos, attractors, fractals, synchronization
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Applied Mathematics 433; Physics 381; and Physics 449; or consent of the Department

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Physics
533

Advanced Mathematical Methods of Physics


Hilbert space. Complete orthonormal sets of functions. SturmLiouville theory. Green functions. Integral equations.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 443 or Chemistry 373; Physics 455.

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Physics
543

Quantum Mechanics II


Theory of angular momentum and applications, perturbation theory and applications. Identical particles. Introduction to relativistic wave equations.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 443 or Chemistry 373.

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Physics
561

Stable and Radioactive Isotope Studies, Fundamentals


A multidisciplinary course. Topics include nucleosynthesis, radioactive decay, isotope exchange phenomena, kinetic isotope effects, tracer techniques, molecular spectra and instrumentation.
Course Hours:
H(21)
Prerequisite(s):
Consent of the Department.

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Physics
571

Laser Physics


Theoretical aspects of lasing and lasers. Principles of operation of solidstate, liquid, and gas lasers. Applications of laser systems to research, medical, and industrial projects.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 443 and 455.
Notes:
Physics 449 is suggested but not required.

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Physics
573

Atmospheric and Environmental Physics


Quasistatic uniform atmosphere. Atmospheric optics. Scattering in the atmosphere. Atmospheric visibility and aerosols. Cloud physics. Atmospheric electricity. Radiative transfer. Atmospheric circulation. Hydrological cycling. Stable isotopic techniques. Pollutants. Energy transfer. Turbulence. Sky shortwave and visible radiation distribution. Near infrared sky radiation, cloud detection and estimation.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
One of Physics 347 or 447 or 449 or Chemistry 371 or consent of the Department.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit for both Physics 573 and Applied Physics 573 will not be allowed.

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Geometrical Optics: lenses, mirrors, and other basic optical components. Matrix Methods. Physical Optics: Interference, Diffraction, and Polarization. Fourier Optics. Modern Optics: Lasers and Fibre Optics.
Course Hours:
H(33)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 325, 457, Applied Mathematics 433.
Antirequisite(s):
Credit will not be allowed for both Physics 575 and 471.

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Physics
581

Computational Physics III


Solution of problems associated with the analysis of physical systems, using digital computers, high level programming languages, and mathematical computation systems (e.g., Maple, Macsyma).
Course Hours:
H(33)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 443 or Chemistry 373, Physics 455 and 499 or 381. Note: A knowledge of a high level programming language (C, C++, Fortran or Pascal) is highly recommended.
Also known as:
(formerly Physics 535)

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Physics
597

Senior Physics Laboratory


Selected advanced experiments. Where possible, students may choose those experiments most suited to their interests. Development of technical and computerbased skills, technical writing and presentation skills.
Course Hours:
H(16)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 497 or Physics 325, 355, and 407.

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Physics
598

Research in Physics


Research project in Physics.
Course Hours:
F(06)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 443, 449, 455 and consent of the Department.

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Physics
599

Independent Study


Each student will be assigned a project in consultation with a tutor. A written report and oral presentation are required.
Course Hours:
H(09)
Prerequisite(s):
Consent of the Department.
Notes:
This course may be repeated once for credit.

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Graduate Courses
Only where appropriate to a student's program may graduate credit be received for courses numbered 500599.

Physics
603

Experimental Methods of Physics


Instrumentation for physical experiments. General philosophy of experimentation; signal processes; signal processing methods; instrument design and control; data acquisition and storage; specific detection methods.
Course Hours:
H(30)

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Physics
605

Advanced Data Analysis


Methods of extraction of significant information from experimental data degraded by noise. Parametric and nonparametric statistical methods; curve fitting; spectral analysis; filtering, sampling, convolution and deconvolution techniques.
Course Hours:
H(30)

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Physics
609

Advanced Classical Mechanics


Variational principles, Lagrange's equations, Noether's theorem. Hamilton's equations and canonical transformations. HamiltonJacobi theory, actionangle variables. Perturbation theory.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 343 or equivalent.

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Physics
611

Statistical Physics


Classical and quantum ensemble theory applied to interacting systems: real gases, spin lattices, phase transitions. Kinetic theory: Boltzmann equation, transport processes, irreversible processes and fluctuations.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 449 or equivalent.

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Physics
613

Electrodynamics


Interaction between charged particles and the electromagnetic field in relativistic formulation. Scattering and energy losses of charged particles. Radiation by charged particles.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 457 and 501 or equivalents.

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Physics
615

Advanced Quantum Mechanics I


Basic formalism of the theory and its interpretation, symmetry generators. Scattering theory. Bound states. Charged particles in electric and magnetic fields. Approximation methods.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 543 or equivalent.

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Physics
617

Advanced Quantum Mechanics II


Second quantized description of Nparticle systems. Quantum theory of the electromagnetic field, coherent states. Relativistic quantum mechanics.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 543 or equivalent.

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Physics
619

Statistical Physics II


Topics Theories of equilibrium and nonequilibrium critical phenomena and methods to study fluctuating systems selected from the following list of topics: Percolation, scaling theory, phase transitions, LandauGinzburg theory, lattice models, Monte Carlo methods, renormalization group, selforganized criticality, theory of random graphs; Brownian motion, random walks and diffusion, FokkerPlanckEquation, Markov processes, stochastic differential equations, first passage times.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Physics 611.
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 481 or its equivalent.

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Physics
621

Nonlinear Dynamics and Pattern Formation


Topics: Introduction to pattern formation and selforganization in nature: Reactiondiffusion systems, hydrodynamical systems, bistable media, excitable and oscillatory media, stability analysis, bifurcations, pattern selection, amplitude equations and normal forms, fronts, traveling waves, topological defects, spiral waves, spatiotemporal chaos, defectmediated turbulence, spatiotemporal point processes
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 521, Physics 451 and Physics 481 or equivalents.

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An introduction to Einstein's theory of gravitation. Applications to the solar system, black holes, and cosmology.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Notes:
It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 501 or equivalent.

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Physics
663

Applications of Stable Isotopes


Applications in archaeology, biology, chemistry, engineering, geography, geology, medicine, meteorology, paleontology, physics and space sciences. Topics include hydrology, paleoclimates, ore deposits, geothermometry, fossil fuels exploration and recovery, pollutant tracing, food webs and forensic investigations.
Course Hours:
H(21)
Prerequisite(s):
Consent of the Department.
Also known as:
(Geology 663)

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Physics
671

Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy


Atomic structure and spectra. Rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules, including microwave, infrared, Raman and visible/ultraviolet spectroscopic techniques. Hund's coupling cases. Polyatomic molecular spectroscopy. Examples from astronomy and upper atmosphere/space physics.
Course Hours:
H(30)

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Physics
673

Quantum and Nonlinear Optics


Fundamentals of quantum and nonlinear optics including atomphoton interactions, coherence, electromagnetically induced transparency, open systems and decoherence, and applications to quantum information technology.
Course Hours:
H(30)

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Physics
675

Special Topics in Laser and Optical Sciences


Lectures by Physics and Astronomy, Chemistry, Engineering, and/or Medicine staff on current research topics in laser science and modern optical techniques.
Course Hours:
H(30)
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT

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Physics
677

Implementations of Quantum Information


Proposals and realizations of quantum information tasks including quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography in optical, atomic, molecular, and solid state systems.
Course Hours:
H(30)
Prerequisite(s):
Consent of the Department.

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Physics
691

Scientific Communication Skills (formerly Graduate Seminar)


Required, multicomponent, program of courses for all graduate students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy designed to assist students in improving their scientific oral and written communication skills. Each student must complete a minimum of 3 terms of Physics 691 during each graduate course, although the normal load is 4 terms, and additional terms may be required of students on an as need basis. The components of Physics 691 are:
691.11. Effective Scientific Speaking for MSc Students
691.12. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students I
691.13. Effective Scientific Writing for MSc Students
691.14. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students II
691.16. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students III
691.18. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students IV
691.21. Effective Scientific Speaking for PhD Students
691.22. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students I
691.23. Effective Scientific Writing for PhD Students
691.24. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students II
691.26. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students III
691.28. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students IV
Effective Scientific Speaking courses provide instruction on preparing and presenting quality scientific oral presentations, including discussions of the aspects of quality presentations and exercises aimed at improving student speaking skills, and will be taken by graduate students in their first fall terms in program. Effective Scientific Writing courses provide students with instruction on preparing quality scientific papers, as well as exercises aimed at improving students' writing skills, and will be taken during students' send fall term in program. The Graduate Seminar courses will be run each winter, and provide all students enrolled in each course the opportunity to present one or two scientific talks, as well as to provide peer feedback to other students in the course. At the end of each Graduate Seminar term, the course instructor(s) will identify those students who have reached an acceptable level of scientific speaking competency and exempt these students from any further Physics 691 Graduate Seminar courses for their current degrees.
Course Hours:
Q(2S0)
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT
NOT INCLUDED IN GPA

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Physics
697

Topics in Contemporary Physics


Topics will be from the research areas of staff members.
Course Hours:
H(30)
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT

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Physics
699

Project in Physics


Each student will select a project in consultation with a staff member. The project may be experimental or theoretical in nature. A written report and an oral presentation are required.
Course Hours:
H(09)

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Physics
701

Independent Study


Each student will select a topic of study in consultation with a staff member. The topic will be in the research area of the staff member. This course may not be used to meet the regular course requirements in the MSc and PhD programs.
Course Hours:
H(09)
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT

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