Image Style Analysis: Employing Digital Imaging Technology to Map Changes in Pictorial Styles Over Time Dr. Peter Strong, Oxford, U.K.
Considerable advances have occurred over the past twenty years in the imaging side of digitally based computer science and technology. These advances have brought onto the scene medical imaging, digital televisions and cameras, desk-top scanners, CCTV surveillance systems, and so forth. The object of this paper is to provide historians, philosophers, and educationalists with an introduction to a new subject, one which exists because of the capacity we now possess via the technology quantitatively to measure visual forms of evidence from all cultures and periods – also, to model and to map measured information secured from visual examples. This paper explains in a not overly technical manner how a non-linguistic form of evidence - in this instance the pictorial – can be used to elicit previously inaccessible sorts of information about stylistic features and their significance.
Newtonian Optics in the Eighteenth Century: Discussing the Nature of Science Cibelle Celestino Silva, Institute of Physics of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, Brasil Breno Arsioli Moura, Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, Brasil
Despite the difficulty of precisely describing the nature of science, there is a widespread agreement concerning the necessity of incorporating into curricula some notions about how the scientific activity operates. Studying the history of conceptual development and the process of acceptance of scientific ideas by the scientific community may help teachers to incorporate valuable concepts on the nature of science in science teaching. Shortly afterwards the publication of the book Opticks, by Isaac Newton, in 1704, there appears a number of popular lectures and published works presenting the content of this book, attempting to make it suitable for the general public. These published works and popular lectures, however, did not discuss some conceptual problems in Newton’s book. The present paper analyses the development of Newtonian optics during the eighteenth century in Europe, and emphasizes the different phases involved in the acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light until the development of the wave theory in the early nineteenth century.
Newton Sees The Light! Prisms, Rainbows, and Science: A Re-Construction Pierre Boulos, School of Computer Science, University of Windsor, Canada
The centrepiece of Newton’s work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (first edition, 1687), is radically different from the body of scientific work which preceded it. Newton, the philosopher, had much to say about science, methodology, and ontology. In the Scholium which ends Book III of the Principia Newton shows a disdain for hypotheses, metaphysical or physical, and expresses this with his celebrated hypothesis non fingo – I feign no hypotheses. Historians and philosophers of science have long debated this admission. In my paper I wish to explore a related event which may shed “light” on Newton’s methodological and metaphysical commitments. My story will be informed by the events which surround Newton’s famous experimentum crucis – the prism experiment of 1672 -- and the debate surrounding it (notably by Hooke and Huygens) which were publicly played out in The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Pre-Newtonian Reasoning and One-Dimensional Projectile Motion Mark Lattery, Department of Physics/Astronomy, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, U.S.A.
This presentation introduces a series of studies to examine student thinking and reasoning in the context of classical mechanics and, more specifically, one-dimensional projectile motion. As a point of entry, I examine the scientific models of two ancient philosophers (Aristotle and Hipparchus) and one Medieval philosopher (Galileo). These models provide a historical-interpretive framework for analyzing an interview of one contemporary student. The product of this analysis is a classification of Pre-Newtonian reasoning, in the context of one-dimensional projectile motion, involving four impetus models. These models (together with the Newtonian model) form a suitable set of basis learning states to express conceptual change.
Bridging the History of Science Teaching Gap: A Lesson Plan for the Discovery of Vitamin B1 Jen Jang Sheu, Graduate Institute of Professional Development for Educators, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
It is never overestimated the important role and value of the history of science infused in science curriculum to help students to know more about what the nature of science is. Moreover, the history of science can not only demonstrate vividly to students the dynamic process of scientific development, help students grasp the essential characteristics of science, understand the development of scientific concepts , but also gear to help students realize the ways of scientific inquiry, the human-oriented scientific careers and cultural development. However, the issue, which science teachers always raised, is that “How to bridge the history of science teaching gap?” Hence, in this article, a lesson plan for the discovery of Vitamin B1 will be introduced, and, surely, the related history of science will be carefully infused.
Mechanical Metaphors in Unlocking The Mystery of Life Paul Wendel, Department of Teaching, Learning, and Curriculum Studies, Kent University, U.S.A.
In the Aristotelian heritage of modern science, matter was lively. Yet with the acceptance of “mechanical philosophy” during the Enlightenment, this animistic view of matter came to an end. Concerned with the religious implications of this de-spiritualization of matter, religious mechanical philosophers such as Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton attempted but ultimately failed to find a role for God in a mechanistic universe. In order to provide evidence for the existence of God, the Intelligent Design video Unlocking the Mystery of Life (Meyer & Allen 2002) adopts a mechanistic view of cellular biology, similar in many ways to the mechanistic viewpoint promoted by Rene´ Descartes. I conclude with an examination of the apparent incompatibility of this mechanistic viewpoint with American fundamentalism.
Critical Explorations by Teacher and Student in Experimental Science and its History Elizabeth Cavicchi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A.
A teacher and a college student explore experimental science and its history by reading historical texts, and responding with lab activities of their own. An experimental curriculum evolves in the ongoing interactions of teacher, student, history and such materials as pinholes, pendulums, lenses and conducting wires. Questions, observations, and developments that emerge in these interactions, along with the pair’s reflections on history and research, are presented in the narrative context of their experimental curriculum. This study applies the research pedagogy of ‘critical exploration’, developed by Eleanor Duckworth from the interviewing of Piaget and Inhelder and exploratory activities of the 1960s Elementary Science Study. Critical exploration involves students in researching the subject materials simultaneous with the teacher’s research into students’ emerging understandings. As this research process engages both teacher and student in generating new observations, it also connects them to the experimenting of such investigators as Shen Kua, Galileo, Volta and others.
Experience Of Experiment Based Science Education In The Indian Context: Potentials and Limitations Sadhna Saxena, University of Delhi, India
Experiment based science education was tried out at the middle school levels in India through the efforts of some of the leading scientists. Experiment based learning enlivened the classrooms and successfully dislodged mindless mugging of definitions and facts with engagement of the mind of the learner. However, it created hurdles in the teaching of concepts of astronomy, microbiology, atomic structure, evolution, and chemical structure, as the methodology did not permit transmission of knowledge without experiments. The paper analyzes the missed opportunities in appreciating that science cannot be understood without understanding the philosophical basis of scientific terms and the historical debates in the evolution of scientific concepts. By sharing the teaching experience of some of the topics of physics, author will underline the learning difficulties of the students that are perhaps related to the historical difficulties of scientific developments and can be assisted by the knowledge history and philosophy of science.
Create-Test-Use and Evidential Bases Frank Jenkins, Centre for Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, University of Alberta, Canada Hans van Kessel, Bellerose High School (retired), Canada
Laboratory programs have traditionally lacked philosophical conceptualization and/or practical value. This paper provides an example of a synthesis of natures of science (NoS) (e.g., inductive (I), hypotheticdeductive (HD) and deductive (D)) and available evidential bases (e.g., wet and dry labs and computer simulations). This approach has been used to create the laboratory program of a 2007 Alberta high school chemistry textbook. Most important is that the curriculum developer, multimedia designer, author, teacher and student recognize the type of laboratory work being done. The processes listed in the laboratory report start with the scientific purpose (create (I), test (HD) or use (D)) and come back to this purpose in the evaluation at the end of the report. The full create-test-use (I-HD-D) cycle of work in a laboratory setting may be ideal for each major concept but is not likely—especially given the overloaded curricula of the day. However, the combination of create-test-use purposes with a variety of evidential bases allows for some alternative choices for presenting evidence, always including wet-lab work. The full CTU(T) cycle (including falsification) can be economically, safely and efficiently completed by a judicious choice of evidential bases. Not only does a range of choices allow for more evidence-based work but, from a pedagogic perspective, students are engaged in subject-matter and NoS concepts for a sufficient quantity of quality time to accommodate these concepts into their conceptual network. The hypothesis is that more students should become successful if this instructional strategy is employed.
Ernst Mach and the Question of the Consequences of Darwin for Science Teaching: General Principles, History of Ideas and the Genesis of the Learning Process Hayo Siemsen, International Study Leader EU-POPBL Project
This paper will try to refocus educational epistemology on initial questions Ernst Mach tried to answer. Mach’s goal was the translation of Darwin’s ideas into the epistemology of science and the consequences for learning science: What can we know? Is our culture the result as well as part of our genesis process? Is science part of this process as well? How according to Mach’s epistemology can HPS science teaching be improved to be even closer to our learning genesis? Going back to Mach’s original questions, while adapting the findings of later research to them, provides a strong epistemological platform for science learning. Ideas deriving from these questions seem to have had a strong catalytic influence on education systems around the world (as for example in Finland, the Netherlands or India). These key ideas are genetic education, monism and thought economy in learning.
Darwinism in Context: a Course on the Nature of Science Kostas Kampourakis & Christos Gripiotis, Geitonas School, Athens, Greece
IA project, Darwinism in Context: Evolutionary Ideas in a Victorian Age, a study of social, cultural and scientific issues in 19th century London is described. Its aim was to help students learn about the nature of science through a well documented historical case study: the development of Darwin’s evolutionary theory. The formal learning part consisted of five lectures on social issues of 19th century London, on Darwin’s intellectual background, on the publication of The Origin of Species, on the Huxley-Wilberforce debate and on how authors or poets adopted Darwin’s ideas in their works. All these served as a stage of preparation for the informal learning part, during visits to the places where the actual history took place.
So What Does Darwin Have To Do With Evolution Anyway? Erik Peterson, Program in History and Philosophy of Science, University of Notre Dame, U.S.A.
An historical framework for teaching evolutionary theory will provide a foundation for a better grasp of modern evolutionary theory and a richer understanding of its historical development and issues of the nature of science illustrated therein. Beginning with predecessors to Darwin, the presentation progresses to the work of Darwin and its reception in the scientific community. The evolution/genetic controversy that fractured the biology community and its eventual resolution are explored, followed by more contemporary views of evolution. This framework will enrich discussion and encourage consideration of various responses to evolution based on evidence and scientific reasoning and how the theory itself has evolved since the 19th century, while still maintaining the essential aspects mandated by state and national standards. Issues in the nature of science touched upon include observation and theory development, how contradictory evidence is dealt with, and interactions between society and science.
Progressive Transitions in Chemistry Teachers’ Understanding of Nature of Science Based on Historical Controversies Mansoor Niaz, Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela
Objective of this study is to facilitate progressive transitions in chemistry teachers’ understanding of nature of science in the context of historical controversies. Study is based on 17 in-service teachers who had registered for a 11 week course as part of their Master’s degree program. Course activities included written reports, class room discussions, and written exams. This study facilitated the following progressive transitions: a) Problematic nature of the scientific method, objectivity and the empirical basis of science; b) Myths associated with respect to nature of science; c) Science does not develop by appealing to objectivity in an absolute sense, as creativity and presuppositions also play a crucial role; d) Role of speculation and controversy in the construction of knowledge; e) Differentiation between the idealized scientific law and observations.
Epistemological and Learning Conceptions in Science Teachers Xochitl Bonilla-Pedroza, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, México Leticia Gallegos-Cazares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
This paper presents the tendencies and relations between the Nature of Science (NOS) and the Learning of Science (LOS) of a sample of teachers of secondary schools in Mexico (ages 12-15). We construct and analyze the NOS and LOS profiles of 313 teachers. The results show that there are some general relations between both profiles. The NOS profiles show a tendency to use empiricism and logical positivism but the LOS profiles present 4 different arrangements. It is important to notice that a constructivist position appears in 27% of the sample in both profiles.
Designing and Evaluating Nature-of-Science Activities for Teacher Education Fanny Seroglou, School of Primary Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Agustin Aduriz-Bravo, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Argentina
In this paper, we combine two previous frameworks for the introduction of the nature of science in teacher education in which we have been working for some years. The resulting ‘model’ is called ‘GNOSIS’: an acronym for Guidelines for Nature of Science Introduction in Scientific literacy. GNOSIS provides a set of structural components in order to design and evaluate NOS activities that can be used in pre- and in-service teacher education. Our focus is put on scientific literacy for all: identifying and enhancing the specific contribution of science learning in the formation of educated citizens. We approach NOS under three dimensions (cognitive, meta-cognitive and emotional) that approximately mirror the meta-sciences (history, philosophy and sociology of science). In this paper, we present two activities that were designed and assessed following our framework. Such activities use narratives (e.g., films, legends) in order to discuss the key-idea of ‘scientific creation’ (demiurgy).
The History of the Concept of Electromotive Force in Electric Circuits and Designing Teaching Sequences Jenaro Guisasola, University of the Basque Country, Spain Antonio Moreno & Manuel Fernandez, University of Granada, Spain
There is currently a consensus that understanding concepts and theories requires being aware not only of current definitions but also the context of the investigation where they are constructed and developed. In fact there are many arguments that defend including the history of science in the curriculum, particularly in learning strategies but very few studies exploring this perspective in terms of designing Physics teaching programmes have been published. In this work we are considering the history of science within teaching sciences as a source of problems which must be solved to make progress in scientific knowledge thereby allowing us to define important milestones in designing significant learning for scientific theories. The work which we are presenting here has the following objectives: a) Drawing up a conceptual framework based on the history and epistemology of science which recounts the qualitative jumps and difficulties which took place when drawing up the concept of electromotive force; b) Formulating learning indicators for the concept of electromotive force based on the previous conceptual framework, which can be useful to design a teaching sequence for this concept.
The Need to Emphasize Epistemology in Teaching and Research Calvin S. Kalman, Physics Department, Concordia University, Canada
It is the goal of any introductory Science course to help students to develop a Science mindset. Such a mindset includes a critical understanding of the basic principles of the subject and as such requires higher orders of thinking (critical thinking). There is no quick fix to achieve this goal. It involves in part a change in the student’s epistemology. Studying how scientists came to examine their views can help students come to examine their own views. Additionally, if students study different philosophers of science they can see that there are different ways of seeing the same material. Epistemology is now sadly neglected in research as it is in the teaching of science. Exploring epistemology can produce useful research. As a model of the latter, I show how I developed a paper for an international High Energy Physics conference based on the epistemology of Atomism.
Utilising Theme Demonstrations and Concept Maps to Integrate Electrostatics Teaching Wheijen Chang, Physics Teaching and Research Centre, Feng-Chia University, Taiwan
Teaching electrostatics is a challenging task due to its complexity and abstractness. To help students grasp the whole picture of the topic, this study (1) analyzed students’ learning difficulties in electrostatics, (2) developed demonstrations using plasma globes etc., (3) designed questions for students to discuss in small groups, and (4) guided students to draw concept maps. The program has been implemented by the author in Taiwan for three consecutive years with both university and high school students, and minor modifications have been made based on the participants’ comments. Both the affective outcomes and the students’ academic performance were evaluated. The results suggest that the combination of theme demonstrations, group discussion based on worksheets, and concept mapping is effective in (1) clarifying the meanings of the terminologies and concepts, (2) integrating related terms/theories into a global picture, and (3) engaging students’ participation in the learning process.
Henry David Thoreau, Forest Succession, and the Nature of Science: A Method for Curriculum Development Eric Howe, Assumption College, U.S.A.
Episodes from the history of science can provide a useful context for students to learn aspects of the nature of science. Research documents the importance of having students learn the nature of science in an explicit and reflective manner in order to facilitate their conceptual understanding of nature of science tenets. This paper presents a method for curriculum development that draws from three areas, 1) how to research a selected episode from the history of science, 2) how to identify germane nature of science tenets exemplified in the selected historical episode(s), and 3) how to develop a problem-based approach using the historical episodes to promote students explicit and reflective examination of issues associated with the nature of science. The method is discussed with reference to an example from the history of ecology and introductory forest succession involving the work of Henry David Thoreau.
Strategies for Affecting the Necessary Course of Cognitive Growth as an Integral Part of Curricular and Instructional Planning Stuart Rowlands, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, U.S.A. Robert Carson, Montana State University, U.S.A.
This paper explores the public awareness that there presently exists a crisis in mathematics education and a ‘dumbing-down’ of the curriculum, examines the nature of this crisis and argues that there has been a lowering of cultural, pedagogical and cognitive expectations with respect to most learners. The notion of cognitive development in mathematics education is re-examined and a model of how the concepts of learners can be transformed in the very process of engaging with the conceptual revolutions that defined geometry is proposed. The importance of cultivating a meta-narrative in support of metacognition and the development of cognitive growth are stressed.
Can Computer Modeling Help Us Understand the History of Science? Pierre Boulos, School of Computer Science, University of Windsor, Canada
Historians and Philosophers of Science have long debated what accounts for progress in science. Paul Thagard has put forward his Theory of Explanatory Coherence (TEC) and implemented it in a computer program called ECHO in an attempt to address progress in science and why one scientific theory supplants another. ECHO runs simulations of theory conflicts (Ptolemy versus Copernicus, Lavoisier versus Phlogistonists, Newton versus Descartes, et cetera) to test whether the principles in TEC will lead to the selection of the best theory. ECHO uses Neural Networks to provide evidence in favour of TEC. This paper explores how computational tools, like ECHO, can be used to help historians and philosophers of science.
Student Teachers' Misconceptions of the Particulate Model of Matter Varda Bar, Science Teaching Center, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Chana Ma-Naim, Kibbutzim College of Education Barbara Zinn, Science Teaching Center, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
This paper shows the parallels between the historical concepts and contemporary student teachers’ ideas regarding the particulate model of matter. This model is a powerful system that reflects an arrangement of ideas and the nature of relationships connecting them. It can be used to explain different phenomena, such as the three phases of matter. However to use this tool correctly and effectively, student teachers need to accept and understand the particulate model with all its nuances. Achieving this understanding is not an easy task. Student teachers’ alternative conceptions often parallel explanations of natural phenomena offered by earlier philosophers and scientists. Thus historical concepts can anticipate students' teachers’ difficulties. This study checked student teachers’ understanding of the particulate model of matter since as future teachers; their misconceptions affect future pupils' concepts.
Historical Recurrent Teaching Models 2: From Stoichiometry to Nanotechnology Jose Antonio Chamizo, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México K. Padilla, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
For teaching purposes Historical Recurrent Teaching Models (HRTM) has been recently introduced. They have to do with an appreciation of the kinds of problems that a model was designed to solve, the extent to which it does so, and the reasons why, if it is correct, previous attempts were not successful and therefore had to be altered or abandoned. Here we develop (with a specific document entitled Stoichiometry: from equivalent to atomic models) and test (first with six chemistry high school teachers and later through a semantic differential scale) one HRTM related with stoichiometry, atomic theory and nanotechnology for undergraduate students in the School of Chemistry in the Autonomous National University of Mexico.
History and Nature of Science in Brazilian Physics Textbooks: Some Findings and Perspectives Cibelle Celestino Silva & Cassiano Rezende Pagliarini, Institute of Physics of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, Brasil
There is agreement in Brazilian and international science teaching community concerning the relevance of teaching history and notions of nature of science at high-school level. Influenced by academic researches, history of science and concepts about nature of science were included in Brazilian scientific curricula during the last decade. Indeed, textbooks play an important role in science education, and usually are the main didactic tool used by teachers and their pupils, performing a big influence on the nature of science taught at classrooms. The present paper analyses how and which kind of history appears in some of the most popular Brazilian physics textbooks, focusing on the concepts concerning the nature of science brought by these historical narratives. Generally, these books present pseudo-history, what reinforces myths about scientists and mislead teachers and students on their understanding of the nature of science. Finally, we discuss some perspectives and actions towards the improvement of the quality of historical and philosophical contents in textbooks.
Quo Vadis (Physics) Education Juraj Sebesta, Department of Theoretical Physics and Physics Education, Comenius University, Bratislava
In this contribution circumstances in which the education is performed in our region are described. Firstly, political and social conditions are analyzing. After that we discuss changes in modern physics epistemology. Comparing results of our investigation with character of present education system we conclude that the latter has to be changed. Finally, we summarize the main presumed features of education in future.
Newton's Use of the Pendulum to Investigate Fluid Resistance: A Case Study and Some Implications for Teaching about the Nature of Science Colin Gauld, University of New South Wales, Australia
Books I and III of Newton’s Principia develop Newton’s dynamical theory and show how it explains a number of celestial phenomena. Book II has received little attention from historians or educators because it does not play a central role in Newton’s argument. However, it is in Book II that we see most clearly Newton both as a theoretician and an experimenter. In this part of the Principia Newton dealt with terrestrial rather than with celestial phenomena and described a number of experiments he carried out to establish the success of his theory in explaining the properties of fluid resistance. It demonstrates most clearly the activities of a scientist working at the forefront of knowledge and working with phenomena, which he did not fully understand. In this paper the first of Newton’s set of experiments into fluid resistance are described and the theory which underlies his explanation is outlined. A number of issues arising from this portion of the Principia together with implications for teaching about the nature of science are discussed.
Micro and Macro Context Authenticity in Realization of Authentic Science in Schools Devrim Guven, School of Education, Bogazici University, Turkey
This paper argues that epistemologically, sociologically and contextually authentic inquiry can be realized in the classrooms by providing pre-and in-service teachers a framework, which is intended to act as a guiding tool, that maps out the dimensions of authentic inquiry for the teachers as well as pedagogical approaches that would support it. Providing opportunities for pre- and in-service teachers to collaborate on developing and/or adapting curriculum materials based on the framework would be more meaningful as prepackaged curriculum materials which has the purpose of realizing authentic inquiry in the classrooms disregard many contextual issues faced by the teachers. Micro and macro context authenticity terms are offered to map out the contextual dimensions of authentic science education.
Discourse in Science Classroom: The Authority of Scientific Knowledge and Communication Situation. Huei Lee, Graduate Institute of Science Education, National Hualien University of Education, Taiwan Li-Hua Hou & Rong Shiao, Department of Ecology, Providence University, Taiwan
We explore the science discourse in a 9th grade, 11 female and 8 male, science classroom. Based on SSK, the science dialogue and interaction were analyzed by discourse analysis and qualitative methods to understand how the teacher and students talked about science and how their dialogues influenced students’ science learning. Data collection during a whole semester includes questionnaires, field-notes, interviews, and other documents. The paragraphed dialogues were coded according to the research problems, and triangulated with the data from other aspect. The findings indicated that, group discussion is disturbed by many non-academic factors, to suitably utilize scientific terminology and communication, still were positively influence the construction of scientific concept regarding the students. The major factor to affects the communication in science classroom including the authority of knowledge, and students’ intention. Besides, Habermas’ ideal communication situation with a new consideration may refer to the teacher to build a better learning environment.
The Conversion of a Recipe-Based Laboratory Exercise to an Inquiry-Based Laboratory Exercise using Historical Materials and Recent Context-Based Materials: The Case of the Preparation of Tin (IV) Oxide Kevin de Berg, Avondale College, Australia
There has been a strong belief within the science education community since the 1950’s that science education ought to involve students in inquiry processes endemic to scientific practice as opposed to just learning the facts of science. This belief is reflected in the emphasis given to ‘science as inquiry’ in the National Science Education Standards Document (NRC 1996) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS 1993). In spite of this commitment to inquiry in our standards documents, it has been reported that students who have completed both a high school qualification and an undergraduate degree may not have experienced such inquiry-based science (Roth 1998). In this paper an account is given of how a recipe-based laboratory exercise for the preparation of tin (IV) oxide was converted to an inquiry-based laboratory exercise through the use of historical material from the 19th century and current context material on the preparation of porous tin oxides for lithium batteries and gas sensors.
Problems of the Environment in the Science Classroom: Ozone Depletion in Greek Science Textbooks Constantine Skordoulis & Psomiadis Ploutarhos, Faculty of Primary Education, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
An environmental problem arises from the interaction between Natural and Cultural systems. Environmental problems operate in nature but at the same time have a strong political character since are caused by humans and social and political institutions are involved in their solution. Recently, in science education literature a tendency appears pointing towards the inclusion of the teaching of values in science education and that science education should guide the students to social action. This orientation relies on the fact that science and science education are social activities operating within communities which posses value systems. In this framework, we are examining how one of the most important environmental problems, namely the Depletion of the Ozone Layer – DOL, is presented in Greek science textbooks and whether the textbooks in their present form can give adequate scientific background and ethical motivation in order to guide the student towards critical thinking and responsible decision making.
To Develop the Senses” - Teaching Science to Primary Education Teachers in the First Century of the Greek State (1828-1931) Constantine Tampakis & Constantine Skordoulis, Faculty of Primary Education, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
This paper aims to examine the training that primary teachers’ received in the Greek State, from 1828 to 1931, through the use of four main axis of analysis. These can be summarized as: the curricula used, the contents of the courses, the identification of the educators and the social and intellectual conditions of the era. Our research shows that textbooks played a very important role in the shaping of the curriculum, as did the teaching method used. Also, many science professors were not themselves trained scientists. Finally, science education was influenced by both the lack of a cohesive scientific community and by the social and intellectual conditions of the time. In conclusion, for most of the examined period, science was undervalued epistemically in teacher training and received at best a cursory attention.
Globalization of Science Inquiry- One Size Fits All Susan Barker, Pat Rowell & Frank Jenkins, Department of Secondary Education, University of Alberta, Canada Pilar Reyes & Evelyn Fuentes, Universidad de Chile, Chile Zianzhong Zhou, Zhaoning Ye, & Min Wang, Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, China
The phenomenon of globalization in the field of science education is under-acknowledged and under-theorized. The current reform movement in countries around the world to embed school science programs in the practices of science inquiry is an example of social, political and economic pressures that are generally unrecognized in the science education arena. The Inter Academy Panel on International Issues (IAP), have established a global program on scientific inquiry and here we describe the IAP implementations in Chile and China and discuss them in the context of science inquiry in Canada. We also present teachers and scientists perceptions of the origins of science inquiry as a teaching approach. This qualitative data is drawn from a larger phenomenographical research project on teachers and scientists understandings of science inquiry in Canada, Chile and China. The significance of these issues for future implementation of science inquiry in schools and science teacher professional development are highlighted.
Rationality and the Political Face of Education – Revisited (Again!) Philip Smith, Ohio State University, U.S.A.
For most of its history western philosophy has embraced the dream of perfect knowledge, that one could know things in themselves as they really are. Central to this vision is the idea of reason. That reason makes knowledge possible has been recognized in western culture from the time of the Greeks. But how should reason be understood? Does it liberate us from our mundane circumstances, or is it merely a tool of experience in the service of our particular interests and needs? This paper looks at the history of the idea of reason and how it has developed, for better or worse in the service of cultural trends and expectations. How this idea is understood and utilized in history, philosophy, and science affects both the value of these pursuits and their proper place in a scheme of serious education.
Teaching the Interrelations of Science and Society: A Set of Role-plays on the Social and Cultural Context of Science Anna Koumara, Athanasios Goutzamanis, & Hariton M. Polatoglou, School of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Fanny Seroglou, School of Primary Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
A set of four role-plays has been designed based on the study of the biographies of scientists, their work and their social and cultural context. Four case studies have been selected as each one may represent one of the following kinds of interrelations between science and society: the cultural, the moral, the utilitarian and the democratic interrelations. The four role-plays have been carried out during a teacher training course for in-service teachers at Didaskalio ‘Dimitris Glinos’ at the School of Primary Education of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the qualitative analysis of the videotaped sessions indicates that in-service teachers appreciate role-playing in science, while their introduction to the social and cultural context around the scientific work offers them a new wider perspective to understand and teach science.
Scientists, Profit & Public Enlightenment Larry Bencze, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada Maurice Digiuseppe, York University, Canada Mike Bowen, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
School students and members of the general public tend to view professional science in idealistic ways. Topic choice is considered broad and ideational, methods are considered systematic and objective and products are considered relatively successful. Those who study professional science and technology, meanwhile, are aware that practices and products in science and technology are not always ‘ideal’ and, indeed, may be highly problematic. Of particular concern are adverse effects of global economic forces. Given their influence on science education, it is particularly important that scientists educate others about such issues. Based on video-recorded semi-structured interviews of several scientists, we identified three groups — in terms of their motivation for enlightening the public about relationships between profit and science; that is, Informers, Para-informers and Protectionists. Factors possibly determining these groups include experience, knowledge and epistemological perspectives. Implications for the education of scientists, science teachers, school science students and others are discussed.
(EDB 370a) Symposium session:
Learning from Fermat's Contributions to the Development of Calculus
From Archimedes to Fermat: Quadratures of Spirals James D. Currie, Mathematics & Statistics, University of Winnipeg
Fermat drew inspiration from the work of Greek mathematicians such as Archimedes, Pappus and Diophantus. However, following Viète, he interpreted Greek work via the Analytic Art. I will discuss how Fermat combined Archimede’s work in On Spirals with an understanding of figurate numbers from Diophantus, to produce a large class of quadratures and rectifications. In this way, Fermat paved the way for the introduction of the Integral Calculus by Barrow and Newton.
Early Differentiation: Fermat’s Method of Adequality Jeff C. Babb, Mathematics & Statistics, University of Winnipeg
Starting from his key observation that a continuous function changes very slightly near a point at which the function reaches an extreme value, Fermat developed his method of adequality to find extrema of certain functions and tangents to some curves. The method of adequality involves perturbing a variable slightly, carrying through some algebraic manipulations, and then allowing the change to disappear. This paper examines the method of adequality and explores its similarities to Newton’s method of fluxions and to modern differentiation. The historical importance and pedagogical value of Fermat’s approach will be considered in the context of an undergraduate course on the history of calculus.
The Periodic Table-Its Story and Its Significance Dr. Kevin de Berg, Avondale College, Australia, Australia Dr. Mansoor Niaz, Department of Chemistry, Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela Dr. Mercè Izquierdo Aymerich, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Respondent: Dr. Eric R. Scerri, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, UCLA, U.S.A.
Chair: Dr. Jose Antonio Chamizo, Facultad de Química UNAM, México
This is undoubtedly a book that every practising chemist and chemistry educator should read because of its far-reaching implications for understanding the nature of the periodic law and the challenges it presents to contemporary portrayals of the Periodic Table. The author, Eric Scerri, gives historical and philosophical background to issues involved in the development of the Periodic Table and reminds the reader that philosophical considerations have only received serious attention since the middle of the 1990’s. While the author warns the reader not to treat the book as a work of historical scholarship, many of the conclusions drawn by the author rely on the findings of serious historical research. While a multitude of issues are raised by the author, I summarize below what I think are the main issues addressed in the book. This is followed by a section on common illusions about the Periodic Table that are highlighted and clarified by Scerri. Some personal reflections on the implications of this study for chemistry education are given in the conclusion. I found this book most enlightening and challenging and highly recommend it. Some of the ideas presented will prove controversial as I have mentioned but this is even a better reason for the chemistry community to give study to it. There are a number of errors in the text and figures (for example, the elements Pm and Np are missing from Figure 10.13) but these do not detract from the overall message of the book. The book has a very informative set of notes and references for each chapter which will assist the reader in exploring more deeply some of the ideas presented. Given some of the suggestions in the book it is obvious that the story of the Periodic Table is not completed but will likely undergo future revision if philosophers have their way with practising chemists. One issue which will ultimately present itself to the reader relates to the extent to which practising chemists will be tempted to take philosophical ideas seriously particularly in a climate where the utility of chemical ideas tends to take precedence over the meaning of chemical ideas. There is a similar issue for chemistry educators. Because of time constraints, an overloaded curriculum, and the nature of the student, priority tends to be given to how to use chemical ideas to solve problems rather than to explore the meaning of chemical ideas. I sense this challenge in my own teaching and suggest that collectively wrestling with this issue at IHPST conferences and other venues might be worth the effort.
Connecting Physics and Mathematics Education through Mathematical Models and Modeling Olive Chapman, Faculty of Education, University of Calgary, Canada
Mathematical models and the skills of modeling are central to the creation and application of mathematics. To study mathematics without exposure to various types of function-based models, for example, is to give students an incomplete view of the work of a mathematician and the power of mathematics. This paper will discuss mathematical models and modeling in relation to connections between physics and mathematics education. It will report on a survey of high school mathematics textbooks for connections to physics and how such connections can support mathematical modeling. The focus will be on what physics situations are used to frame problems in the mathematics textbooks; how, when, and where are they used in the textbook; how are such problems related to modeling; how do teachers deal with them in their teaching; how can they be used as, or converted to, modeling situations; the relationship to the physics curriculum; and the implications for mathematics teacher education.
How Can Science History Contribute to the Development of New Proposals in the Teaching of the Notion of Derivatives? Arnaud Mayrargue, I UFM de Créteil, REHSEIS, Université Paris 7, France
The elaboration, and later the utilisation of mathematical analysis both constitute major changes in the modalities of explaining physical phenomena during the 18th century. The scientific method, which seems to have been single-handedly developed by Newton in Principia Mathematica1 and by Leibniz in the Acta Eruditorum2 at the end of the 17th century, evoked various reactions by both English and French scientists. I will demonstrate firstly the influence scientific and political circles had on the popularization and use of this method, and then the impact of this new mathematical process in light of results obtained both in France and in Great Britain, the latter having taken into account and put forward various forms of theoretical expression for physical phenomena.
To this end, I will concentrate on a case involving the phenomenon of astronomical refraction, about which Pierre Bouguer offered an explanation by relying on the use of infinitesimal calculation. I will then highlight the results obtained by Pierre Bouguer through a comparative study between his and the English approach to the same phenomenon.
Finally, I will explore the possibilities of using this historical and epistemological perspective in the modern-day teaching of the notion of the derivative function.
1 Isaac Newton, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, London, 1687, 2e éd. 1713, 3e ed. 1726.
2 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Nova methodus pro maximis et minimis, itemque tangentibus, quae nec fractas nec irrationales quantitates moratur et singulare pro illis calculi genus. Acta Eruditorum. (Octobre 1684), traduction Marc Parmentier, in G.W. Leibniz. Naissance du calcul différentiel. Vrin, coll. Mathesis, (Paris 1989).
Why ? An Instructional Design Experiment to Incorporate History of Science in Student
Learning Ralph T. Mason & Evan Janzen Roth, University of Manitoba, Canada
This presentation will report on a design experiment (Cobb et al., 2003) aiming to develop curriculum that incorporates the thinking of Archimedes about the geometry of the circle into high school mathematics. Our data interpretation from the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 instructional years has focused on students’ perceptions of the nature of mathematics and the mathematical thinking and reasoning that the classroom activities promoted. As action research, the project features repeated cycles of instructional design and evaluation. At the same time as the instructional processes and materials are being developed, the research project is exploring the transition by students from a remembering-based style of learning mathematics toward a conceptually oriented approach more in alignment with a view of mathematics as the construction of understanding. Overall, the curriculum design reflects principles for incorporation of the history of science into instruction developed in the IHPST community over the last six years.
Symposium: Science Teacher e-Training (STeT) - Teaching Science using Case Studies from the
History of Science Panagiotis Kokkotas, Department of Primary Education, University of Athens, Greece Fabio Bevilacqua, Department of Physics “Alessandro Volta”, Università di Pavia, Italy Balanides Nicos, Department of Education, University of Cyprus, Cyprus Peter Heering, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet, Germany Fanny Seroglou, Pedagogical Department of Primary Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
The aim of this symposium is twofold:
i) Firstly to discuss ways that history of science can contribute to the improvement of science teaching.
ii) Secondly to present the European Commission Comenius 2.1 Project “STeT project”
The “STeT project” Panagiotis Kokkotas, Department of Primary Education, University of Athens, Greece Fanny Seroglou, Pedagogical Department of Primary Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
The “STeT project” aims to enhance the quality of Science Education on the European level by encouraging transactional cooperation among five European universities. Additionally, the “STeT project” aims to contribute to professional development of staff directly involved in the teaching of Science Education (elementary and secondary science teacher advisors and in-service science teachers). Pedagogically, the project aims using case studies from history of science (on the topics of electricity and electromagnetism) to develop and evaluate innovative learning situations for meaningful Science Education and to develop technological tools and materials to support the professional development of science educators. The main objective of the project is to construct an interactive distance learning web site designed to immerse science teacher advisors and in-service science teachers to teaching and learning strategies in Science Education using case studies from the History of Science.
Teaching Physics to In-Service Primary School Teachers and Advisors in the Context of the
History of Science: The Design of a Training Curriculum on the Topics of Electricity and
Electromagnetism Panagiotis Kokkotas, Department of Primary Education, University of Athens, Greece
The paper concerns the presentation of the design of an in-service primary school teachers and advisors training curriculum which is based on the potential role that History of Science has for promoting the learning of physics and its teaching. The design of the training curriculum on the topics of electricity and electromagnetism will be used for the development of training e-material on the context of the “STeT project”. The training curriculum is based in socioconstructivist and sociocultural learning principles and embodies appropriate teaching strategies (e.g. debates - argumentation, group work, simulations) exploiting authentic historical science events on the topic of electricity and electromagnetism. A basic characteristic of the training curriculum is that it has a collaborative inquiry nature in order to involve teachers and advisors with guidance of trainees in conversations about common experiences and in the development of their own educational instructional material (e.g. worksheets). We believe that when teachers are given the opportunity to research their own practice, collaboratively and with support, they establish what works for them and their students. This could become a creative transformative process that is participant-driven.
The Volta-Galvani Controversy Fabio Bevilacqua, Department of Physics “Alessandro Volta”, Università di Pavia, Italy
Our narrative of the famous controversy, a case study of the “STeT project”, is based on recent scholarship. Attention is given to the alternative interpretations of the same experimental evidence and to the productivity of the two competing research programmes. Our approach attempts to integrate historical documents and instruments with digital technologies (3D animations and movies).
Teachers’ Argumentation and Reasoning in an Online Asynchronous
Text-based System: The Galvani -Volta Controversy Balanides Nicos, Department of Education, University of Cyprus, Cyprus
Groups of teachers were engaged in an online asynchronous text-based conference for three weeks. The instructor of a science methods course first provided some basic information about the historical Galvani-Volta controversy, and prospective teachers in small groups were consequently engaged in an online asynchronous discussion. Teachers instructed to take either the Galvani or the Volta position and attempt to defend their position using evidence-based arguments in the online discussion. During, this period, they could collect information from the Internet and could also contact any experiments they consider necessary for defending their ideas. After the three-week period, each teacher should individually email to the instructor his/her individual report, where (s)he should outline the discussion and provide insights about basic concepts and ideas connected to the controversy, as these were highlighted during the online
discussion. Students’ postings and individual reports constitute the data for identifying teachers’
argumentation and reasoning abilities and PCK knowledge development.
Coils, Currents and Forces: Ampère’s Experiments on Electromagnetism Peter Heering, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet, Germany
André-Marie Ampère is one of the researchers whose names are inseparably connected with electromagnetism. It was his experimental work after Oersted’s discovery of electromagnetic interaction that led to a first theoretical frame in this field. Yet, as F. Steinle has shown, Ampère experiments can be classified into two different types, exploratory and theory-oriented experimentation. For my presentation, particularly the former are relevant as they can be characterized by a very open situation with respect to the findings – not only in this respect, the experimentation shows remarkable similarities with P. Reinhold’s conception of ‘open experimenting’. In my talk, I am going to discuss several of Ampère’s historical experiments, sketch some of the experiences made in redoing them and discuss their potential for science teaching.
Instructional e-material Design for Teacher e-training:
The Case of Electromagnetism Vassilis Koulountzos, Giorgos Primerakis and Fanny Seroglou ATLAS Research Group, School of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
In this paper the design of instructional e-material is presented. The instructional material consists of short films, photographs, worksheets, guidelines for the teacher, teaching strategies, etc. and is going to be incorporated in a web-based learning environment for teacher e-training in science education. The design of the instructional material is based on history of science and the SHINE research model has been used for its development. The SHINE research model is an 8 stages research model focusing on the interaction between history of science and science education. This paper is a SHINE case study in electromagnetism. The design of the developed instructional e-material is based on the study of the works of Gardano, Gilbert and Faraday. Two sets of experiments and a role-play based on a short film have already been developed.
College Students’ Majors and Views on Nature of Science Sufen Chen, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan H. Chen, Kun Shan University, Taiwan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students’ science backgrounds and their views on nature of science (NOS). This study focused on domain-independent epistemological beliefs such as the tentativeness of scientific knowledge, nature of observation, scientific methods, and objectivity and subjectivity in science, and domain-specific beliefs regarding to theory and law. The participants were 287 junior students at two research universities in Taiwan. They were asked to complete the questionnaire Views on Science and Education and additional items regarding how various experiences had helped them to understand the questions discussed in the questionnaire. The results indicated that different science majors varied in their views on both domain-independent and domain-specific issues. Their views were moulded by their curricula and lab work.
Can our Conception of the Nature of Science be Tentative without Qualification? Rocco J. Perla & James Carifio, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, University of Massachusetts, Lowell
The tentative and revisionary character of scientific knowledge is believed to play a central role in nature of science (NOS) studies by teachers, researchers, and curriculum developers. However, some educational researchers and scholars have recently expressed serious concerns about the view of tentativeness and change espoused in the science education literature claiming that it is simplistic, one-dimensional, inconsistent, irresponsibly vague and self-contradictory. Despite these concerns, there are few detailed examples of how these types of problems manifest themselves in the science education literature and the difficulties they might pose for learners and other researchers. Accordingly, this article isolates and critically examines a single foundational proposition about the tentativeness of science made by leading NOS researchers. It is demonstrated that this generalization has some important inconsistencies and limitations that are problematic at the philosophical and instructional level. Throughout the article, it is argued that a logico-linguistic analysis of epistemic propositions made by researchers is desirable in NOS studies and that seemingly benign propositions can give rise to different viable, yet diametrically opposed, interpretive frameworks.
A Longitudinal Analysis of High School Students’ Understandings of ‘Ideas about Science’ Jim Ryder, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education, School of Education, University of Leeds, UK
Many current school science curricula emphasise the goal of enhancing students’ engagement with science issues outside of school science. Such curricula often emphasise learning about aspects of the history and philosophy of science, e.g. the development of scientific knowledge and the relationship between science and society. This paper examines the development of students’ understandings about specific aspects of such ‘ideas about science’ using short written response assessment items. For a sub-sample of students these responses are compared with their verbal responses within an interview context. Many students exhibited understandings likely to inhibit their engagement with science issues as reported in news media reports and advertising. The questions used in this study could be used by teachers in the classroom to provide reliable information about their students’ progress at a level of specificity that would inform the design of subsequent teaching.
Developing Teaching Materials for Understanding the Nature of Science (NOS) Jongwon Park & Doo Hyun Kim, Chonnam National University, S. Korea
Even though many science educators have emphasized the nature of scientific knowledge and the nature of scientific inquiry as the NOS, the nature of scientific thinking including induction, deduction and abduction have not been considered in depth. Therefore, in this study, a synthetic list of statements describing the NOS consisting of three categories - the nature of scientific knowledge, the nature of scientific inquiry, and the nature of scientific thinking - was suggested. Secondly, for enhancing students’ understanding about the NOS, teaching materials were developed based on the suggested synthetic list of the NOS. Especially, these teaching materials had difference from the previous ones in the sense of that these were developed in the context of scientific inquiry. For successful teaching the NOS in school, science teachers’ understanding and agreement about the NOS are necessary. Therefore, finally, science teachers’ recognitions about the list of the NOS were analyzed.
Unified View on Science and Technology Education: Technoscience and Technoscience
Education Suvi Tala, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
Science and technology education, both as distinct and integrated subjects, relies on a traditional conception of science and technology as fundamentally different and distinct enterprises. A closer look on the scientific progress reveals the traditional view one-sided. This study scrutinizes the unification of science and technology education from the viewpoint of recent science and technology studies, which have revealed an unexpectedly deep bi-directional relationship between the development of science and technology. The highly cognitive role of technology in scientific knowledge construction through experimenting shows the need for a new unifying view, technoscience, and its considering in science education. Since technoscience promotes a scientifically sound and authentic view to the relationship between science and technology, it increases the coherence of learning processes by combining the traditionally separated science and technology based elements of education. Additionally, technoscience supports in a natural way the teaching solutions putting weight on personal conceptualization for learning.
Envisioning Technological Literacy in Science Education: Building Sustainable Human-
Technology-Lifeworld Relationships Mijung Kim, Seoul Nation University, Korea Wolff-Michael Roth, University of Victoria, Canada
To support the emergence of a collective civic technological literacy, we argue in this paper that technology education needs to take up critical and value-acknowledging aspects with emphasis on building sustainable relationships among human beings, technology, and lifeworld. To understand the relationship between human agency and modern technology, we examine the nature of technology in the dimensions of technology as causality and technology as a relationship of lifeworld. Introducing two case studies of the relationships among science, technology, and the environment, the paper extends its discussion of the responsibility arising from a dialectical human-technology-lifeworld relation based on sociotechnical and ethico-moral framework of technology. The approach challenges the position of current approaches to technology in the attempt to provide a foundation for a contemporary pedagogy of technological awareness and values.
The Nature of School Science Inquiry in Science Education Research Zoubeida Dagher, University of Delaware, U.S.A.
This paper explores the nature of school science inquiry as can be gleaned from research reports on inquiry in the science education literature. The author is particularly concerned about the apparent reduction of scientific inquiry to experimental inquiry in science education discourse and research. A preliminary survey of articles published in 2006 in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching shows that most studies exploring inquiry are focused on experimental types of inquiry. This study will review recently published studies with the goal of documenting the range of inquiries studied and exploring trends in how scientific inquiry is defined and studied in K-12 settings. The conference paper will summarize those studies and discuss the implications of the findings for inquiry-based curricula and research.
What Makes Inquiry Inherently Difficult? Daniel Z. Meyer, Illinois Institute of Technology, U.S.A. Leanne M. Avery, State University of New York College at Oneonta, U.S.A.
Inquiry has become the primary theme of science education today. However, there also has been a tremendous concern that our efforts are simply not resulting in the level of inquiry-based teaching that we would like. Much of the research investigating this has focused on the structural barriers (e.g. time, resources, teacher knowledge, etc.). These are all things that in an ideal world would not be a problem. But there are also some ways in which inquiry based instruction is inherently difficult. In this conceptual paper, we share some thoughts on what makes inquiry difficult, and two potential frameworks to aid in overcoming these challenges. We draw both on work in science studies characterizing the actual work of science production, and on our work facilitating instructional design by science teachers.
Instructional Leadership in Elementary Science Ann Sherman, Faculty of Education, University of Calgary, Canada Leo MacDonald, Faculty of Education, St. Francis Xavier University, Canada
In this paper we examine the context in which science is being taught in upper elementary classrooms, including levels of preparedness of elementary classroom teachers to teach science and the role elementary principals play in providing instructional leadership to teachers in the area of science. Research exists that shows in-service elementary teachers are generally under-prepared to teach science. If many elementary principals come from the pool of elementary teachers, it follows that many of them might not be well versed in either the content knowledge or the pedagogical content knowledge that is needed for elementary science teaching. We are examining strategies used by elementary school principals to support teachers in the teaching of science, particularly at the grade four, five and six level, where the complexity of the curriculum material is at a level that warrants explicit content knowledge.
Harnessing the Power of Metaphor: Why Analogical Reasoning Deserves a Central Place in the
Classroom Martina Metz, Calgary Science School & University of Alberta, Canada
The essential role of metaphor to both science and mathematics is being increasingly recognized. But what are the pedagogical implications of this recognition? This paper summarizes a framework describing various ways in which children use analogical reasoning to construct understanding in science and considers potential ways understanding this framework might inform the teaching of both science and mathematics. Rather than viewing metaphor as a teaching tool or as an organizational framework for knowledge, it considers how students might become more aware of their own use of analogical reasoning and how they might use it with greater awareness and intention, providing both a rich source of ideas and important considerations in the evaluation of those ideas.
The Role of Personal Narratives and Stories in Science Education? Agneta Bostrom, Stockholm Institute of Education, Sweden
The paper reports from a dissertation where teachers’ and students’ use of narratives or stories was studied. The narratives, told during research interviews, were based on the teachers’ and students’ lived experience. They contributed to chemistry by making abstract theory more accessible and thereby possible to learn. Examples of stories or narratives are given, showing how narratives from lived experience make chemistry more meaningful. Dewey’s thoughts about making classroom experiences continuous with teachers’ and students’ lived experience are important issues. Studies show that students in the western world abandon science, not finding the subject relevant. By tradition, activities based on stories and personal narratives are omitted from science education, which instead was based on experiments and conceptual development. The implications of my study might be to use science narratives in teaching. Stories from the history of science, and context-making activities as case methodology might help to make science more meaningful.
Narrative and Contextual Science and its Understanding Ian Winchester, Faculty of Education, University of Calgary, Canada
Narrative in scientific discourse has seemed to be important in recent years. So has the teaching of science in its historical and philosophical contexts. I shall try to discuss the commonality and differences between these two important concerns.
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