## Physics PHYS

Instruction offered by members of the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the Faculty of Science.

Department Head - A.R. Taylor

Note: For listings of related courses, see Astronomy, Astrophysics, Medical Physics and Space Physics.

Students intending to register in any Physics course should read the relevant Faculty of Science Program section of this Calendar.

Modules for First Year and First Session Second Year Physics Courses

### Physics 106 E(12 hours)

(formerly Physics 006)

#### Module M6 Thermal Physics

Thermal Physics. Gas laws; kinetic theory of gases; temperature; internal energy; specific heat; energy transfer; laws of thermodynamics; PVT diagrams.

**
Prerequisites:
** Consent of the Department.

### Physics 107 E(12 hours)

(formerly Physics 007)

#### Module M7 Basic Optics

Basic Optics. Reflection, refraction; real and virtual images; images as objects; mirrors; lenses; optical instruments; wave nature of light; interference.

**
Prerequisites:
** Consent of the Department.

### Physics 120 Q(16 hours)

(formerly Physics 020)

#### Physics Skills I

Use of laboratory tools such as electronic devices, oscilloscopes, and vacuum systems. The "Physics Dictionary" and other useful study tools.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 211 or 221 or 227, or 215 and 217.

**
NOT INCLUDED IN GPA
**

## Junior Courses

### Physics 211 H(4-2T)

#### Mechanics

Introductory Newtonian particle mechanics and rigid bodies in rotational equilibrium: Kinematics, Newton's laws, conservation of momentum and mechanical energy.

**
Prerequisites:
** Pure Mathematics 30 or Mathematics II (offered by Continuing Education). Note: Physics 30 is recommended as preparation for Physics 211.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 211 and either 221 or 231 will not be allowed.

**Note:** Not open to students with 70% or higher in Physics 30 and Pure Mathematics 30 and 60% or higher in Mathematics 31, except with special Departmental permission.

**
Note:
** Physics 211 and 221 differ in their prerequisites, but cover the same material and have the same examinations and tutorial quizzes. Physics 211 has an extra lecture hour per week to deal with certain topics from High School Physics and Mathematics 31.

### Physics 221 H(3-2T)

#### Mechanics

Introductory Newtonian particle mechanics and rigid bodies in rotational equilibrium: Kinematics, Newton's laws, conservation of momentum and mechanical energy.

**
Prerequisites:
** A grade of 70% or higher in Physics 30; 50% or higher in Mathematics 31; and 70% or higher in Pure Mathematics 30 or a grade of "B-" or above in Mathematics II (offered by Continuing Education).

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 221 and any of 205, 211, 217 or 231 will not be allowed.

### Physics 223 H(3-3)

#### Introductory Electromagnetism, and Thermal Physics

Electrical forces and energy. Static electric fields due to point charges. Parallel-plate capacitor. Simple DC circuits. Lorenz force. Static magnetic fields generated by electric currents. Electromagnetic induction. For students intending to major in Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Geology, or Geophysics.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 211 or 221 or 227.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 223 and either 213 or 355 will not be allowed.

### Physics 227 H(3-2)

#### Classical Physics

Kinematics and statics of rigid bodies; conservation laws; rotational mechanics; simple harmonic motion; waves; fluids.

**
Prerequisites:
** A grade of 75% or higher in Physics 30; 60% or higher in Mathematics 31; and 75% or higher in Pure Mathematics 30 or a grade of "B" or above in Mathematics II (offered by Continuing Education).

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 227 and Physics 225 or 321 will not be allowed.

**
Note:
** Open only to declared Physics or Astrophysics majors, or by permission of the Department.

### Physics 255 H(3 - 3)

#### Electromagnetic Theory I

Electrostatics, DC circuits, calculation of magnetic intensity from currents, motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, transient effects in capacitors and inductors, electric and magnetic properties of materials.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 211 or 221 or 227; Applied Mathematics 217 or Mathematics 249 or 251.

**
Corequisites:
** Applied Mathematics 219 or Mathematics 253 or 263.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 255 and 259 or [PHYS355]355 will not be allowed.

**
Note:
** Open only to declared Physics or Astrophysics majors, or by permission of the Department.

### Physics 259 H(3-IT-3/2)

#### Electricity and Magnetism (for students in Engineering)

Electric charges and electric current; Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Laws, application to simple circuits; potential and capacitance. An introduction to electromagnetic induction; inductance; electromotive force; electrical properties of materials.

**
Prerequisites:
** Engineering 205.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisite or Corequisite: Applied Mathematics 219.

## Senior Courses

### Physics 301 H(3-2)

#### Modern Physics I

Relativistic kinematics; spacetime diagrams; relativistic energy and momentum conservation with applications to particle physics. Nuclear radiation and exponential decay. Probabilistic aspects of nuclear processes. Planck's blackbody radiation law. Elementary particle physics.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 211 or 221 or 227; Physics 213 or 223 or 255; Mathematics 221 or 211.

### Physics 321 H(3-2T)

#### Harmonic Motion, Waves, and Rotation

Simple harmonic oscillations. Progressive waves in 1 dimension. Energy of a wave. Superposition. Standing waves. Newtonian mechanics of rigid body rotation.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 211 or 217PHYS217] or 221; Mathematics 221 or 211; and 253 or 263 or Applied Mathematics 219.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 321 and 225 or 227 will not be allowed.

### Physics 323 H(2-2T-3)

#### Optics and Electromagnetism

Static electric fields due to charge distributions. Static magnetic fields due to current distributions. Time-dependent behaviour of capacitors and inductances. Geometrical optics: Thin lenses and curved mirrors. Physical optics: Interference and diffraction.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 211 or 221 or 227, and 213 or 223; Applied Mathematics 217 or Mathematics 249 or 251.

**
Corequisites:
** Mathematics 253 or 263 or Applied Mathematics 219.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 323 and Physics 255 or 259 or 355 will not be allowed.

### Physics 325 H(3-3)

#### Modern Physics II

Origins of quantum mechanics, a historical perspective. Concepts of wave mechanics and applications: atoms, molecules, and solids. Kinetic theory of gases; distribution functions; statistics of quantum gases with applications.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 225, 227 or 321; Physics 213 or 223 or 255 or 259 or 355; Mathematics 211 or 221.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 325 and 209 will not be allowed.

### Physics 341 H(3-1)

#### Classical Mechanics I

Forced and damped harmonic oscillations with real and complex numbers; anharmonic oscillators; central force motion and scattering; non-inertial frames; 2- and 3-body problems; applications of linear differential equations and complex numbers.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 225 or 227 or 321; Mathematics 211 or 221.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisite or Corequisite: Applied Mathematics 307 or Mathematics 253 or 263.

### Physics 343 H(3-0)

#### Classical Mechanics II

Rotating frames of reference; general rotations of rigid bodies; moment of inertia tensor; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics; potential theory and tides; perturbation theory.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 341; Applied Mathematics 307 or Mathematics 253 or 263.

### Physics 347 H(3-0)

(formerly Physics 447)

#### Thermodynamics

Laws of thermodynamics, absolute temperature, entropy, thermodynamic potentials, applications.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisites or Corequisites: Physics 223 or 325; Applied Mathematics 307 or 311 or Mathematics 349 or 351.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 347 and Chemistry 371 will not be allowed.

### Physics 355 H(3-3)

#### Electromagnetic Theory I

Electrostatics, DC circuits, calculation of magnetic intensity from currents, motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, transient effects in capacitors and inductors, electric and magnetic properties of materials.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 211 or 221 or 227; Applied Mathematics 219 or Mathematics 253 or 263.

**
Note:
** Credit for Physics 355 and either of Physics 223 and 323 will not be allowed.

### Physics 369 H(3-3/2)

#### Acoustics, Optics and Radiation (for students in Engineering)

Wave motion as applied to acoustics, geometric and physical optics, and radiant energy transfer. Traditional and modern applications.

### Physics 381 H(1 - 3)

#### Computational Physics I

Solution of problems associated with the analysis of physical systems, using digital computers, high level programming languages, and mathematical computation systems.

**
Prerequisites:
** Computer Science 217 or 231.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisite or Corequisite: Physics 343.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 381 and 499 will not be allowed.

### Physics 397 H(2 - 4)

#### Applied Physics Laboratory I

Basic laboratory electronics, vacuum systems, and optical devices. Introduction to experimental control, data collection, and analysis. Fundamentals of error analysis and error propagation.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisite or Corequisite: Physics 223 or 255 or 259 or 323 or 355.

### Physics 407 H(3-3)

(formerly Applied Physics 407)

#### Electronics for Scientists

Basic principles of electronics. Active and passive components, feedback, operational amplifiers, digital electronics, interfacing.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 255 or 313 or 323 or 355 or consent of the Department.

### Physics 427 H(3-0)

(formerly Applied Physics 427)

#### Fundamentals of Radiation Detection

Radiation techniques such as employed in geophysical prospecting, non-destructive testing, agriculture, etc. The basic physical principles involved in the design, construction, and operation of detectors of alpha, beta, gamma rays, and neutrons are investigated. Elements of nuclear spectroscopy using NaI and semi-conductor devices are included. Other topics include C-14 dating and neutron activation. Practical work will replace some lecture periods.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 325; Applied Mathematics 217 or Mathematics 249 or 251.

### Physics 443 H(3-0)

#### Quantum Mechanics I

Basic postulates of quantum mechanics. Mathematical formalism of the theory and its physical interpretation. SchrÃ¶dinger's time-dependent and time-independent equations. Single particle in a potential field (square well, potential barrier, harmonic oscillator, Kronig-Penney, Coulomb) and rigid rotator. The applicability of these potentials to atomic, molecular, nuclear, and solid state physics will be indicated.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 325 and 343.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 443 and Chemistry 373 will not be allowed.

### Physics 449 H(3-0)

#### Statistical Mechanics I

State-counting; classical distributions; origins and role of entropy; equilibrium; microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles; concepts of work, heat, and temperature; equations of state; heat capacity; equipartition theorem; engines; laws of thermodynamics; non-equilibrium systems; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution; enthalpy and free energies.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 325, 343; Applied Mathematics 219 or Mathematics 253 or 263.

### Physics 451 H(3 - 0)

#### Statistical Mechanics II

Gibbs' paradox; bosons and fermions; quantum counting; classical-quantum transition; blackbody radiation; phase transitions; fluctuations and critical phenomena; complex systems; self-organized criticality; cellular automata.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 449.

### Physics 455 H(3-0)

#### Electromagnetic Theory II

Macroscopic Maxwell equations. Scalar and vector potentials. Energy and momentum in Maxwell's theory. Electrostatics and magnetostatics. Dielectric and magnetic properties of materials. Superconductors.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 255 or 323 or 355; Applied Mathematics 309 or Mathematics 353.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisite or Corequisite: Applied Mathematics 413.

### Physics 457 H(3-0)

(formerly Physics 555)

#### Electromagnetic Theory III

Electromagnetic wave solutions to Maxwell's equations, in vacuum and in insulating and conducting media. Waveguides. Electromagnetic radiation from accelerated charges. Relativistic formulation of electrodynamics.

### Physics 471 H(3-3)

#### Optics

Geometrical Optics: lenses, mirrors, and other basic optical components. Matrix Methods. Physical Optics: Interference, Diffraction, and Polarization. Fourier Optics. Modern Optics: Lasers and Fibre Optics.

### Physics 481 H(3-3)

#### Computational Physics II

Solution of problems associated with the analysis of physical systems, using digital computers, high level programming languages, and mathematical computation systems.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 381, 455.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisite or corequisite: Physics 443 or Chemistry 373.

**
Note:
** Credit for both Physics 481 and 535 will not be allowed.

### Physics 491 Q(1S-0)

#### Undergraduate Seminar I

Attendance at weekly seminars and presentation of one seminar on current physics-related research areas based on literature research, plus a written report.

### Physics 497 H(2-6)

#### Applied Physics Laboratory II

Intermediate laboratory electronics, vacuum systems, and optical devices. Computer automation of experimental control, data collection, and analysis, including error analysis and error propagation.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 397.

### Physics 499 H(1-3T)

#### Computational Physics II

Solution of problems associated with the analysis of physical systems, using digital computers, high level programming languages, and mathematical computation systems (e.g., Maple, Macsyma).

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 343.

**
Corequisites:
** Prerequisite or Corequisite: Physics 443.

### Physics 501 H(3-0)

#### Special Relativity

Lorentz transformations in classical mechanics; relativistic kinematics; spacetime diagrams; relativistic energy and momentum conservation; Geometrical interpretation; applications of relativistic kinematics; four-vector formalism and tensors; applications, primarily to relativistic electrodynamics.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 325, 457; Mathematics 353 or Applied Mathematics 309.

### Physics 507 H(3-0)

#### Solid State Physics

Crystal structure. Classification of solids and their bonding. Fermi surface. Elastic, electric and magnetic properties of solids.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 443 or Chemistry 373; Physics 449, 455.

### Physics 509 H(3-0)

#### Plasma Physics

Occurrence of plasmas in nature, single particle motion, plasmas as fluids, waves in plasmas, diffusion, resistivity, equilibrium and stability, kinetic theory of plasmas, non-linear effects.

### Physics 521 H(3-0)

#### Nonlinear Dynamics

Topics: Introduction to nonlinear dynamical systems: Phase space representation, nonlinear oscillators, bifurcations, normal forms, pattern formation, amplitude equations, deterministic chaos, attractors, fractals, synchronization

**
Prerequisites:
** Applied Mathematics 433; Physics 381; and Physics 449; or consent of the Department

### Physics 533 H(3-0)

#### Advanced Mathematical Methods of Physics

Hilbert space. Complete orthonormal sets of functions. Sturm-Liouville theory. Green functions. Integral equations.

### Physics 535 H(3-3)

#### Computational Methods in Physics

Solution of problems associated with the analysis of physical systems, using digital computers, high level programming languages, and mathematical computation systems (e.g., Maple, Macsyma).

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 443 or Chemistry 373, Physics 455 and 499 or 381. Note: A knowledge of a high level programming language (C, C++, Fortran or Pascal) is highly recommended.

### Physics 543 H(3-0)

#### Quantum Mechanics II

Theory of angular momentum and applications, perturbation theory and applications. Identical particles. Introduction to relativistic wave equations.

### Physics 561 H(2-1)

#### Stable and Radioactive Isotope Studies, Fundamentals

A multidisciplinary course. Topics include nucleosynthesis, radioactive decay, isotope exchange phenomena, kinetic isotope effects, tracer techniques, molecular spectra and instrumentation.

**
Prerequisites:
** Consent of the Department.

### Physics 571 H(3-0)

#### Laser Physics

Theoretical aspects of lasing and lasers. Principles of operation of solid-state, liquid, and gas lasers. Applications of laser systems to research, medical, and industrial projects.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 443, 455.

**
Note:
** Physics 449 is suggested but not required.

### Physics 573 H(3-0)

(formerly Applied Physics 573)

#### Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Quasi-static uniform atmosphere. Atmospheric optics. Scattering in the atmosphere. Atmospheric visibility and aerosols. Cloud physics. Atmospheric electricity. Radiative transfer. Atmospheric circulation. Hydrological cycling. Stable isotopic techniques. Pollutants. Energy transfer. Turbulence. Sky shortwave and visible radiation distribution. Near infrared sky radiation, cloud detection and estimation.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 347 or 447 or Chemistry 371 or consent of the Department.

### Physics 575 H(3-3)

#### Optics

Geometrical Optics: lenses, mirrors, and other basic optical components. Matrix Methods. Physical Optics: Interference, Diffraction, and Polarization. Fourier Optics. Modern Optics: Lasers and Fibre Optics.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 325, 457, Applied Mathematics 413.

**
Note:
** Credit will not be allowed for both Physics 575 and 471.

### Physics 591 Q(1S-0)

#### Undergraduate Seminar II

Similar to Physics 491, but including literature research into the connection between, influence on, or role of Physics in other areas of academia or society.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 491.

### Physics 597 H(1-6)

#### Senior Physics Laboratory

Selected advanced experiments. Where possible, students may choose those experiments most suited to their interests. Development of technical and computer-based skills, technical writing and presentation skills.

### Physics 598 F(0-6)

#### Research in Physics

Research project in Physics.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 443, 449, 455 and consent of the Department.

### Physics 599 H(0-9)

#### Independent Study

Each student will be assigned a project in consultation with a tutor. A written report and oral presentation are required.

**
Prerequisites:
** Consent of the Department.

**
Note:
** This course may be repeated once for credit.

## Graduate Courses

Only where appropriate to a student's program may graduate credit be received for courses numbered 500-599.

### Physics 603 H(3-0)

#### Experimental Methods of Physics

Instrumentation for physical experiments. General philosophy of experimentation; signal processes; signal processing methods; instrument design and control; data acquisition and storage; specific detection methods.

### Physics 605 H(3-0)

#### Advanced Data Analysis

Methods of extraction of significant information from experimental data degraded by noise. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods; curve fitting; spectral analysis; filtering, sampling, convolution and deconvolution techniques.

### Physics 609 H(3-0)

#### Advanced Classical Mechanics

Variational principles, Lagrange's equations, Noether's theorem. Hamilton's equations and canonical transformations. Hamilton-Jacobi theory, action-angle variables. Perturbation theory.

**
Prerequisites:
** Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 343 or equivalent.

### Physics 611 H(3-0)

#### Statistical Physics

Classical and quantum ensemble theory applied to interacting systems: real gases, spin lattices, phase transitions. Kinetic theory: Boltzmann equation, transport processes, irreversible processes and fluctuations.

**
Prerequisites:
** Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 449 or equivalent.

### Physics 613 H(3-0)

#### Electrodynamics

Interaction between charged particles and the electromagnetic field in relativistic formulation. Scattering and energy losses of charged particles. Radiation by charged particles.

**
Prerequisites:
** Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 457 and 501 or equivalents.

### Physics 615 H(3-0)

#### Advanced Quantum Mechanics I

Basic formalism of the theory and its interpretation, symmetry generators. Scattering theory. Bound states. Charged particles in electric and magnetic fields. Approximation methods.

**
Prerequisites:
** Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 543 or equivalent.

### Physics 617 H(3-0)

#### Advanced Quantum Mechanics II

Second quantized description of N-particle systems. Quantum theory of the electromagnetic field, coherent states. Relativistic quantum mechanics.

**
Prerequisites:
** Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 543 or equivalent.

### Physics 619 H(3-0)

#### Statistical Physics II

Topics Theories of equilibrium and nonequilibrium critical phenomena and methods to study fluctuating systems selected from the following list of topics: Percolation, scaling theory, phase transitions, Landau-Ginzburg theory, lattice models, Monte Carlo methods, renormalization group, self-organized criticality, theory of random graphs; Brownian motion, random walks and diffusion, Fokker-Planck-Equation, Markov processes, stochastic differential equations, first passage times.

**
Prerequisites:
** Physics 611 Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 481 or its equivalent.

### Physics 621 H(3-0)

#### Nonlinear Dynamics and Pattern Formation

Topics: Introduction to pattern formation and self-organization in nature: Reaction-diffusion systems, hydrodynamical systems, bistable media, excitable and oscillatory media, stability analysis, bifurcations, pattern selection, amplitude equations and normal forms, fronts, traveling waves, topological defects, spiral waves, spatiotemporal chaos, defect-mediated turbulence, spatiotemporal point processes

**
Prerequisites:
** Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 521, Physics 451 and Physics 481 or equivalents.

### Physics 629 H(3-0)

#### Gravitation

An introduction to Einstein's theory of gravitation. Applications to the solar system, black holes, and cosmology.

**
Prerequisites:
** Note: It is expected that a student's background will include Physics 501 or equivalent.

### Physics 663 H(2-1)

(Geology 663)

#### Applications of Stable Isotopes

Applications in archaeology, biology, chemistry, engineering, geography, geology, medicine, meteorology, paleontology, physics and space sciences. Topics include hydrology, paleoclimates, ore deposits, geothermometry, fossil fuels exploration and recovery, pollutant tracing, food webs and forensic investigations.

**
Prerequisites:
** Consent of the Department.

### Physics 671 H(3-0)

#### Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy

Atomic structure and spectra. Rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules, including microwave, infrared, Raman and visible/ultraviolet spectroscopic techniques. Hund's coupling cases. Polyatomic molecular spectroscopy. Examples from astronomy and upper atmosphere/space physics.

### Physics 673 H(3-0)

#### Quantum and Nonlinear Optics

Fundamentals of quantum and nonlinear optics including atom-photon interactions, coherence, electromagnetically induced transparency, open systems and decoherence, and applications to quantum information technology.

### Physics 675 H(3-0)

#### Special Topics in Laser and Optical Sciences

Lectures by Physics and Astronomy, Chemistry, Engineering, and/or Medicine staff on current research topics in laser science and modern optical techniques.

**
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT
**

### Physics 677 H(3-0)

#### Implementations of Quantum Information

Proposals and realizations of quantum information tasks including quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography in optical, atomic, molecular, and solid state systems.

**
Prerequisites:
** Consent of the Department.

### Physics 691 Q(2S-0)

#### Scientific Communication Skills (formerly Graduate Seminar)

Required, multi-component, program of courses for all graduate students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy designed to assist students in improving their scientific oral and written communication skills. Each student must complete a minimum of 3 terms of Physics 691 during each graduate course, although the normal load is 4 terms, and additional terms may be required of students on an as need basis. The components of Physics 691 are:

691.11. Effective Scientific Speaking for MSc Students

691.12. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students I

691.13. Effective Scientific Writing for MSc Students

691.14. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students II

691.16. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students III

691.18. Graduate Seminar for MSc Students IV

691.21. Effective Scientific Speaking for PhD Students

691.22. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students I

691.23. Effective Scientific Writing for PhD Students

691.24. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students II

691.26. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students III

691.28. Graduate Seminar for PhD Students IV Effective Scientific Speaking courses provide instruction on preparing and presenting quality scientific oral presentations, including discussions of the aspects of quality presentations and exercises aimed at improving student speaking skills, and will be taken by graduate students in their first fall terms in program. Effective Scientific Writing courses provide students with instruction on preparing quality scientific papers, as well as exercises aimed at improving students' writing skills, and will be taken during students' send fall term in program. The Graduate Seminar courses will be run each winter, and provide all students enrolled in each course the opportunity to present one or two scientific talks, as well as to provide peer feedback to other students in the course. At the end of each Graduate Seminar term, the course instructor(s) will identify those students who have reached an acceptable level of scientific speaking competency and exempt these students from any further Physics 691 Graduate Seminar courses for their current degrees.

**
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT
**

**
NOT INCLUDED IN GPA
**

### Physics 697 H(3-0)

#### Topics in Contemporary Physics

Topics will be from the research areas of staff members.

**
MAY BE REPEATED FOR CREDIT
**

### Physics 699 H(0-9)

#### Project in Physics

Each student will select a project in consultation with a staff member. The project may be experimental or theoretical in nature. A written report and an oral presentation are required.