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Occasional Paper No. 3


While academic libraries must turn to governments for their basic sustenance, the roots of greatness in a library have always been found in the generosity of individuals, particularly private collectors and lovers of books.

The Libraries of the University of Calgary have derived much nourishment from the Governments of Alberta and Canada and for this we are truly thankful. However, in the traditon of the great libraries, the jewels in our crown are those specialized private collections placed in our care by the unique and knowledgeable people who built these collections over time with personal care and enthusiasm.

No finer example exists than the Library of Margaret Hess. The pages that follow provide a brief account of the extent and value of this impressive collection and bear witness to the life's devotion and discernment which Margaret Hess has given to this collection.

Over the years this large gift of books,journals, pamphlets and rarities have proven to be of immeasureable worth to the scholars of the University of Calgary and to visitors from afar.

This brochure was prepared originally by Mr. Ernest B. Ingles, former Rare Books and Special Collections Librarian and currently the Director of Libraries at the University of Alberta. It reflects his extensive knowledge of the collection and his extensive background in Canadian Studies.

Alan H. MacDonald
Director of Libraries

". . . it is the special collections that constitute the strength and glory of a great
library.. ."1

This remark was made in 1911 by the distinguished Archibald Cary Coolidge, first Director of the Harvard University Library. He continued by adding that the collections of a university library could be truly enriched only through the help of their friends. The recent acquisition of the Margaret P. Hess Library by the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections of the University of Calgary Library is the largest accession of an integral collection in the history of the University, and provides strength and standing to the resources of the Library in the area of Canadian studies.

Margaret (Marmie) Hess is a native Calgarian. She received her post-secondary education at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, and at the University of Toronto where she was awarded her Baccalaureate degree. She subsequently did post-graduate work in fine arts at the State University of Iowa. Not content with simply fulfilling the course requirements of her university programme, she was actively involved in numerous extra-curricular activities. She was awarded the University of Alberta President's Award for best actress in inter-year drama, and the Women's Public Speaking Award from the University of Toronto. She was founder and leader of the women members of the University Parliament at the University of Toronto, and a member of that institution's debating team.

Education did not cease with the completion of her formal studies. Over the years her interests developed and matured. She focussed her attention on the native cultures of the great plains and northern regions of the North American continent. She studied the collections of the Arctic Institute of North America in Montreal, Quebec, and now in Calgary, Alberta; the Stefansson Collection at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire; the National Museum of Man in Ottawa; the Smithsonian Institute, Washington and New York; the American Museum of Natural History; the Heye Foundation; the Scott Polar Institute in Cambridge, England; the Glenbow-Alberta Institute in Calgary; the Anthropological Museum on the campus of the University of British Columbia; and the collections of various other centres of Indian culture in the United States and Canada. Although much travelled and at home in any country, Margaret Hess has made many trips into the north and has acquired a sympathetic understanding of the land and its people. She has followed the routes of the early explorers to understand better the hardships which they endured. She has worked and spoken at length with the native peoples and can claim with them a rapport rarely achieved.

Margaret Hess is inherently a Calgarian and an Albertan. She is the quintessence of the west: its history, its present, and its future. Her ranch on Spencer Creek in the rolling foothills of the Rocky Mountains brings her close to the rich ranching and farming heritage of the province, as does her own involvement with competitive equestrian activities and organizations such as the Alberta Thoroughbred Horse Association and the Canadian Horse Shows Association, and her interest in planned genetic breeding of cattle, show and race horses, and through her experiments in pasture irrigation.

She makes her home in Calgary and over the years has contributed substantially to its growth from a prairie town to a thriving business, industrial and cultural centre. Her participation in the Chamber of Commerce, the Calgary Stampede and Exhibition, the Calgary Zoological and Botanical Society, the Calgary Horticultural Society, and the Calgary Regional Arts Foundation are but a few examples of her community involvement.

Most important of all, Margaret Hess is an educator. Although she taught formally for a number of years at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art (now the Alberta College of Art), has delivered innumerable lectures, given courses through the Division of Continuing Education at the University of Calgary, and has appeared on a number of adult-education television programs, she is far more than a classroom teacher. Herself learned and liberal, she is committed to the idea of liberal learning as a continuing process. To this end she has been active on the Senate of the University of Calgary and in this capacity has served on numerous University committees. She has been the best of citizens on the campus, always ready to assume extra responsibility - always ready to take on an extra assignment. This sense of commitment was recognized by the University with an Honorary Doctorate in 1981.

The Margaret P. Hess Collection reflects the remarkable scope and depth of its creator. It is the library of a scholar, not a dilettante, and clearly has grown in support of her interests and activities. Intellectual inquiry led to acquisition, producing a collection empathetic to the physical and cultural environment of which she is a part. The traditional disciplines have been tightly woven into a fabric which is best described in the words of F. Hedley Auld when discussing the diversity of materials identified and listed by Bruce Peel in his Bibliography of the Prairie Provinces to 1953: it pictures "kaleidoscopically the occupation and development of a region."2

The collection consists of seven thousand printed books, four thousand pamphlets, and manuscript material. It contains books of great distinction and those of special rarity, and ranks in importance with the great canadiana collections, such as the Shortt and Doughty Library at the University of Saskatchewan; the Howay-Reid Collection at the University of British Columbia; and the Glenbow-Alberta Library, endowed by Eric Harvie. The majority of the items in the collection are historical, and can be broadly classified by geographical region: the great plains, including the Canadian prairie provinces and the American west; the various regions of British Columbia, particularly the coastal areas; and the North, from the Yukon through the Territories to the high Arctic.

Every form of material that a library of this nature should include may be found: contemporaneous works, that is, travel and exploration literature, including the journals of explorers, traders, travellers and missionaries; political, economic and administrative tracts, embracing the literature of nascent and mature government and political controversy; the works of educators and the publications of the organized churches and their spokesmen; biographies of notable individuals; a plethora of materials relating to the native peoples of the west, west coast and northern regions; belles lettres; guidebooks; maps and gazetteers; immigration literature; serial and periodical publications including the publications of the Champlain society, the Hudson's Bay Record Society, and the various historical societies; and, finally, works of historiography.

Mention must be made of particular volumes illustrative of the collection's diversity and depth, though the catalogue is too numerous to detail. The tremendous hardship and deprivation of early journeys of exploration and discovery, to say nothing of intrigue and conflict of interest, are relived by glancing through Christopher Middleton's report on his exploration of the Hudson's Bay and support of the Hudson's Bay Company's monopoly as detailed in A Vindication of the Conduct of Captain ChristopherMiddleton, in a Late Voyage on Board His Majesty's Ship the Furnace . . . (1743); or Arthur Dobbs' vitriolic denunciation of Middleton and the Hudson's Bay Company in An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay, in the North-West part of america . . .(1744). Whether one attributes authorship of the classic Voyages from Montreal on the River St. Lawrence Through the Continent of north America to the Fraser and Pacific Oceans... (1801) to Sir Alexander MacKenzie, or his first cousin, Roderick, one must be impressed by the detail and perceptiveness of the tract.

The collection contains numerous volumes dealing with voyages to the northern regions generally, as illustrated by the first English edition of Johann Reinhold Forster's History of the Voyages and Discoveries Made in the North... (1786) and John Barrow's A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions (1818). There is a wealth of material dealing with the quest for the fabled Northwest Passage.
The earliest imprint in this regard is the infamousGreenland, the Adjacent Seas, and the North- West Passage to the Pacific Ocean ... (1818) by Bernard O'Reilly, ship's doctor on the Thomas. The work is purported to be plagiarized from the writing of Sir Charles L.M. Von Giescke.3 Of considerably more importance from the historian's viewpoint, as opposed to the bibliographer's, is John Ross' A Voyage of Discovery, Made Under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty's Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin's Bay, and Enquiry into the probability of a North-West Passage (1818), which chronicles his voyages from April 18 to December 17, 1818. Noteworthy in his volume are the engraved plates by D.Havell, R. Havell and son, and J. Walker, which are hand-coloured and drawn by Captain Ross, A.M. Skene, H.P. Hoppner, John Sackehouse, Daniel Havell, J. Bushnan and T. Lewin. The collection also includes Ross' Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage ... (1835) together with the Appendix... (1835) to same. As one might expect, the Hess Library holds a handsomely bound set of William Edward Parry's voyages, including: Journal of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific... (1821); Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the atlantic to the pacific ... (1824); and the Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. . . (1826). Matched with this set is Parry's Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole. . . (1827) and a most interesting set of the North Georgia Gazette and Winter Chronicle, November 1, 1819 - March 20, 1820. This weekly newspaper was edited by Edward Sabine, a member of the earlier Ross expedition, and was designed to promote "good humour" and relieve the tedium of the wintering party. Sabine had accused Ross of plagiarism in his 1818 narrative.

A collection of voyages of exploration and discovery in the north would be incomplete without documentation of the expeditions of John Franklin and the monographs relating to subsequent searches after his ill-fated voyage of 1845. The story of the first two Franklin expeditions is recorded in his Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1819, 20, 21 and 22 (1823); and Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1825, 1826 and 1827 (1828). Some forty search parties were sent out over a period of years. Of these expeditions the Hess Library includes accounts by Sir John Richardson, Lieutenant Sherard Osborn, Elisha Kent Kane, and Charles Francis Hall, to name only a few.

Contemporary accounts of north-west coast explorers are also present in the collection. Four are of particular significance. The first is Nathaniel Portlock's A Voyage Round the World: but More Particularly to the NorthWest Coast of America. . .(1789). This volume chronicles an expedition commissioned by the King George's Sound Company to establish trade links with the natives of the region. They explored and traded for furs in the Nootka Sound Area, selling their cargo in China in 1787. Gloria Strathern states in her bibliography, Navigation, Traffiques and Discoveries, 1774-1848, that a "few copies" of the book were "printed on heavy paper with the 5 ornithological plates coloured."4 The Hess copy is one of these. This work is complemented by William Beresford's A Voyage Round the World: but More Particularly to the North-West Coast of America... (1789), which contains forty-nine letters by Beresford, who was supercargo on the ship Queen Charlotte. The book is edited with an introduction and appendices by Captain George Dixon, second in command to Nathaniel Portlock. The third in this sequence is John Meares' Voyages Made in the Years 1788 and 1789 from China to the North-West coast of America. To Which are Prefixed an Introductory Narrative of a voyage performed in 1786, from Bengal, in the Ship Nootka... (1790). Meares represented the Associated Merchants trading to the North West Coast of America, based in Calcutta, India. During his 1789 voyage his ships were seized in Nootka Sound by Spaniards. This provoked what was later termed the Nootka Sound Incident, an international dispute which saw Great Britain and Spain on the verge of war. Fortunately, this dispute was settled peacefully by the Nootka Convention, October 28, 1790. The particulars of the incident were related in State papers present in the collection. Under the terms of the Convention George Vancouver sailed to the region on April 1, 1791, with a commission to receive formally for Great Britain those territories seized by Spain. During his voyage he also charted the coastline from San Francisco to Cook's Inlet and circumnavigated Vancouver Island. Shortly before his death Vancouver recorded the details of his voyage. These were posthumously published in three volumes under the title A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World, in Which the Coast ofnorth- West America has Been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed... (1798). The copy in the collection is in its original boards, and is supplemented by the Replika Press facsimile of Vancouver's maps and charts.

The collection is rich in accounts of life in the interior of the continent. Joseph Robson, surveyor and supervisor of buildings for the Hudson's Bay Company, described critically the activities of the Company in his An Account of Six Years Residence in Hudson's Bay. From 1733 to 1736 and 1744 to 1747 (1752). John West, Church of England clergyman and first Protestant minister in the Red River settlement, gave an interesting account of his work in western Canada in The Substance of a Journal During a Residence at the Red River Colony, British North America... (1824), which he wrote to make better known the state of the "heathen world" and promote "zealous endeavor to evangelize and soothe its sorrows."5 John McLean, servant of the Hudson's Bay Company, provides another perspective in his Notes of Twenty-five Years Service in the Hudson's Bay Territory (1849), where he ambitiously attempts to "draw a faithful picture of the Indian trader's life - its toils, annoyances, privations, and perils, when on actual service or on a trading or exploring expedition; its loneliness, cheerlessness and ennui, when not on actual service...... 6 A most interesting account is that of Sir George Simpson, Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company territories in North America, in his Narrative of a Journey Round the World, During the Years 1841 and 1842 (1847). Simpson, a most astute observer, comments on his trip across Canada by the French River route to Lake Superior, then to the Red River settlement, Edmonton House, Fort Vancouver, Sitka, Vancouver Island and the Hudson's Bay Company posts in the Oregon Territory. Simpson made many additional trips across the west, one of which was in 1859 and 1860 when he accompanied James Carnegie, Earl of Southesk. Carnegie's notes of this excursion are transmitted in a privately printed volume titled Saskatchewan and the Rocky Mountains. A Diary and Narrative of Travel, Sport and Adventure During a Journey through the Hudson's Bay Company Territories, in 1859 and 1860 (1875). The Hess copy bears the note 'To Duncan Robertson, this remembrance of a journey in which he bore part, with best wishes from Southesk. Jan 20, 1875." Robertson was Southesk's gamekeeper at his home in Scotland. The collection also boasts a copy of The North-west Passage by Land. . . (1865) by Viscount Milton and W.B. Cheadle. This book is inscribed to John Marmaduke Teesdale, June 14, 1865, and has two autographed letters tipped in: the first, signed by Milton and Cheadle, requests Teesdale to be Godfather to one of the author's children. As the bookplates of John Marmaduke Teesdale and Frederic Dobree Teesdale both appear in the volume, it is unclear to whom the letters refer.

For many years the agricultural potential of the western interior was concealed from Europeans and eastern Canadians by those whose vested interests were concerned with the exploitation of resources on the prim aeval plains and forests. As settlement moved westward across the American Great Plains, more and more attention was turned to the Canadian territories. In 1857 and 1858, with a Commission from the Canadian Government, Henry Youle Hind headed an expedition to the Red River, Assiniboine and Saskatchewan regions to "ascertain the practicability of establishing an emigrant route between Lake Superior and Selkirk Settlement, and to acquire some knowledge of the natural capabilities and resources of the Valley of Red River and the Saskatchewan."7 In his two volume report, Narrative of the CanadianRed River Exploring Expedition of 1857 and of the Assiniboine his two volume report, and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858 (1860), Hind made considerable comment on the "Fertile Belt" in western Canada. At the same time, Captain John Palliser was also commissioned by the Imperial Government to explore the region in order to investigate its economic potential. Among the many comments and observations of Palliser were those of the unsuitability of a large tract of prairie land for agriculture. Comments on "Palliser's Triangle," as it was termed, were embodied in the documents: Exploration - British North America, Papers Relative to the Exploration by Captain Palliser ... (1859); Exploration - British North America. Further Papers Relative to the Exploration by the Expedition under Captain Palliser... (1860); Exploration - - British North America. The Journals, Detailed Reports, and Observations Relative to the Exploration, by Captain Palliser... (1863). Displeased with Palliser's remarks, the Canadian government dispatched John Macoun, Dominion Field Naturalist and Botanist, to appraise once again the region's agricultural possibilities. Macoun's more favourable report, Manitoba and the Great North-West: the Field for Investment; the home of the Emigrant: Being a Full and Complete History of the Country. .. (1882), was chiefly responsible for the federal government's settlement policies over the succeeding twenty-five year period. These works are further supplemented by a number of reports of the Geological Survey of Canada.

Materials relating to natural history abound in the collection. They range from such works as Julia W. Henshaw's Mountain Wild Flowers of Canada (1906) and Stewardson Brown's Alpine flora of the Canadian Rocky Mountains (1907) to Walter Raines' Bird-Nesting in North-West Canada (1892), P.A. Taverner's Birds of Western Canada (1926) and the sumptuous Fine Bird Books 1700 - 1900 (1953) by Sacherverell Sitwell, Handas de Buchanan and James Fisher, printed at the Chiswick Press. Artist, naturalist, writer Ernest Thompson Seton is naturally in evidence. The collection includes most of his numerous books on animal lore, including his Life-Histories of Northern Animals (1909), which established his reputation as a naturalist. Also represented are the journals and letters of the noted botanist, David Douglas.

Pamphlets and ephemera pose, for the collector, the most difficult problem of acquisition; yet they form an indispensable part of the documentation needed by researchers. The mark of a great collector is the ability to appreciate fully scholarly needs. Implied in this is the capacity to understand research methods and to correlate those methods with the difficult task of collecting such fugitive forms of primary source material. In this regard Margaret Hess displays an unique aptitude.

The pamphlets of the Hess Library, like the books, relate particularly to the plains of western Canada, the Pacific Coast, Canadian Arctic, and corresponding areas in the United States. Here can be found small local histories by the score: Aneroid through Braithwaite, Calverly, Coutant, Ferndale, Prairie duchien, Tisdale and Wilkie are but examples that illustrate the completeness of the collection. Throughout recorded history, social, economic and political upheaval have inspired pamphleteering. Literature related to the rebellions in 1870 and 1885 led by the Metis leader Louis Riel are well represented by such tracts as Louis Riel, martyr du Nord- Ouest Savie-son proces-sa mort(1885),CharlesR.Daoust's Cent-vingt Jours de Service Actif Recit Historique Tres Complet de la Campagne du 65eme au Nord-Ouest (1886); or the more recent Louis Riel et les Evengments de la Riviere-Rouge by Lionel Groulx(1945). One of the most controversial issues in Canadian history was the Manitoba school dispute. Here was a question with political, constitutional, economic and denominational ramifications which, before a compromise was reached, saw a cabinet split, the ultimate defeat of Prime Minister Mackenzie Bowell's government, and the further polarization of anglo and franco-Canadian sympathies, both in the west and in central Canada. Sir John Thompson's speech on Schools in the north West Territories to Parliament on April 26, 1894; the 1894 Jugement des Lords du Comite Judiciare du Cortsed Prive Imperial; Pierre Z. Lacasse's Une Visite dans les Ecoles du Manitoba (1897) (written under the pseudonym of Jean des Prairies); and Les Ecoles du Nord-Ouest (1905) by Quebec nationalist and journalist Henri Bourassa are representative works.

Any history of Canada would be incomplete without discussion of the country's railways. Researchers will be delighted at the wealth of material of this nature in the Hess collection. It may be Charles Horetzky's informative Some Startling Facts Relating to the Canadian Pacific Railway and the North-West Lands (1880) that is of interest, or perhaps the Official Report of the Speech Delivered by Hon. Sir Charles Tupper (1882), Minister of Railways and Canals, on the occasion of the debate regarding the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. On the other hand, the student may be concerned with the railway's role in promoting settlement in the 'Last Best West' or extolling the grandeur of the Rocky Mountains or the sumptuous accommodation available for visitors at Banff, Lake Louise or Lake O'Hara. Examples of such C.P.R. promotional literature include the following: Western Canada, the Granary of the British Empire (1906); Western Canada, Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan. How to Reach it. How to Obtain Lands. How to Make a Home (1910); Settlers 'Guide: A Handbook of Information for Settlers in the Canadian Pacific Railways Irrigation Block (1911); The New Highway to the Orient Across the Mountains-, Prairies, and Rivers of Canada (1902); The Challenge of the Mountains-: the Canadian Rockies - the Playground of America (c. 1905); Through the Canadian Pacific Rockies (n.d.); and So Much to Do, So Much to See, Banff Springs Hotel (1930). Not forgotten are the nation's other rail roads, the Great Northern, the Hudson Bay Railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific, and its successor the Canadian National. Pamphlets document the construction and promotional activities of all these lines.

As one might expect, the Hess library reflects a deep interest and concern with the native peoples of western Canada and the north. The collection is rich in tracts dealing with the political history and ethnography of these groups. Moreover, while retrospective imprints are well represented, there is an abundance of materials, hitherto uncollected, of documents and ephemera which have been generated in the past few years. Margaret Hess has been most diligent in bringing this material together, giving the collection a relevance in the context of the present day.

In this section special comment must be made on the numerous linguistic works. The collection holds most of the writings of the great ethnographer Franz Boas, including his Chinook Texts (1894), and his Vocabularies from the Northwest Coast of America (1916); but scarcer however are the Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia (1884) by W.A. Fraser and G. M. Dawson; A Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon or Indian Trade Language of the north Pacific Coast (n.d.); or C.C. Uhlenbeck's two works, Original Blackfoot Texts (191 1) and An English-Blackfoot Vocabulary (1930). To support these treatises the collection embraces a number of dictionaries, vocabularies and lesson books, many produced by church organizations for use by missionaries in the field.

Irrespective of other materials, the printed books and pamphlets relating to Indian and Eskimo art comprise, on their own, a most impressive assemblage. They are immeasurably enhanced by the inclusion of art and artifacts which derived from an exhibition of work by the Indian women of Fort Providence in the North-West Territories, submitted to the Women of the World Salute to commemorate International Women's Year at the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede in 1975. This exhibition supported and complemented that sponsored in 1974-75 by the National Museum of Man in Ottawa and the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh, which was the first exhibition devoted entirely to the Athapaskan Indians of Alaska and Northwestern Canada. The pieces, executed in leather with bead, quill and moose-hair decoration, were examples of the craftsmanship of this large linguistic group. Miss Hess was one of the organizers of these events and it was partly through her generosity and patronage that the richly illustrated bilingual catalogue The Athapaskans: Strangers of the North (1974) was published. The exhibition was also displayed in the Glenbow-Alberta Institute during the 1976 'International Conference on the Pre-History of the North American Sub-Arctic: The Athapaskan Question," at the University of Calgary.

While Margaret Hess' interest in native art is reflected in the work exhibited in her Calgary Galleries, she has collected, with the discernment evident in other areas of her library, a most impressive collection of 20th century art books. Indeed, the collection comprises the most significant examples of art publication over the past twenty-five years. Naturally, there is a concentration of Canadian titles, ranging from Newton MacTavish's The FineArts in Canada (1925); and CanadianPaintersfrom Paul Kane to the Group of Seven (1947) edited by Donald W. Buchanan to Derriere le Miroir, a beautifully signed, limited edition of work by Canadian painter Jean-Paul Riopelle. The balance of the collection is made up, in the main, of illustrated books on individual artists, with some concentration on Henry Moore and Pablo Picasso, period and regional studies, and works dealing with technique and form. In this latter category is included Josef Alber's classic Interaction of Color (1963). The collection also has two complete series published by the well-known Swiss publisher Albert Skira: Painting. Color. History and the Great Centuries of Painting.

This synopsis describes all too inadequately the tremendous resources available to students and researchers in the Margaret P. Hess Collection. It is with some regret that more detailed mention cannot be made of the many classic works of historiography, especially the work of such authors as A. Begg, R.G. MacBeth, G. Bryce, A. Shortt, A.G. Morice, A.L. Burt, A.S. Morton, G.P. Webb, A.0. McCrae, A.E. MacPhail, W. A. Mackintosh and G.E.Britnell. Neither is there sufficient space to remark upon the belles lettres of which there are many, or the comprehensive files of pamphlets and ephemera on almost every Canadian artist. Historians of the west would no doubt be interested in the many books, documents and pamphlets dealing with the colonization efforts of Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk. Similarly, local historians would find fascinating the materials on Calgary and regions.

Margaret Hess shares this collection with the University of Calgary in the hope that it will serve to facilitate research into the complex pattern of the Canadian mosaic. She has devoted much of her time, intellect and resources to achieving this goal. She has endowed the National Museum of Man in Ottawa with funds to support significant research projects. A portion of this money in turn was used to finance the publishing of the well-known Mercury Series, "designed to permit the rapid dissemination' of studies relating to Canadian history, ethnology and archaeology. In these and other endeavors she has made significant contributions to the quest for Canadian self-awareness. She is an exemplar of the ideals Professor T.B. Symons expressed in his study, To Know Ourselves: the Report of the Commission on Canadian Studies (1975).

The Shaman Whalebone, which graces the lobby of the twelfth floor of the MacKimmie Library was also donated to the Library by Margaret Hess. The artist, Pauloosie of Broughton, Baffin Island, N.W.T., has explored the weathered surfaces of a centuries old whalebone to depict on one side, a pair of human faces, and on the reverse side, thought to be even more impressive by Eskimo art expert James Houston, he has embodied the Eskimo's image of a woman, complete with braided hair and outflung arms incised along the natural contours on the bone. The smaller carvings of seal, polar bear and other animals found on the extremities and undersurfaces of the bone are believed to date from a much earlier period, and add to the fascination of the sculpture as a whole.


1. William Bentick-Smith, 'Archibald Cary Coolidge and the Harvard Library,' Harvard Library Bulletin XXII (April, 1974), p.186.

2. Bruce Braden Peel, A Bibliography of the Prairie Provinces to 1953, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1956), p.vii.

3. Frances M. Staton and Maiie Tremaine, A Bibliography of Canadiana (Toronto: The Public Library, 1934), p.249.

4. Gloria M. Stratbem, Navigations, Traffiques and Discoveries 1774 - 1848: A Guide to Publications Relating to the Area now British Columbia (Victoria: Social Sciences Research Centre, University of Victoria, 1970), p.239.

5. John West, The Substance of a Journal During a Residence at the Red River Colony, British North America, and Frequent Excursions among the North-West American Indians, in the Years 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823 (London: L.B.Seeley and Son, 1824), p.vii.

6. John M'Lean, Notes of a Twenty-Five Years'Service in the Hudson's Bay Territory (London: Richard Bentley, 1849), p.vii.

7. Henry Youle Hind. Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857 and of the Assinniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858 (London: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860), p.v.

Original text by Ernest B. Ingles; revised by Apollonia Steele
Revised version edited by Shirley Onn
Text production by Sue McConnell
Photographs by Communications Media
Web version by Robyn Herrington, December 1995

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